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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Ahmed Mohamed Elbaz, Gomaa Mohamed Agag and Nasser Alhamar Alkathiri

This study aims to examine the influence of the three dimensions of travel agents’ manager competencies – ability, motivation and opportunity seeking – on knowledge…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the influence of the three dimensions of travel agents’ manager competencies – ability, motivation and opportunity seeking – on knowledge transfer and travel agents’ performance. In addition, the study investigates how employee’s absorptive capacity moderates the effects of managers’ competencies on knowledge received by the employees and moderates the effects of knowledge received by the employees on travel agents’ performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A positivist research philosophy was adopted with a quantitative approach, in which quantitative data were gathered based on questionnaires to tackle different stages of the study. To test the hypotheses, a self-administrated face-to-face survey of about 42 questions, launched on November 7, 2016, was used to compile response from top and medium management Category A travel agents operating in Egypt.

Findings

Based on a sample of 577 travel agents’ frontline employees, the results showed that the three dimensions of travel agents’ competencies have a positive effect on knowledge received by the employee. Findings further indicated that knowledge received by employee mediates the link between these three competencies and travel agents’ performance. The link between the competencies and knowledge received by the employee was found to be positively moderated by employee absorptive capacity. Moreover, these findings suggested that the relationship between knowledge received and travel agents’ performance is stronger when employees’ absorptive capacity is greater.

Research limitations/implications

This study is bound by certain limitations that also provide fertile grounds for further research. First, the study examined how an employee’s absorptive capacity moderates the effects of managers’ competencies on knowledge received by the employees and moderates the effects of knowledge received by the employees on travel agents’ performance. However, innovation as a dependent variable can be investigated. Second, one limitation is that the study is restricted to Category A travel agents only in Greater Cairo. Third, examining the antecedents of ability, motivation and opportunity seeking to transfer knowledge is also important.

Practical implications

It is important for travel agents, owners, managers and employees to acknowledge absorptive capacity as a critical component for organizations to sustain, grow and compete. Travel agents can also take steps to develop their employees’ absorptive capacity. Doing so would further enhance the success of knowledge, employees and travel agents’ performance. Also, travel agents’ top management has to ensure their employees’ absorbing knowledge, identifying and recognizing external knowledge, processing and understanding it, combining it with existing knowledge and applying the new knowledge to commercial ends. Hence, the development of absorptive capacity contributes to a travel agent’s achievement of competitive advantage.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by expanding the extant literature on knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity by investigating the influence of travel agents’ manager competencies – ability, motivation and opportunity seeking – for knowledge transfer in the Egyptian context. In addition, it investigates the direct effects of the three dimensions of travel agents’ manager competencies – ability, motivation and opportunity seeking – for knowledge transfer. Finally, the paper investigates how employee’s absorptive capacity moderates the effects of managers’ competencies on knowledge received by the employees and moderates the effects of knowledge received by the employees on travel agents’ performance

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2022

Ahmed Mohamed Elbaz, Mohammad Soliman, Alamir Al-Alawi, Bassam Samir Al-Romeedy and Moustafa Mekawy

The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived severity of service failure (PSSF) and service recovery strategies (SRSs) as antecedents of customer forgiveness…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived severity of service failure (PSSF) and service recovery strategies (SRSs) as antecedents of customer forgiveness (CF), customer reconciliation, negative word-of-mouth and re-patronage intention as outcomes across two Middle Eastern countries: Egypt and Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative technique was used, using a questionnaire, to collect data from customers of the national airline companies of Egypt and Oman. The perspectives of 1,084 airline customers were analysed using partial least squares-structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results of this study show that service failure severity has a negative influence on the effectiveness of SRSs. In turn, proper SRSs strongly and positively affect both Egyptian and Omani CF. Furthermore, the findings of this study indicate that service failure habit plays an important role in increasing the negative influence of perceived service failure severity on Egyptian, but not Omani, CF. Overall, results suggest that CF differs considerably between Egyptians and Omanis.

Originality/value

This study developed and empirically examined a comprehensive conceptual model of the drivers and outcomes of CF of airline companies. This study provides academics with meaningful insights into how social and cultural differences between customers in different countries can result in sometimes dramatically different behaviours following a service failure.

目的

本研究在埃及和阿曼两个中东国家调查了感知的服务失败严重性(PSSF), 并将其作为服务恢复策略, 作为顾客宽恕, 顾客和解, 负面口碑和重购意向的前因变量。

设计/方法/方法

本研究采用定量方法, 使用问卷调查, 从埃及和阿曼国家航空公司的顾客中收集数据。使用PLS-SEM分析了1084个航空公司客户的观点。

结果

结果表明, 服务失败严重性对服务恢复策略的有效性有负面影响。相应地, 适当的服务恢复策略对埃及和阿曼顾客的宽恕度有强烈的积极影响。此外, 研究结果表明, 在埃及(而不是阿曼)的顾客中, 服务失败习惯对感知到的服务失败严重程度对宽恕的负面影响方面起着重要作用。总体而言, 结果表明, 埃及和阿曼顾客之间的顾客客户宽恕差异很大。

原创性/价值

本研究开发并实证检验了航空公司顾客宽恕的驱动因素和结果的综合概念模型。本研究为学界提供了有意义的见解, 即了解不同国家/地区的顾客之间的社会和文化差异如何导致服务失败后出现截然不同的行为。

Propósito

Este estudio analizó la gravedad percibida de los fallos del servicio de reclamaciones (PSSF) y quejas como antecedentes de respuesta a los clientes, la reconciliación con el mismo, el boca a boca negativo y la intención de patrocinio como resultados en dos países del Medio Oriente (MO): Egipto y Omán.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

se empleó una técnica cuantitativa, utilizando un cuestionario, para recopilar datos de los clientes de las compañías aéreas nacionales de Egipto y Omán. Se analizaron las perspectivas de 1084 clientes de aerolíneas utilizando PLS-SEM.

Resultados

los resultados muestran que la gravedad de los fallos en el servicio tiene una influencia negativa en la efectividad de las estrategias del servicio de reclamaciones. Asimismo, las estrategias de este tipo afectan fuerte y positivamente sobre la empatía de los clientes egipcios y omaníes. Además, los resultados indican que los fallos en el servicio de quejas, juega un papel importante en el aumento de la influencia negativa de la severidad percibida sobre el servicio y la consideración a la hora de perdonar por parte del cliente egipcio, pero no en el omaní. En general, los resultados sugieren que el perdón del cliente difiere considerablemente entre egipcios y omaníes.

Originalidad/valor

el estudio se desarrolló y se implementó empíricamente sobre un modelo conceptual integrado de impulsores y resultados del perdón de los clientes de las compañías aéreas. El estudio brinda a los académicos información significativa sobre cómo las diferencias sociales y culturales entre los clientes en diferentes países pueden resultar en comportamientos a veces dramáticamente diferentes en los fallos en el servicio.

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Mohamed Abou-Shouk, Nagoua Zoair, Ahmed Mohamed Elbaz and Marwa Abdel-Jalil

Destination competitiveness is a significant contributor to tourism growth, performance and development. The current research intends to test the effect of the dimensions…

Abstract

Purpose

Destination competitiveness is a significant contributor to tourism growth, performance and development. The current research intends to test the effect of the dimensions of the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) on destination competitiveness in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Egypt and Oman and how competitiveness influences tourism performance and development.

Design/methodology/approach

The perspectives of 460 responses were collected from the UAE, 457 from Egypt and 301 responses from Oman. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was utilised to measure the research model relationships.

Findings

The results showed that the competitiveness index components are significantly contributing to destination competitiveness and that this competitiveness is predicting both tourism performance and development.

Originality/value

This study developed and empirically tested the effect of an integrative model of the competitiveness index on destination competitiveness from the perspective of local visitors in three Muslim and Arab nations. This study gives scholars valuable perceptions into how socio-cultural variations between residents and locals in various nations might result in significantly diverse behaviours.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2023

Mohamed Mousa, Hala Abdelgaffar, Islam Elbayoumi Salem, Ahmed Mohamed Elbaz and Walid Chaouali

This study aims to investigate the perceptions of female tour guides’ lower and top levels of management in travel agencies about how misunderstanding Islam and its…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the perceptions of female tour guides’ lower and top levels of management in travel agencies about how misunderstanding Islam and its culture may engender the poor representation of women in the tour guide profession.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research method is used, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 full-time female tour guides working at several travel agencies in Egypt. Thematic analysis helped extract main ideas from the transcripts.

Findings

The representation of female tour guides in travel agencies is shaped by the following three determinants: religious (familial obligations and marital status), contextual (nature of tour guide activities, poor representation of women in senior tourism-related jobs, cronyism, sexual harassment and spread of foreign female tour guides) and media influence. Understanding these three factors may enable a more comprehensive representation of female tour guides.

Practical implications

Female tour guides could work closely with tourism policymakers in Egypt to shape the media messages about them. This might include elaborating on the main challenges faced by female tour guides. Social support from families and friends may allow female tour guides more freedom and empowerment.

Originality/value

This study contributes by filling a gap in tourism, human resources management and gender studies in which empirical studies on the representation of females in travel agencies have been limited so far.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2022

Islam Elbayoumi Salem, Ahmed Mohamed Elbaz, Alamir Al-alawi, Nasser Alhamar Alkathiri and Zakaria Elkhwesky

This study aims to examine the role of eco-label hotel engagement as a pathway to sustainable practices via scouting entrepreneurial resilience and orientation at highly…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the role of eco-label hotel engagement as a pathway to sustainable practices via scouting entrepreneurial resilience and orientation at highly ranked hotels in Oman. The authors developed and tested a novel model built on resilience theory, the theory of entrepreneurial orientation and the theory of reasoned action (TRA).

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 167 human resources directors, hotel managers and other employees were analyzed by partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA).

Findings

Results indicate a strong positive relationship between entrepreneurial resilience and entrepreneurial orientation. Entrepreneurial orientation significantly increased all eco-label strategies, but not all strategies enhanced sustainable tourism practices. High adoption of sustainability practices depended on core strategies related to awareness, benefits, reputation and necessity, but the cost was also an issue. Managers adopted sustainability practices if they were not perceived as costly, or when perceived as costly if they believed they would help them reduce operating costs.

Practical implications

Policymakers should assist hotel managers when the sector is hit by political events, natural disasters or health crises such as the current pandemic can bounce back and develop their resilience. Likewise, training and workshops can be organized to improve managers’ entrepreneurial mindset, which was found to be a precursor to favorable attitudes toward sustainability.

Originality/value

This study tests a novel model built on three theories: resilience theory, the theory of entrepreneurial orientation and the TRA by using PLS-SEM and fsQCA.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Bassam Samir Al-Romeedy

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a conceptual model that explores the effect of job rotation on employees' performance through the mediating role of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a conceptual model that explores the effect of job rotation on employees' performance through the mediating role of organizational behavior (namely, motivation, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and job burnout).

Design/methodology/approach

Data are gathered from employees in the tourism and aviation departments at travel agents category A in Egypt. In total, 788 questionnaires are analyzed using regression-based partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) using Smart PLS 3.21.

Findings

The results indicate that organizational behavior (motivation, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and job burnout) plays mediation roles in the relationship between job rotation and employees' performance.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the current literature by linking job rotation to employees' performance through organizational behavior (motivation, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and job burnout). The findings of the study hold practical and theoretical implications for tourism and hospitality organizations.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2022

Talat Islam, Iram Zahra, Saif Ur Rehman and Saqib Jamil

Innovation has become a necessity for the information technology (IT) sector, especially during COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study aims to investigate how knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Innovation has become a necessity for the information technology (IT) sector, especially during COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study aims to investigate how knowledge sharing affects employees’ innovative work behavior (IWB). Specifically, the study examined occupational self-efficacy (as mediating mechanism) and entrepreneurial leadership (as boundary condition) to encourage IWB.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used social media platforms to collect data from 270 employees working in the IT sector through “google forms” on convenience basis between March and August, 2021. The study applied structural equation modeling in two stages to examine the measurement model (for uni-dimensionality) and the structural model (for hypotheses testing).

Findings

The study noted that knowledge sharing positively affects employees’ IWB and occupational self-efficacy positively explains this association. In addition, employees’ perception of entrepreneurial leadership strengthens the association between knowledge sharing and IWB.

Research limitations/implications

The study collected data from a developing country during COVID-19 by using a cross-sectional design that may restrict causality. However, the findings suggest the management not only encourages knowledge sharing environment but also engages employees in various training that motivate them to experiment with new ideas and techniques.

Originality/value

This study extends the existing literature on knowledge sharing and IWB by exploring occupational self-efficacy as mediating mechanism and entrepreneurial leadership as a boundary condition.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Po-Yi Hsu, Edward C.S. Ku, Tzu-Ching Lai and Shih–Chieh Hsu

This study investigated how customer orientation and relationships influenced relational benefits via employees' attitudes toward travel agencies and partnership management.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated how customer orientation and relationships influenced relational benefits via employees' attitudes toward travel agencies and partnership management.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey questionnaires were mailed to experts of travel agencies in Taiwan. The hypothesis of this study was tested and used a research model characterized by the SEM-PLS approach.

Findings

The findings of this study indicate that the travel service involves a wide range of firms, regardless of internal or external partner management, and to develop the Muslim tourism market sustainability.

Research limitations/implications

From a theoretical perspective, it was found that customer orientation of travel agencies and relationship selling among travel agencies affects partnership management of travel agencies and their employees' attitudes, which were positively associated with the relational benefit of travel agencies.

Practical implications

Travel agencies must maintain continuous collaborative relationships to ensure the sustainable development of the Muslim tourism market.

Originality/value

This study provides a meaningful model for investigating the trend and tourism products of the Muslim tourism market regarding collaboration between travel agencies and partners.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 April 2022

Ibrahim M. Mkheimer, Kareem M. Selem, Ali Elsayed Shehata, Kashif Hussain and Marta Perez Perez

This study investigates the relationship between leaders' ethical behaviors and internal whistleblowing among hotel employees through the mediation role of organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the relationship between leaders' ethical behaviors and internal whistleblowing among hotel employees through the mediation role of organizational virtuousness. According to the conceptual framework, ethical leadership creates a virtuous workplace and encourages whistleblowing.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey approach with responses of 442 employees from Egyptian five-star hotels was used. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses proposed based on leader–member exchange (LMX) and ethical leadership theories.

Findings

Ethical leadership has a favorable impact on organizational virtuousness and, as a result, has a significant impact on whistleblowing intention. The ethical leaders–subordinates' intents to whistleblow association partially mediated organizational virtuousness. To assist them in reporting ethics violations, most hotel employees require organizational characteristics, such as organizational climate and psychological empowerment, in addition to individual characteristics, such as moral bravery and ethical efficacy.

Originality/value

The conceptual framework of this paper adds a new guide for future research related to the hospitality literature, which is how employees' intent to internal whistleblowing. As such, senior management should serve as a moral role model for hotel employees, inspiring them to be moral and allowing them to participate in decision-making.

研究目的

本研究擬透過組織德行所扮演的仲介角色,去探討領導者的道德行為與酒店員工間內部舉報的相互關係。根據有關的概念框架,領導倫理會為機構創造一個富有道德的工作場所,以及鼓勵員工互相舉報不當的行為。

研究設計/方法/理念

研究採用調查方法進行,數據來自442名於埃及五星級酒店工作的僱員的回覆。研究人員以結構方程模型來測試研究的假設 - 研究的假設乃根據領導者-成員交換理論和倫理型領導理論而提出的。

研究結果

領導倫理會給組織美德帶來積極的影響,因此,領導倫理也會給舉報動機帶來重要的影響。領袖-下屬舉報合夥人合乎道德的動機,對組織美德起著仲介作用。若要酒店僱員舉報違反道德規範的行為,除了僱員須有個人特質、如道德勇氣和倫理效能等之外,酒店亦須具備一些組織特徵、如組織氛圍和心理賦權等。

研究的原創性/價值

本研究的概念框架,給探討僱員作內部舉報行為的動機的學者提供新的指引,為餐旅業的研究提供方向。組織的高級管理人員應以身作則,為僱員建立道德典範,鼓勵他們遵循道德規範而行事,並容許他們參與決策。

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8451

Keywords

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