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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Ahmed Hala, Gozde Yurdabak Karaca, Esin Eren, Lutfi Oksuz, Ferhat Bozduman, Melek Kiristi, Ali Ihsan Komur, Ali Gulec and Aysegul Uygun Oksuz

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydrazine, methyl methacrylate, styrene and hexamethyldisiloxane by radio-frequency…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydrazine, methyl methacrylate, styrene and hexamethyldisiloxane by radio-frequency (rf) plasma graftings on surface properties of wool and denim fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

During plasma treatments, processing time was varied under optimized plasma conditions (50 W, rf: 13.56 MHz). All fabrics were comprehensively investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and contact angle measurements.

Findings

The experimental data shows that the rf-plasma processing has important effect on the wettability properties of wool and denim fabrics. The results indicated that HCl plasma treatment significantly improves the hydrophilicity of wool and denim fabrics.

Originality/value

The research on wool and denim fabric treatment by plasma is original.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Ola Bakr Shalby, Hala Mohamed Elkady, Elsayed Abdel Raouf Nasr and Mohamed Kohail

Nano-Clay (NC) is reported as a candidate partial replacement for cement, due to its abundance and relatively low cost - beside reported promotion of different concrete…

Abstract

Purpose

Nano-Clay (NC) is reported as a candidate partial replacement for cement, due to its abundance and relatively low cost - beside reported promotion of different concrete properties. On the other hand, Steel Fibres (SF) has proven to have a positive effect on post fire exposure residual strength of concrete. This paper aims to present the outcomes of a comprehensive research program assessing a hybrid mix between NC and SF in concrete mixtures (NCSF-CRETE).

Design/methodology/approach

Physical chemical and physical characterization of NC is performed using different tools as XRF spectrometer, and TEM micrograph. Fresh concrete properties of NSCF-CRETE as slump and air content are investigated. Enhancement in permeability using NSCF is verified by comparing its resistance to the penetration of chlorides resistance with regular concrete mix. Besides, the proposed NCSF-CRETE compressive strength is evaluated compared to mixes with NC and SF each used separately at different curing ages. Besides, NSCF and compared mixes are exposed to an indirect fire testing program – two hours exposure – for: 300, 450 and 600°C. Degradation in compressive strength was investigated after exposure to different temperatures and percentage of residual strength is reported.

Findings

Results indicated an improved performance of NCSF -CRETE of about 40% compared to regular concrete in compressive strength at normal conditions. This improvement extended to its behavior when subjected to indirect fire exposure NSCF also maintained 40% more strength than the residual in regular concrete mix – which suffered severe damage – after 2 h exposure to 600°C.

Originality/value

Using NCSF-Crete allows retrofitting the structure after exposure to such drastic conditions.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Hala Mohamed Elkady, Ahmed M. Yasien, Mohamed S. Elfeky and Mohamed E. Serag

This paper aims to inspect the effect of indirect elevated temperature on the mechanical performance of nano silica concrete (NSC). The effect on both compressive and bond…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to inspect the effect of indirect elevated temperature on the mechanical performance of nano silica concrete (NSC). The effect on both compressive and bond strengths is studied. Pre- and post-exposure to elevated temperature ranges of 200 to 600°C is examined. A range covered by three percentages of 1.5, 3 and 4.5 per cent nano silica (NS) in concrete mixes is tested.

Design/methodology/approach

Pre-exposure mechanical tests (normal conditions – room temperature), using 3 per cent NS in the concrete mix, led to the highest increase in both compressive and bond strengths (43 per cent and 38.5 per cent, respectively), compared to the control mix without NS (based on 28-day results). It is worth noticing that adding NS to the concrete mixes does not have a significant effect on improving early-age strength. Besides, permeability tests are performed on NSC with different NS ratios. NS improved the concrete permeability for all tested percentages of NS. The maximum reduction is accompanied by the maximum percentage used (4.5 per cent NS in the NSC mix), reducing permeability to half the value of the concrete mix without NS. As for post-exposure to elevated-temperature mechanical tests, NSC with 1.5 per cent NS exhibited the lowest loss in strength owing to indirect heat exposure of 600°C; the residual compressive and bond strengths are 73 per cent and 35 per cent, respectively.

Findings

The dispersion technique of NS has a key role in NSC-distinguished mechanical performance with NSC having lower NS percentages. NS significantly improved bond strength. NS has a remarkable effect on elevated temperature endurance. The bond strength of NSC exposed to elevated temperatures suffered faster deterioration than compressive strength of the exposed NSC.

Research limitations/implications

A special scale factor needs to be investigated for the NSC.

Originality/value

Although a lot of effort is placed in evaluating the benefits of using nano materials in structural concrete, this paper presents one of the first outcomes of the thermal effects on concrete mixes with NS as a partial cement replacement.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Elfadil Mohamed Elbashier, Elfadil Mohammed Eltayeb Elbashier, Siddig Esa Idris2, Wuletaw Tadesse, Izzat S.A. Tahir, Abu Elhassan S. Ibrahim, Ashraf M.A. Elhashimi, Sefyan I. Saad, Amani Ahmed Idris and Hala Mohamed Mustfa

The purpose of this paper was to study the genetic variability, heritability, heat tolerance indices and phenotypic and genotypic correlation studies for traits of 250…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to study the genetic variability, heritability, heat tolerance indices and phenotypic and genotypic correlation studies for traits of 250 elite International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) bread wheat genotypes under high temperature in Wad Medani, Center in Sudan.

Design/methodology/approach

Bread wheat is an important food on a global level and is used in the form of different products. High temperature associated with climate change is considered to be a detrimental stress in the future on world wheat production. A total of 10,250 bread wheat genotypes selected from different advanced yield trials introduction from ICARDA and three checks including were grown in two sowing dates (SODs) (1st and 2nd) 1st SOD heat stress and 2nd SOD non-stress at the Gezira Research Farm, of the Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan.

Findings

An alpha lattice design with two replications was used to assess the presence of phenotypic and genotypic variations of different traits, indices for heat stress and heat tolerance for 20 top genotypes and phenotypic and genotypic correlations. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all the characters. A wide range, 944-4,016 kg/ha in the first SOD and 1,192-5,120 kg/ha in the second SOD, was found in grain yield. The average yield on the first SOD is less than that of the secondnd SOD by 717.7 kg/ha, as the maximum and minimum temperatures were reduced by 3ºC each in the second SOD when compared to the first SOD of the critical stage of crop growth shown.

Research limitations/implications

Similar wide ranges were found in all morpho-physiological traits studied. High heritability in a broad sense was estimated for days to heading and maturity. Moderate heritability estimates found for grain yield ranged from 44 to 63.6 per cent, biomass ranged from 37.8 to 49.1 per cent and canopy temperature (CT) after heading ranged from 44.2 to 48 per cent for the first and secondnd SODs. The top 20 genotypes are better than the better check in the two sowing dates and seven genotypes (248, 139, 143, 27, 67, 192 and 152) were produced high grain yield under both 1st SOD and 2nd SOD.

Practical implications

The same genotypes in addition to Imam (check) showed smaller tolerance (TOL) values, indicating that these genotypes had a smaller yield reduction under heat-stressed conditions and that they showed a higher heat stress susceptibility index (SSI). A smaller TOL and a higher SSI are favored. Both phenotypic and genotypic correlations of grain yield were positively and significantly correlated with biomass, harvest index, number of spikes/m2, number of seeds/spike and days to heading and maturity in both SODs and negatively and significantly correlated with canopy temperature before and after heading in both SODs.

Originality/value

Genetic variations, heritability, heat tolerance indices and correlation studies for traits of bread wheat genotypes under high temperature

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Ashraf El-Bindary, Hala Kiwaan, Abdel Ghany Shoair, Fawzia El-Ablack and Ahmed Eessa

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method for modification of alkyd resin by using 3-triethoxysilylpropyl succinic acid anhydride (TESP-SA) as the core…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method for modification of alkyd resin by using 3-triethoxysilylpropyl succinic acid anhydride (TESP-SA) as the core material for low volatile organic components (VOCs) polyurethane coating applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The structural, physical, thermal and film properties of the silane-modified (SM) alkyd were evaluated and compared with those of a silane-free alkyd resin that was prepared by a single-step method. The synthesis reaction was described in a detailed scheme and evidenced by ATR-FTIR measurements and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.

Findings

SM alkyd has synthesized with high solid content (85%) and low viscosity (5700 cP). As a result, environmentally friendly coatings with lower (VOC) emission are possible by using this type of alkyd polymer. The results showed that the presence of the Si atom in the final structure improved the thermal stability against the higher levels of aromatic rings in the silane-free alkyd. It was found that coatings based on SM alkyd have lower values of yellowing factor (Δa) and an increase of gloss retention percentage at different intervals of exposure to the quick ultraviolet weathering conditions.

Practical implications

The synthesized SM alkyd resin provided a practical solution to obtain environmentally friendly coatings with low VOC content, in addition to its improvement in alkyds’ overall characteristics, while still using natural resources – fatty acids – instead of totally petroleum resources.

Originality/value

TESP-SA has not been used before in alkyd polymer modifications, and this study can help countries that are interested in using environmentally-friendly coatings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Mahmoud Arayssi, Mohammad Jizi and Hala Hussein Tabaja

This paper aims to investigate the impact of board composition on environmental, social and governance (ESG) reporting in the Gulf countries. Despite the vast literature…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of board composition on environmental, social and governance (ESG) reporting in the Gulf countries. Despite the vast literature on the significance of ESG disclosure on firms’ performance, trust and reputation, there are relatively few studies on the influence of board structure on ESG disclosure in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Gulf countries are witnessing a fast growing capital markets and having serious efforts to attract foreign investments to divert their economies from the oil and gas reliance. This could be facilitated by illustrating firms’ good citizenship and communicating the fulfillment of their social obligation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines publically listed companies between 2008 and 2017. Thomson Reuter’s database is used to collect the ESG disclosure scores and governance information. The authors apply multiple panel data regressions and sensitivity testing to ensure the robustness of the results.

Findings

Examining publically listed companies for a 10-year period shows that higher board independence and female board participation facilitate the transmission of a firm’s positive image by improving social responsibility. Independent boards of directors and participation among women serve as catalysts to strike an effective balance between firms’ financial targets and social responsibilities. In contrast, boards chaired by chief executive officers are less supportive in executing a social agenda and consequently reporting their ESG activities.

Practical implications

The results suggest that firms that appoint a sustainability and/or governance committee tend to engage in more impactful social and environmental activities and communicate their societal engagements more effectively.

Social implications

The paper recommends that policymakers, executives and shareholders in the GCC countries support board participation among women, independent directors and formation of sustainability committees to facilitate engaging in effectual social activities.

Originality/value

Empirical evidence regarding the relationship between board composition and ESG disclosure in the Gulf countries is limited. Prior literature mainly provides results on developed countries in which the governance system is mature and well structured. This study provides useful evidence regarding the Gulf countries that lack privatization and where corporate boards tend to be dominated by families and governments.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2016

Hala Kamal

This chapter offers a critical outline of the Egyptian feminist movement. It traces the forms of feminist activism and the demands raised by Egyptian feminists throughout…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter offers a critical outline of the Egyptian feminist movement. It traces the forms of feminist activism and the demands raised by Egyptian feminists throughout the twentieth century and into the new millennium.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the tools of feminist theory and women’s history in charting a critical outline of the Egyptian women’s movement and feminist activism throughout a century of Egyptian history. The study attempts to identify the main features of the movement in terms of the demands raised by women and the challenges and achievements involved within the socio-political national and international contexts.

Findings

The Egyptian feminist movement is divided here into four waves, highlighting the intersections between feminist demands and national demands, as well as Egyptian women’s struggle for their rights. The first wave is seen as focusing on women’s right to public education and political representation. The second wave is marked by women’s achievement of constitutional and legal rights in the context of state feminism. The third wave is characterised by feminist activism in the context of civil society organising. The fourth wave has extended its struggle into the realm of women’s bodies and sexuality.

Research implications/limitations

The study limits itself to forms of women’s agency and feminist activism in the public sphere.

Originality/value

This chapter is an original attempt at outlining the Egyptian women’s movement based on the demands raised and challenges faced. The chapter also suggests the existence of a sense of continuity in the Egyptian women’s movement.

Details

Gender and Race Matter: Global Perspectives on Being a Woman
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-037-4

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2005

Hala Sabri

This study focuses on knowledge management in relation to its organizational context. It argues that knowledge management is not just computer and information systems; it…

Abstract

This study focuses on knowledge management in relation to its organizational context. It argues that knowledge management is not just computer and information systems; it embodies organizational processes that seek to augment the creative, innovative capacity of human beings. Specifically, the study regards the compatibility between the organizational structure and corporate culture essential for activating a knowledge base culture in modern organizations. The study sets a proposed framework on how to transform Arab bureaucracies into knowledge creating cultures by means of designing the right structure in which information sharing, learning, and knowledge formation should be parts of the organizational norm.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 October 2019

Amr Seda and Mamdouh Ismail

Although there are over 55,000 social enterprises operating in Egypt, the social entrepreneurship field is still failing to create the desired social change. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Although there are over 55,000 social enterprises operating in Egypt, the social entrepreneurship field is still failing to create the desired social change. This paper aims to explore the challenges faced by the field with a special focus on government related challenges as well as offer a set of recommendations to the Egyptian government to enhance the field.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was carried out in two phases; reviewing the literature around the topic through a secondary research followed by an empirical research interviewing four social enterprises, the ministry of social solidarity and experts in the field of social entrepreneurship.

Findings

The paper arrived to several challenges and they were organized into three main themes: challenges related to policy-making and other legal aspects; challenges related to institutional and operational support; and challenges related to social, educational and cultural awareness of the field and its ecosystem. The paper also came up with a set of nine recommendations directed to the Egyptian Government.

Originality/value

The originality and value of this research is that it offers first hand viewpoints of the challenges facing the field of social entrepreneurship in Egypt as well as offer practical recommendations to the Egyptian Government to overcome them.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2019

Sibylle Heilbrunn

In an extreme and intentional institutional void, African refugees in Israel are bricoleuring by building an entrepreneurship market next to an “open” detention camp. The…

Abstract

Purpose

In an extreme and intentional institutional void, African refugees in Israel are bricoleuring by building an entrepreneurship market next to an “open” detention camp. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how refugee entrepreneurs overcome institutional voids through bricolage in an illegal marketplace outside the detention camp.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to deal with the question of why and how people act entrepreneurial under extreme circumstances, the interpretive/social constructionist paradigm is applied in form of the multiple stories milieu case study pattern. Data were gathered via official reports, interviews and observations.

Findings

Outside the detention camp it is via bricolage that entrepreneurs address the economic detour in the intentional institutional void. At a place which is meant to make asylum seekers leave Israel by coining them “infiltrators” and by “making their lives miserable,” bricoleurs attend their own and the needs of fellow detainees providing goods and service and community space.

Originality/value

By contextualizing entrepreneurial practices, the paper contributes to the understanding of refugee entrepreneurship by demonstrating how refugees – within the pressure and constraints of context – initiate entrepreneurial activities. Theoretically the paper extends knowledge of minority entrepreneurs who are acting as bricoleurs, explaining how their entrepreneuring can be a kind of space creation process.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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