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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Muhammad Adnan Khurshid, Abdulrahman Al-Aali, Ahmed Ali Soliman and Salmiah Mohamad Amin

– The purpose of this study is to develop an Islamic corporate social responsibility (ICSR) model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop an Islamic corporate social responsibility (ICSR) model.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on Qur’anic verses and previous literature, the authors aim to develop an ICSR model with an extension of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) theory of Carroll (1979).

Findings

This study extends the theory of Carroll (1979) using an operational definition of CSR that encompasses the economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic dimensions of CSR from an Islamic perspective. This ICSR model is applicable to both Islamic and non-Islamic business systems because both Islamic and Western CSR have common humanitarian grounds.

Research limitations

The conceptual research is not tested in this article. Further, not all Islamic principles are integrated in this model.

Originality/value

Many Western theoreticians have attempted to offer theoretical, moral and ethical grounds for CSR initiatives. However, these attempts have been broadly criticized for problems relating to justification, conceptual clarity and possible inconsistency and for failing to provide adequate ethical guidance to business executives who must determine which course to pursue and their level of commitment. Therefore, there is a need to develop the concept of CSR, which has gained popularity and wide acceptance among the Western and Islamic business communities, especially from an Islamic perspective.

Details

Competitiveness Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Ahmed Hussein Al-Rassas and Hasnah Kamardin

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the audit committee (AC) independence, financial expertise, internal audit function, audit quality and ownership…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the audit committee (AC) independence, financial expertise, internal audit function, audit quality and ownership concentration on earnings quality (EQ) and, consequently, ascertain whether the AC’s independence and financial expertise has a moderating effect on the relationship between internal audit function and EQ.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample is 508 firms listed on the Main Market of Bursa Malaysia (formerly known as Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange) for the years 2009 to 2012. EQ was measured using two modified Jones models of discretionary accruals.

Findings

The findings reveal that the independence of AC and investment in internal audit function, as well as the Big4 audit firm, are related to greater EQ. Ownership concentration is found to be associated with lower EQ. The study provides evidence that AC’s independence moderates the relationship between internal audit function (investment in and sourcing arrangements of internal audit function) and EQ. It also shows that AC’s financial expertise moderates the relationship between sourcing arrangements of internal audit function and EQ.

Practical implications

This study extends the prior related literature by examining the AC’s independence and financial expertise as moderating variables on the relationship between internal audit function and EQ.

Social implications

Policymakers might use the findings regarding EQ in relation to governance practices, to recognize the important roles played by the AC’s independence and financial expertise on the effectiveness of internal audit function with EQ.

Originality/value

This study uses the agency theory and resource dependence theory to provide empirical evidence on the impact of internal audit function and AC on EQ in the ownership concentration environment.

Details

Corporate Governance, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Mohammed Ali Al-Awlaqi, Ammar Mohamed Aamer, Maged Mohammed Barahma and Mohamed Battour

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tendency of leaders to select their followers depending on their human capital factors such as age, education level…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tendency of leaders to select their followers depending on their human capital factors such as age, education level, previous working experience and training.

Design/methodology/approach

The participants were 1,388 employees working in a randomly selected sample of 289 small-sized businesses operating in Yemen. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect the data. The correspondence analysis method was used to explore the tendency of leaders to select their followers depending on their human capital factors.

Findings

We found significant corresponding relationships between leadership styles and the selection of the followers' human capital factors. The passive avoidant style was found to select middle-age, long-experience and fully-trained followers. Transactional style on the other hand was found to select young, middle-level experience and non-trained followers. The transformational leadership style was found to have no selection preferences towards any of the human capital factors except for working experience.

Originality/value

Although, some previous studies tried to understand the leaders–followers relationships, no one investigated the tendency of leaders to select their followers according to their preferences. This study contributes significantly to the leaders–followers theory by studying the selection process of the leadership style of their followers' human capital factors. Understanding this phenomenon could help explain why some leadership styles are more effective than others, especially in very limited resources contexts such as micro-sized businesses.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Abdullah Hamoud Ismail, Azhar Abdul Rahman and Abdulqawi Ahmed Hezabr

This study aims to identify factors that influence corporate environmental disclosure (CED) quality.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify factors that influence corporate environmental disclosure (CED) quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Using content analysis, an index and scoring scheme were applied to annual reports, stand-alone reports and corporate homepages of a sample of 116 oil and gas companies in 19 developing countries (DCs).

Findings

The results of this study reveal that out of 12 hypothesized variables, only 5 variables (company size, foreign ownership, profitability, leverage and membership of industry’s associations) are positively related to the CED quality.

Practical implications

The study has implications in enhancing the understanding of CED practices by oil and gas companies in DCs and the factors that influence the quality of such disclosure. Thus, the results of the study serve as input toward the development of improved regulations concerning CED for the oil and gas industry and provide guidelines to the regulators to make relevant decisions on social and environmental information items to be incorporated in the regulatory standards.

Originality/value

The current study attempts to fill the gaps in the literature by examining CED quality (rather than its quantity), concentrating on environmental disclosure made on the three main mediums of reporting. The study also extends previous research of CED by investigating some factors that have the potential to influence the content-quality of environmental disclosure, such as type of company (independent or constrain company) and industry’s association membership which have never been examined in the related literature.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

S. Sarath and P. Sam Paul

A new cutting tool is always well-defined and sharp at the onset of the metal cutting process and gradually losses these properties as the machining process advances…

Abstract

Purpose

A new cutting tool is always well-defined and sharp at the onset of the metal cutting process and gradually losses these properties as the machining process advances. Similarly, at the beginning of the machining process, amplitude of tool vibrations is considerably low and it increases gradually and peaks at the end of the service period of the cutting tool while machining. It is significant to provide a corresponding real-time varying damping to control this chatter, which directly influences accuracy and quality of productivity. This paper aims to review the literature related to the application of smart fluid to control vibration in metal cutting and also focused on the challenges involved in the implementation of active control system during machining process.

Design/methodology/approach

Smart dampers, which are used as semi-active and active dampers in metal cutting, were reviewed and the research studies carried out in the field of the magnetorheological (MR) damper were concentrated. In smart materials, MR fluids possess some disadvantages because of their sedimentation of iron particles, leakage and slow response time. To overcome these drawbacks, new MR materials such as MR foam, MR elastomers, MR gels and MR plastomers have been recommended and suggested. This review intents to throw light into available literature which exclusively deals with controlling chatter in metal cutting with the help of MR damping methods.

Findings

Using an MR damper popularly known for its semi-active damping characteristics is very adaptable and flexible in controlling chatter by providing damping to real-time amplitudes of tool vibration. In the past, many researchers have attempted to implement MR damper in metal cutting to control vibration and were successful. Various methods with the help of MR fluid are illustrated.

Research limitations/implications

A new cutting tool is always well-defined and sharp at the onset of metal cutting process and gradually losses these properties as the machining process advances. Similarly, at the beginning of the machining process, amplitude of tool vibrations is considerably low and it increases gradually and peaks at the end of service period of cutting tool while machining. Application of MR damper along with the working methodology in metal cutting is presented, challenges met are analyzed and a scope for development is reviewed.

Practical implications

This study provides corresponding real-time varying damping to control tool vibration which directly influences accuracy and quality of productivity. Using an MR damper popularly known for its semi-active damping characteristics is very adaptable and flexible in controlling chatter by providing damping to real-time amplitudes of tool vibration.

Social implications

This study attempts to implement smart damper in metal cutting to control vibrations.

Originality/value

It is significant to provide corresponding real-time varying damping to control tool vibration which directly influences accuracy and quality of productivity.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 June 2018

Abd Hakim Abd Razak

The purpose of this paper is to supply basic insights into the principle of shūrā (consultation) in Islamic banking, the idea of a centralised approach to the corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to supply basic insights into the principle of shūrā (consultation) in Islamic banking, the idea of a centralised approach to the corporate governance of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs), the roles of a centralised Sharīʿah board as the highest authority on Sharīʿah issues and its distinguishing features from a de-centralised system and the advantages and disadvantages of the two governance systems.

Design/methodology/approach

In analyzing these, the paper adopts the critical legal studies approach and refers to the provisions of the Qurʾan and Sunnah, ijmāʿ (consensus) of Sharīʿah scholars and recent Islamic banking reports.

Findings

Despite the fact that the double-digit growth of the current US$2tn Islamic banking industry is a promising sign for its further expansion – expecting to cross the US$6.5tn mark by 2020 – there remains concern over the lack of standardization or rather the diversified approaches to the corporate governance of IFIs across key Islamic banking regions.

Practical implications

There has been much debate surrounding the issue of whether the Islamic banking industry requires a centralised Sharīʿah board at the state level to complement the Sharīʿah boards at the IFIs’ individual level in providing better supervision of the Sharīʿah-compliance of IFIs. The fact that the industry is already equipped with two prominent standard-setting agencies in the form of the AAOIFI, the IFSB does little to suggest that best governance practices – which centre around the themes of consistency, harmony and uniformity – are on the horizon, at least not whilst their issued standards and guidelines remain voluntary for IFIs.

Originality/value

All in all, it is aspired that this paper may assist the reader in evaluating the pros and cons of the whole concept of Sharīʿah board centralisation.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Aitin Saadatmeli, Mohamad Bameni Moghadam, Asghar Seif and Alireza Faraz

The purpose of this paper is to develop a cost model by the variable sampling interval and optimization of the average cost per unit of time. The paper considers an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a cost model by the variable sampling interval and optimization of the average cost per unit of time. The paper considers an economic–statistical design of the X̅ control charts under the Burr shock model and multiple assignable causes were considered and compared with three types of prior distribution for the mean shift parameter.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of the modified X̅ chart is based on the two new concepts of adjusted average time to signal and average number of false alarms for X̅ control chart under Burr XII shock model with multiple assignable causes.

Findings

The cost model was examined through a numerical example, with the same cost and time parameters, so the optimal of design parameters were obtained under uniform and non-uniform sampling schemes. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was conducted in a way that the variability of loss cost and design parameters was evaluated supporting the changes of cost, time and Burr XII distribution parameters.

Research limitations/implications

The economic–statistical model scheme of X̅ chart was developed for the Burr XII distributed with multiple assignable causes. The correlated data are among the assumptions to be examined. Moreover, the optimal schemes for the economic-statistic chart can be expanded for correlated observation and continuous process.

Practical implications

The economic–statistical design of control charts depends on the process shock model distribution and due to difficulties from both theoretical and practical aspects; one of the proper alternatives may be the Burr XII distribution which is quite flexible. Yet, in Burr distribution context, only one assignable cause model was considered where more realistic approach may be to consider multiple assignable causes.

Originality/value

This study presents an advanced theoretical model for cost model that improved the shock model that presented in the literature. The study obviously indicates important evidence to justify the implementation of cost models in a real-life industry.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 35 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Rahimah Mohamed Yunos, Zubaidah Ismail and Malcolm Smith

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the association between two ethnic groups: Bumiputera directors and Chinese directors, on the incidence of accounting conservatism.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the association between two ethnic groups: Bumiputera directors and Chinese directors, on the incidence of accounting conservatism.

Design/methodology/approach

A panel data analysis of financial statement data was conducted for 300 Malaysian listed firms between 2001 and 2007.

Findings

The analysis shows that the ethnic groups influence the adoption of conservatism, but that the evidence is mixed, implying that there could be factors other than ethnicity which explained the directors’ behaviour.

Practical implications

The results provide a useful input to the proponents of harmonisation in financial reporting, in that Malaysian financial reports do not appear to be influenced by the ethnicity of participating groups.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to measure empirically the impact of ethnicity on the incidence of accounting conservatism.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Hessa Aljabr

This paper aims to view the weights and measures in the Hijaz during the first Abbasid period to define the fundamental measures on which the Islamic jurisprudence is based.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to view the weights and measures in the Hijaz during the first Abbasid period to define the fundamental measures on which the Islamic jurisprudence is based.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying a historical archive methodology, this paper highlights the significance of weight units as standard tools necessary for Muslims, in daily economic dealings, to control the value of goods and determine their size.

Findings

The most prominent weight units in Hijaz during the Abbasid period were limited to Ratl, Mann and spice. The most prominent units in the Hijaz during the Abbasid period were confined to Sa’aa, Al-Mudd and Al-Mukook. Not all units of weight in the Islamic State were used in all territories, but each territory specialized in particular units.

Originality/value

Weight units and measures are essential in religious transactions associated with determining the size of legitimate payments such as zakat, Diyah, dowry, expiation of the oath and delegation of the ritual. They are related to the rules of the act of worship of Wudu and ablution. With that in mind, implications on economic modeling and humanomics can be concluded.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Mona A. Abdelwahab

The purpose of this paper is to explore the “event” of the construction of Naguib Mahfouz Square. Drawing on the memory of Gamaet-Aldowel-AlArabyia Street, it attempts to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the “event” of the construction of Naguib Mahfouz Square. Drawing on the memory of Gamaet-Aldowel-AlArabyia Street, it attempts to uncover the socio-cultural structures inherited in the Egyptian urban street.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts Foucauldian discourse on institutions of “knowledge and authority” to approach the power relations between the actors involved. This discourse was constructed through in-depth, unstructured interviews with architects and involved government personnel as well as other archival resources that included national newspapers and magazines.

Findings

This discourse reflected an institutional controversy between these actors over the perception and design of the Egyptian street, highlighting the alienation of the designer, and the user/lay-people, from the urban institution. Naguib Mahfouz Square presented a considerable deviation from the established norms of street design in Egypt at that time through its commemoration of a contemporary figure in literature, the architect’s involvement in the design process and the unfencing of urban space. This event thus questions the perception of the urban street beyond our socio-cultural inheritance, and towards street design as a performative urban act that embraces the everyday activities of lay-people in the street.

Originality/value

The paper utilises Foucauldian discourse on power to approach a case study of an urban event and space in Egypt, which has not previously been investigated thoroughly. It thus holds potential towards the resolution of inherited conflict between the urban street and the urban institution.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

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