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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 14 June 2024

Yu-Yu Chang, Wei-Shiun Chang and Ahmad Fadhil

Entrepreneurship education is widely regarded as a fundamental means of fostering individuals' entrepreneurial intentions. In this paper, we delve into a distinctive empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship education is widely regarded as a fundamental means of fostering individuals' entrepreneurial intentions. In this paper, we delve into a distinctive empirical context: the integration of entrepreneurship education within Indonesia’s nationwide higher education system since 2010. Our goal is to investigate how prior participation in mandatory entrepreneurship training by company employees influences their inclination to leave their current employment and initiate a new business.

Design/methodology/approach

We employed structural equation modeling to analyze empirical data (n = 337) collected from full-time Indonesian employees in established companies.

Findings

Our findings indicate that previous engagement in entrepreneurship education predicts employees' entrepreneurial intentions, leading to reduced commitment to their current careers and an increased likelihood of having intentions to pursue new ventures. By comparing two groups of participants, our results suggest that government-mandated entrepreneurship education in Indonesia has a more substantial impact on employees' entrepreneurial intentions and turnover intentions.

Originality/value

This study, based on a unique sample from Indonesia, explores the entrepreneurial entry of organizational employees and the long-term effects of entrepreneurship education.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Mayyadah S. Abed, Payman S. Ahmed, Jawad K. Oleiwi and Basim M. Fadhil

Composite laminates are considered one of the most popular damage-resistant materials when exposed to impact force in civil and military applications. In this study, a comparison…

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Abstract

Purpose

Composite laminates are considered one of the most popular damage-resistant materials when exposed to impact force in civil and military applications. In this study, a comparison of composites 12 and 20 layers of fabrics Kevlar and ultrahigh-molecular-weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE)-reinforced epoxy under low-velocity impacts represented by drop-weight impact and Izod pendulum impact has been done. During the Izod test, Kevlar-based composite showed damage at the composite center and fiber breakages. Whereas delamination was observed for UHMWPE reinforced epoxy (PE). The maximum impact strength was for Kevlar-reinforced epoxy (KE) and increases with the number of laminates. Drop-weight impact test showed the highest absorbed energy for (KE) composites. The results revealed that different behavior during the impact test for composites belongs to the impact mechanism in each test.

Design/methodology/approach

Aramid 1414 Kevlar 49 and UHMWPE woven fabrics were purchased from Yixing Huaheng High-Performance Fiber Textile Co. Ltd, with specifications listed in Table 1. Epoxy resin (Sikafloor-156) is supplied from Sika AG. Sikafloor-156 is a two-part, low-viscosity, solvent-free epoxy resin, with compressive strength ∼95 N/mm², flexural strength ∼30 N/mm² and shore D hardness 83 (seven days). The mixture ratio of A/B was one-third volume ratio. Two types of laminated composites with different layers 12 and 20 were prepared by hand layup: Kevlar–epoxy and UHMWPE–epoxy composites as shown in Figure 1. Mechanical pressure was applied to remove bubbles and excess resin for 24 h. The composites were left in room temperature for seven days, and then composite plates were cut for the desired dimensions. Low-velocity impact testing, drop-weight impact, drop tower impact system INSTRON CEAST 9350 (see Figure 2) was facilitated to investigate impact resistance of composites according to ASTM D7137M (Test Method for Compressive, 2005). Low-velocity impact tests have been performed at room temperature for composite with dimensions 10 × 15 cm2 utilizing a drop tower (steel indenter diameter 19.85 mm as shown in Figure 3), height (800 mm), drop mass (5 kg) and speed (3.96 m/s). Special impact equipment consisting of vertically falling impactor was used in the test. The energy is obtained from Drop tower impact systems, (2009) E = ½ mv2 (2.1). The relationship between force–time, deformation–time and energy–time and deformation was obtained. Energy–deformation and force–deformation relationships were also obtained. The depth of penetration and the radius of impactor traces were recorded. Izod pendulum impact test of plastics was applied according to ASTM D256 (Test Method for Compressive, 2005). Absorbed energy was recorded to compute the impact strength of the specimen. The specimen before the test is shown in Figure 4.

Findings

In order to investigate two types of impact: drop-weight impact and Izod impact on damage resistance of composites, the two tests were done. Drop-weight impact is dropping a known weight and height in a vertical direction with free fall, absorbed energy can be calculated. Izod impact measures the energy required to break a specimen by striking a specific size bar with a pendulum (Test Method for Compressive, 2005; Test Methods for Determining, 2018). The results obtained with the impact test are presented. Figure 5 shows the histogram bars of impact strength of composites. It can be noticed that Kevlar–epoxy (KE) composites give higher energy strength than UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) in 12 and 20 plies. The increasing percentage is about 18.5 and 5.7%. It can be observed in Figure 6 that samples are not destructed completely due to fiber continuity. Also, the delamination occurs obviously for UHMWPE–epoxy more than for Kevlar-based composite, which may due to weak binding between UHMWPE with an epoxy relative with Kevlar.

Practical implications

The force–time curves for Kevlar–epoxy (KE) and UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) composites with 12 and 20 plies are illustrated respectively in Figure 7. The contact duration between indenter and composite surface is repented by the force–time curves, so the maximum force reaches with certain displacement. It can be seen that maximum force was (13,209, 18,734.9, 23,271.07 and 19,825.38 N) at the time (3.97, 4.43, 3.791 and 4.198 ms) for 12 KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. The sharp peaks of KE composite are due to the lower ductility of Kevlar compared with UHMWPE. These results agree with the results of Ahmed et al. (2016). Kevlar-based composites (KE) showed lower impact force and crack propagates in the matrix with fast fiber breakage compared with PE composites, whereas the latter did not suffer from fabric breakage in 12 and 20 plies any more (see Figure 8). Figure 9 illustrates force–deformation curves, for 12 and 20 plies of Kevlar–epoxy (KE) and UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) composites. Curve's slop is considered the specimen's stiffness and the maximum displacement. To investigate the impact behavior of the four different composites, the comparison was made among the relative force–deformation curves. The maximum displacement was 5.119, 3.443, 1.173 and 1.17 mm for 12KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. It seems that UHMWPE-based composite (PE) presents lower deformation than Kevlar-based composites (KE) at a same number of laminates, although the maximum displacement is for 12 PE and 12 KE (see Figure 8). Kevlar-based composites (KE) showed more damage than UHMWPE-based composite (PE), so the maximum displacement is always higher for KE specimens with maximum indenter trace diameter (D∼11.27 mm). The onset of cracks begins along fibers on the impacted side for 20 KE and 20 PE specimens with lower indenter trace (D∼5.42 and 5.96 mm), respectively (see Table 2). These results refer to the lower stiffness of KE composites (see the slope of the curve) relative to PE composites. This result agreed with (Vieille et al., 2013) when they found that the theoretical stiffness of laminated composite during drop-weight impact depends significantly on fiber nature (Fadhil, 2013). The matrix cracking is the first type of damage that may not change stiffness of composites overall. Material stiffness changes due to the stress concentration represented by matrix cracks, delamination and fiber breakage (Hancox, 2000). Briefly, the histogram (see Figure 10) showed that the best impact behavior was for 20 KE, highest impact force with lower deformation, indenter trace diameter and contact time. Absorbed energy–time and absorbed energy–deformation curves for composites are shown in Figures 11 and 12, respectively. The maximum absorbed energy was (36.313, 29.952, 9.783 and 6.928 J) for 12 KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. Test period time is only 8 ms, but the time in which composites reached maximum absorbed energy was (4.413, 3.636, 2.394 and 2.408 ms). The maximum absorbed energy was for 12 KE with lower rebound energy because part of kinetic energy transferred to potential energy kept in the composite as material damage (see Figures 3 and 4). This composite absorbs more energy as material damage which kept as potential energy. Whereas other composites 12 PE, 20 PE and 20 KE showed less damage, lower absorbed energy and higher rebound energy, which appeared in different peak behavior as the negative value of energy. Also from the absorbed energy–time curves, it had been noticed significantly the maximum contact time of indenter with composite was 4.413 ms for 12 KE, which exhibits higher deformation (5.119 mm), whereas other composites 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE showed less damage, contact time and deformation as (3.443, 1.173, 1.17 mm), respectively.

Originality/value

The main goal of the current study is to evaluate the performances of armor composite made off of Kevlar and UHMWPE fabrics reinforced epoxy thermosetting resin under the low-velocity impact. Several plates of composites were prepared by hand layup. Izod and drop-weight impact tests were facilitated to get an indication about the absorbed energy and strength of the armors.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Nazhatulzalkis Jamaludin, Siti Zubaidah Binti Hashim, Intan Bayani Bin Zakaria, Nadira Binti Ahzahar and Mior Alhadi Mior Ahmad Ridzuan

Sustainability issues have become crucial to mitigate urban heat islands (UHIs) and reduce the global warming effect. The climate change news is frequently heard lately due to the

Abstract

Sustainability issues have become crucial to mitigate urban heat islands (UHIs) and reduce the global warming effect. The climate change news is frequently heard lately due to the extreme weather to the extent that the increasing earth’s temperature often causes disaster and loss of property and life. New adaptation needs to new climate context and limits the on-going effects. One of the ways is adopting green roofs on buildings. Implementing sustainable practices such as green roofs will help mitigate this adverse effect in urban areas. Green roofs provide many benefits such as enhancing the aesthetical quality of the built environment, reduce UHIs, reduce energy consumption, improve storm-water attenuation, roof longevity, and reduce noise pollution. However, only a few buildings in Malaysia have considering green roofs as a main green feature element. There is barely number of buildings that have green roof design even though it offers benefits to the community and environment. This chapter has emphasised the types of green roof systems that are potentially suitable in Malaysia climate and obstacles associated with the green roof system. The study found the barriers to implementing green roofs in Malaysia, especially during the stage of building operation in maintaining the green roof system. The survey has been done, which revealed nine factors that hinder the green roof application. This study also highlights the challenges to overcome the barriers of implementing green roofs in Malaysia.

Details

Sustainability Management Strategies and Impact in Developing Countries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-450-2

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Abstract

Details

Emerging Issues in Islamic Finance Law and Practice in Malaysia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-546-8

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Siti Maisurah Mohd Hassan, Mohd Azmi Ismail, Nazif Emran Farid, Norman Fadhil Idham Muhammad and Ahmad Ismat Abdul Rahim

The purpose of this paper is to design and implement a fully integrated low‐phase noise and large tuning range dual‐band LC voltage‐controlled oscillator (VCO) in 0.13 μm…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design and implement a fully integrated low‐phase noise and large tuning range dual‐band LC voltage‐controlled oscillator (VCO) in 0.13 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

Design/methodology/approach

Two parallel‐connected single‐band VCOs are designed to implement the proposed VCO. Adopting a simple and straight‐forward architecture, the dual‐band VCO is configured to operate at two frequency bands, which are from 1.48 GHz to 1.78 GHz and from 2.08 GHz to 2.45 GHz. A band selection circuit is designed to perform band selection process based on the controlling input signal.

Findings

The proposed VCO features phase noise of −104.7 dBc/Hz and −108.8 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency for both low corner and high corner end of the low‐band operation. For high‐band operation, phase‐noise performance of −101.1 dBc/Hz and −110.4 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency are achieved. The measured output power of the dual‐band VCO ranges from −8.4 dBm to −5.8 dBm and from −9.6 dBm to −8.0 dBm for low‐band and high‐band operation, respectively. It was also observed that the power differences between the fundamental spectrum and the nearby spurious tone range from −67.5 dBc to −47.7 dBc.

Originality/value

The paper is useful to both the academic and industrial fields since it promotes the concept of multi‐band or multi‐standard system which is currently in demand in the telecommunication industry.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Abstract

Details

Sustainability Management Strategies and Impact in Developing Countries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-450-2

Article
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Payman S. Ahmed, Basim M. Fadhil, Samir Mshir and Mohamed Salar

The main challenge in preparing body armor is achieving a high protection level by using lightweight materials with minimum cost.

Abstract

Purpose

The main challenge in preparing body armor is achieving a high protection level by using lightweight materials with minimum cost.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a three-hybrid multilayered armor system is prepared for protection against a ballistic impact wave. These armor systems consist of glass or ceramic tile as a front layer followed by three intermediate layers made of woven fiber reinforced polymer composites and a back layer made of either aluminum or polypropylene.

Findings

All armor systems were successful in impeding the projectile from perforating, that is materials selection played an important role in stopping the ballistic impact wave. Almost an identical ballistic behavior was recorded between the experimental and numerical simulation by using ANSYS AUTODYN which means that the simulation could be used in advance to reduce the time required for practical experiments and the cost of using materials in experimental tests will be lessened. The effect of projectile geometry also had been studied, and it showed a noticeable role in changing ballistic behavior.

Originality/value

The originality of this research is in using carbon and glass fiber which are woven together in addition to adding polypropylene layers in armor preparation.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor and Maksum Malim

The purpose of this study is to attempt to examine the aims and objectives outlined in the formation of Islamic education in Indonesia. This study also looks at the development of…

1555

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to attempt to examine the aims and objectives outlined in the formation of Islamic education in Indonesia. This study also looks at the development of Islamic education in general and the various approaches taken by the Indonesian Government.

Design/methodology/approach

This study has mainly used a library research methodology. The data relevant to the study were collected and analysed by using an analytical approach.

Findings

The study found that there is a significant contribution from the Ministry in formulation of Islamic Education policy in Indonesia.

Originality/value

Indonesia is the largest Muslim majority country in the world. Islamic education in Indonesia has been around for a long time. In modern days, many have tried to study on Islamic education in terms of philosophy and objectives to be achieved. This study addresses the Islamic education in Indonesia; hence, it provides values for readers, researchers and those who are involved in future studies of this country.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Syed Fadhil Hanafi and Syed A Rahman

Regulation of digital currency is still at its infancy as authorities around the world grapple with its mechanics, and study its impact and the best method to regulate it…

Abstract

Regulation of digital currency is still at its infancy as authorities around the world grapple with its mechanics, and study its impact and the best method to regulate it. Significant increase in the use of digital cryptocurrency based on Blockchain technology post-Bitcoin phenomenon had challenged the conventional idea of central bank monopoly in currency issuance. This had also raised concern that digital currency being used as an instrumentality of crime given its anonymity feature that allows for the flow of funds without tracing and the fact that it is built on trustless system that provides security of transaction. This concern, plus other consideration including the prospect of issuing central bank digital currency, had driven some authorities around the world to adopt countermeasures either via an outright ban or a regulatory regime that suits the nature of digital currency, which is purely virtual and anonymous. However, in coming out with an appropriate legal regime, authorities faced multiple difficulties especially when the pace of legal development does not sync congruently with the rapid progress of technology. In addition, given the growing prominence of Islamic finance around the world, questions also arise pertaining to the legality of digital cryptocurrency from the Islamic perspective. Through a qualitative study of relevant literatures as well as legislations in different countries, this chapter discusses the various categories of digital currency, its position from the Islamic perspective, regulatory regimes of digital cryptocurrency in selected jurisdictions and challenges faced by authorities around the world in regulating this new medium of exchange.

Details

Emerging Issues in Islamic Finance Law and Practice in Malaysia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-546-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Herda Balqis Binti Ismail, Noor Nabilah Binti Sarbini, Hamizah Liyana Binti Tajul Ariffin, Izni Syahrizal Bin Ibrahim and Mohd Fairuz Bin Ab Rahman

The equability of environment, social and economic elements becomes a major issue to be achieved as to attain sustainability in the development of a construction project. As to

Abstract

The equability of environment, social and economic elements becomes a major issue to be achieved as to attain sustainability in the development of a construction project. As to cater to social sustainability, the Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health in Construction Industry (Management) also known as OSHCIM has been introduced by the government to improve safety practices amongst Malaysia’s construction practitioners. The basic principle adopted in OSHCIM is Prevention through Design (PtD), which enhances the elimination of hazards during project design stages. This concept is inspired from the implementation of Construction (Design and Management) (CDM) Regulations in the United Kingdom. The concept has also been adopted and practised in many developed countries including Australia and Singapore. The aim of this study is to identify the dominant accident causes in Malaysian construction industry. In this study, the secondary data were gathered from the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) accident statistics. A content analysis and frequency distribution analysis were adopted to determine causal factors that contribute to the fatality. The findings show the existence of design-related causal factors, which is also incorporated with other causes of accidents. This is true as every accident occurs due to more than one factor. Thus, these inputs will recommend further exploration to determine the design-related causal factors. This may help the industrial players, including stakeholders, practitioners and researchers, to have more focussed efforts and resources in ensuring the success of OSHCIM’s implementation to reduce the accident statistics in Malaysia.

Details

Sustainability Management Strategies and Impact in Developing Countries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-450-2

Keywords

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