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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Caroline Westwood, Peter Schofield and Graham Berridge

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the theory concerning visitor motivations, consumer experience and behavioural intentions at rural events; more specifically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the theory concerning visitor motivations, consumer experience and behavioural intentions at rural events; more specifically, it focusses on agricultural shows, which have hitherto been neglected in the events management literature. These events have successfully broadened their visitor base, but not without the attendant challenges for agricultural events’ designers.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopts a quantitative design using a questionnaire survey. The analysis, using a range of statistical procedures, centres on consumer motivation, experience and behaviour in relation to show features and their influence on future behaviour.

Findings

The findings of this paper demonstrates the relative importance to the consumer of the show’s various components and their influence on revisitation, which reflect the significance of social, cultural and personal meanings attached to their experiences. This highlights key motivational variables such as appreciating the shows’ traditions and intellectual enrichment.

Research limitations/implications

The study takes a cross-sectional approach, using a non-probability sample at four multi-day royal shows. Future research should establish the external validity of the findings and their applicability to smaller one-day agricultural shows.

Practical implications

The research provides a managerial contribution by informing show designers about the motivations of an increasingly diverse range of visitors. This will facilitate decisions around the engagement of contemporary design while preserving the traditional elements of agricultural shows.

Originality/value

Few studies have looked at rural events and, in particular, agricultural shows. Moreover, previous research in this area has focussed on rural tourism and place making, while consumer behaviour and experience at rural events has been neglected. This paper provides an insight into the consumer experience and perceived importance of various aspects of contemporary agricultural shows.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 January 2020

Kevin Nooree Kim and Ani L. Katchova

Following the recent global financial crisis, US regulatory agencies issued laws to implement the Basel III accords to ensure the resiliency of the US banking sector…

Abstract

Purpose

Following the recent global financial crisis, US regulatory agencies issued laws to implement the Basel III accords to ensure the resiliency of the US banking sector. Theories predict that enhanced regulations may alter credit issuance of the regulated banks due to increased capital requirements, but the direction of changes might not be straightforward especially with respect to the agricultural loans. A decrease in credit availability from banks might pose a serious problem for farmers who rely on bank credit especially during economic recessions. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the impact of Basel III regulatory framework implementation on agricultural lending in the USA is examined. Using panel data of FDIC-insured banks from 2008 to 2017, the agricultural loan volume and growth rates are examined for agricultural banks and all US banks.

Findings

The results show that agricultural loan growth rates have slowed down, but the amount of agricultural loan volume issuance still remained positive. More detailed examination finds that regulated agricultural banks have decreased both the agricultural loan volume and their loan exposure to the agricultural sector, showing a possible sign of credit crunch.

Originality/value

This study examines whether the implementation of the Basel III regulation has resulted in changes in agricultural loan issuance by US banks as predicted by the lending channel theory.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Solomon Bizuayehu Wassie, Hitoshi Kusakari and Sumimoto Masahiro

Using a recent rural farm household survey, the purpose of this paper is to investigate inclusiveness and effectiveness of agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia.

Abstract

Purpose

Using a recent rural farm household survey, the purpose of this paper is to investigate inclusiveness and effectiveness of agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a logit model to examine inclusiveness and an endogenous switching regression (ESR) model to evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural cooperatives.

Findings

The results show that agricultural cooperatives are less inclusive of land-poor and illiterate households. On the other hand, the estimated results indicate that cooperatives effectively improved agricultural performance and welfare of its member households – i.e. membership in cooperatives increases yield and income by 1.37 quintal/hectare and 1,804 birr, respectively. Moreover, the result shows that marketing cooperatives effectively increased marketed surplus of their members by 34 percent.

Research limitations/implications

The study has important implications regarding the ways to improve the effectiveness and/or inclusiveness of agricultural cooperatives.

Originality/value

While accounting for the collective behavior of cooperatives, this study uses multiple outcome variables in examining the effectiveness of cooperatives in Ethiopia. Furthermore, this paper employs the ESR model and accounts for potential problems in estimating impact using non-experimental data.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Ayodotun Stephen Ibidunni, Daniel E. Ufua, Uchechukwu Emena Okorie and Busola E. Kehinde

The purpose of this paper is to focus on investigating labour productivity in the agricultural sector of Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) countries between the periods of 2010 and 2017.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on investigating labour productivity in the agricultural sector of Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) countries between the periods of 2010 and 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted descriptive design. The sample size for this research includes 43 SSA nations. Measuring SSA nation’s agricultural productivity in this study was based on input and output factors relating to the labour resource utilisation between the periods of 2010 and 2017. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and panel regression analysis were carried out to examine labour productivity within the set periods.

Findings

The findings from the study suggest that labour productivity in the agricultural sector of SSA countries can be improved from its presently low state of productivity. The statistical analysis showed that between the periods of 2010 and 2013, only about 34.9 per cent of countries in the region were technically efficient in the utilisation of labour resources for productive use. More disturbing was that, from 2014 to 2017, labour productivity drooped to 11.6 per cent. Meanwhile, employment of labour in the agricultural sector revealed as low as 1.58 percentage to crop production index in the region. Notably, there is the potential of labour employment to derive as high as 80 per cent yield to the gross domestic product of economies in the SSA region.

Practical implications

Considering the strategic role of labour to the agricultural sector of SSA countries, there must be a stakeholders approach to stimulating the interest of the populace of these countries and getting them actively involved in the agricultural sector. This imply that government, investors, support agencies from developed economies and populace of the SSA nations must support the drive towards agricultural productivity of the SSA nations.

Originality/value

This study established a research agenda that involved a paradigm shift from the more rampant literature on foreign investments, agricultural research, rural livelihood and well-being, among others to focusing on issues that pertain to labour productivity for sustainable agricultural yields in SSA countries. Also, the methodology adopted in the study, such as application of DEA and regression analysis to panel data, shows a departure from single units of analysis adopted by existing studies.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Joseph Mawejje and Musa Mayanja Lwanga

The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirical model for inflation in Uganda, highlighting the role of supply side factors in the domestic agricultural sector.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirical model for inflation in Uganda, highlighting the role of supply side factors in the domestic agricultural sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The adopted empirical analysis is based on a single equation model that exploits cointegration techniques and general-to-specific modeling. The analysis controls for historical, seasonal as well as policy factors such as the effects of the global financial crisis, change in monetary policy regime to inflation targeting and monthly seasonal effects.

Findings

Results indicate that disequilibrium in the money, external and agricultural sectors feed into the Ugandan inflation process in the long run. However, the external and monetary sectors have larger long-run effects on inflation than the agricultural sector. Other factors that influence inflation in the short run include: inflation inertia, real output, money supply, exchange rate movements, foreign prices, monetary policy instruments and seasonal factors. In addition, the paper shows that the inflation-targeting policy has been successful in containing inflationary pressures.

Practical implications

These findings suggest that in the long-run monetary policy will continue to play an important role in managing Ugandan inflation through money demand management. The inflationary effects of agricultural supply shocks could be mitigated with appropriate domestic actions. In particular, fiscal policy that targets increased productivity and efficiency in agriculture through increased focus on production, irrigation, storage and transportation could reduce the effects of agricultural supply variability on inflation. In addition, policies intended to improve economic growth by expanding total output, control money supply growth and maintaining stability in the foreign exchange markets will help to reduce inflation.

Social implications

Studies of inflation and its determinants have dominated macroeconomic debates in the past decades because of the importance of price stability in economic growth and household welfare. The major conclusions from those studies are that: high inflation is detrimental to investment and growth; erodes the purchasing power; reduces household welfare; and exacerbates income inequality. Moreover there is a growing strand of literature establishing a causal link between inflation and conflict. Particularly for agricultural households, the effects of inflation are usually felt through the increase in food prices with implications for consumption and food security. These findings indicate the important macro and social implications of inflation. By focusing on the importance of agricultural supply shocks, the paper contributes to a better understanding of the drivers of inflation and how the macro and social effects can be addressed.

Originality/value

The major contribution of this paper is to try and model an equilibrium relationship in the domestic agricultural sector rather than using proxies such as an output gap measure or rainfall.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Emine Kaya and Esra Kadanalı

This study aims to determine the nexus between agricultural production and agricultural loans for the period Q1 2003–Q4 2018 in Turkey.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the nexus between agricultural production and agricultural loans for the period Q1 2003–Q4 2018 in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ the time-series analyses within the scope of the study. Firstly, they run the Engle–Granger two-step cointegration test and the Toda–Yamamoto causality analysis. They also use the dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) model estimator and estimate the vector autoregression model for predicting the dynamic structure of time series.

Findings

The results of time series analyses reveal that the variables are cointegrated and there are causal relationships between agricultural loans and agricultural production. Also, the variance decomposition findings indicate that the effect of agricultural loans provided by development-investment banks and participation banks on agricultural production has increased over the years, and the deposit banks have a high impact on agricultural production. The results of the DOLS model indicate that agricultural loans have a positive effect on agricultural production.

Originality/value

This research is one of the few studies that comprehensively determines the direction of nexus between agricultural production and agricultural loans in Turkey economy. This is the first contribution of the study in the literature. Another contribution of this study is to investigate the nexus between agricultural production and agricultural loans for banking sector groups. Unlike other studies in the literature, this study calculates the variance decomposition by going beyond unit root and cointegration tests. Thus, this study has deep findings.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Abstract

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Nathan T. Dollar

This chapter proposes that efforts to improve our understanding of factors affecting migrant health and longevity in the United States must consider migrants’ labor market…

Abstract

This chapter proposes that efforts to improve our understanding of factors affecting migrant health and longevity in the United States must consider migrants’ labor market incorporation and the structural conditions under which they work. I use public-use death certificate data to examine whether there is a mortality penalty for foreign-born workers in the secondary sector industries of agriculture and construction. I focus on the decade of the 1990s for two contextual and empirical reasons: (1) the decade was characterized by economic restructuring, restrictive immigration policy, increased migration, and dispersion of migrants to new geographic destinations; and (2) the 1990s is an opportunistic decade because 19 states coded the industry and occupation of the decedent during this time. These numerator mortality data and Census denominator data are used to compare all-cause mortality rates between working-age (16–64 years) US-born and foreign-born agricultural and construction workers, the overall foreign-born population, and foreign-born workers in health care – an industry where the foreign-born tend to work in well-paid occupations that are well-regulated by the state. The results show a clear mortality penalty for foreign-born workers in agriculture and construction compared to the overall foreign-born population and foreign-born healthcare workers. The results also show the mortality penalty for foreign-born secondary sector workers varies by industry. These findings support the argument that bringing work into our analyses is critical to understanding the contextual and structural factors affecting migrant health and survival.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2017

Ulf Römer and Oliver Musshoff

In recent years, the application of credit scoring in urban microfinance institutions (MFIs) became popular, while rural MFIs, which mainly lend to agricultural clients…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, the application of credit scoring in urban microfinance institutions (MFIs) became popular, while rural MFIs, which mainly lend to agricultural clients, are hesitating to adopt credit scoring. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether microfinance credit scoring models are suitable for agricultural clients, and if such models can be improved for agricultural clients by accounting for precipitation.

Design/methodology/approach

This study merges two data sets: 24,219 loan and client observations provided by the AccèsBanque Madagascar and daily precipitation data made available by CelsiusPro. An in- and out-of-sample splitting separates model building from model testing. Logistic regression is employed for the scoring models.

Findings

The credit scoring models perform equally well for agricultural and non-agricultural clients. Hence, credit scoring can be applied to the agricultural sector in microfinance. However, the prediction accuracy does not increase with the inclusion of precipitation in the agricultural model. Therefore, simple correlation analysis between weather events and loan repayment is insufficient for forecasting future repayment behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The results should be verified in different countries and climate contexts to enhance the robustness.

Social implications

By applying scoring models to agricultural clients as well, all clients can benefit from an improved risk assessment (e.g. faster decision making).

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study investigating the potential of microfinance credit scoring for agricultural clients in general and for Madagascar in particular. Furthermore, this is the first study that incorporates a weather variable into a scoring model.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 78 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Maoyong Zheng and Cesar L. Escalante

This is a comparative study of the nature of operating decisions made by agricultural and non-agricultural banks, affecting their actual growth plans in the years around…

Abstract

Purpose

This is a comparative study of the nature of operating decisions made by agricultural and non-agricultural banks, affecting their actual growth plans in the years around and during the Great Recession of 2008. The main empirical question is whether banks under greater economic stress shortly before, during, and immediately after the recession made deliberate adjustments in their growth decisions vis-à-vis predetermined sustainable levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Higgins' sustainable growth challenge is employed to evaluate banks' growth decisions involving four growth levers (profitability, earnings retention, asset management, and financial leverage). Actual growth trends are related to business growth rates deemed sustainable given available financial capability as prescribed by Higgins' model.

Findings

Both banking groups made cautious growth decisions during the sample period. Actual growth rates were below sustainable levels. Agricultural banks registered steadily increasing sustainable growth rates from the pre-recession years until the recovery period, while non-agricultural banks were more constrained to grow given their declining sustainable growth levels. Notably, agricultural banks showed relatively more aggressiveness in raising slightly actual revenue growth to levels much closer to sustainable levels. This could have resulted from their less volatile profit margin trends and usual pressure to maintain acceptable liquidity conditions in order to gain access to external funds.

Originality/value

This study presents an additional application of Higgins' model to agricultural finance. The comparative analysis of banking groups becomes even more relevant these days as recent economic discussions focus on indicators of an imminent recessionary period.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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