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Article

Marco Tieman

– The purpose of this study is to propose a halal cluster concept to better organise production and trade of halal food.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a halal cluster concept to better organise production and trade of halal food.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper builds further on previous work published in the Journal of Islamic Marketing on halal food supply chains and value chains. A cluster analysis is conducted on the Malaysia and Dubai halal cluster to provide a better understanding of their halal cluster models and sustainability.

Findings

Food production and trade has been described as the weak link in the halal value chain. To guarantee availability of and access to halal food, a new paradigm is required in better organising the production and trade of halal food through halal clusters. A halal cluster model is proposed based on five pillars, namely, Muslim consumer, education and research, halal integrity network, halal supply chain and enablers.

Research limitations/implications

This conceptual paper proposes a halal cluster model to scale up the production of halal food for the world. However, more empirical research on halal purchasing, halal network development, halal trade and halal parks is needed to support the development of these halal clusters.

Practical implications

To better address today’s issues in the halal industries (ingredients, certification, logistics, etc.), there are evident benefits of producing in strong halal clusters, hereby providing easy access to halal ingredients and access to attractive Muslim markets.

Originality/value

As halal is going through an evolution, towards a halal supply chain and value chain, new business models are required. It is the first study investigating halal clusters.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article

Joakim Tell, Maya Hoveskog, Pia Ulvenblad, Per-Ola Ulvenblad, Henrik Barth and Jenny Ståhl

Because the business model (BM) is a fairly new concept, research is lacking on business model innovation (BMI) in certain industry sectors. One such sector is the…

Abstract

Purpose

Because the business model (BM) is a fairly new concept, research is lacking on business model innovation (BMI) in certain industry sectors. One such sector is the agri-food sector. Using a systematic literature review (SLR) of peer-reviewed journal articles published from 1990 to 2014, the purpose of this paper is to examine the where, when, and how of the use of BMs and BMI in the agri-food sector.

Design/methodology/approach

A web-based search was conducted to identify peer-reviewed journal articles that contained a combination of “BM” or “BMI” with agriculture-related and food-related terms (e.g. “agri-food sector”). After winnowing out irrelevant and duplicate articles, 505 articles were chosen for analysis.

Findings

Using categories, the paper analyses various data about the selected articles. The categories include research settings, units of analysis, methodologies, and theories. Based on this analysis, the paper finds that these agri-food sector articles are primarily qualitative, empirical studies that focus on one or a few companies (i.e. case studies). The paper also finds that theory is not yet well-developed in the research on the agri-food sector.

Originality/value

SLRs of various concepts, theories, and models are common in many fields (e.g. information/software technology, healthcare, and organizational management). However, no such review is available for the agri-food sector, in particular in its use of BMs and BMI. This paper addresses that gap with its review of relevant articles published in more than 300 journals in recent years. Based on this review, the paper draws conclusions about BMI in the agri-food sector and offers suggestions for future research.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Roberta Spadoni, Pamela Lombardi, Maurizio Canavari and Martin Hingley

The aim of this paper is to assess the applicability and impact of private food standards – specifically that of the BRC (British Retail Consortium) – in a European…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to assess the applicability and impact of private food standards – specifically that of the BRC (British Retail Consortium) – in a European country context, and to classify food companies into groups on the basis of their different perceptions regarding the Global Standard for Food safety impacts.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is developed in two stages: a qualitative investigation based on in-depth interviews with quality managers (QMs); a quantitative investigation with a structured questionnaire: with response from 192 food processors in Italy, selected through a probabilistic random sampling method. Data were elaborated with descriptive statistical techniques and subsequently with multivariate analysis (factor and cluster analysis).

Findings

QMs agree with most of the assumptions with regard to the impact elements of the BRC food standard. Some characteristics, such as geographic location, size, and type of processing and adoption of ISO 9001, seem to elicit different perceptions between the companies. Through factor analysis, eight factors were extracted; and subsequently, through cluster analysis applied to the factors, five different groups of companies are identified.

Practical implications

The adoption of private food standards is both useful and comprehensible for food operators. However, BRC is a minimum standard and a base level for food suppliers; it cannot wholly substitute a specific retailer's dedicated second-party audit. Findings could be used by the subjects of the certification process to determine ideal marketing strategies.

Originality/value

This paper provides a statistically significant description of the impact of private food standards (via the important BRC standard) in one of the most important European markets.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Isabel Diez-Vial and Marta Fernández-Olmos

The purpose of this paper is to assess the benefits to firms arising from their geographical concentration; paying particular attention to the impact of specialized…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the benefits to firms arising from their geographical concentration; paying particular attention to the impact of specialized employees, information and knowledge spillovers and a collective reputation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have taken into account two main approaches: a cluster one, where location may increase firms’ competitiveness; and the resource-based view, where internal resources are the key for firms’ success. Empirical evidence has been gathered from the Ham cluster in Spain combining secondary and primary data. The authors undertook a Tobit regression model since the dependent variable is limited.

Findings

The authors observe that firms with human resources tend to benefit more from cluster externalities. On contrary, R&D and advertising investments induce firms to isolate themselves from crowded areas and prevent any local leakage.

Research limitations/implications

It would be interesting to better understand the role that human resources play; undertake a longitudinal analysis; and take into account the resources of other proximate firms.

Practical implications

Local advantages depends the maturity of the industry by reducing the attractiveness of cluster locations through greater competition in the input and final markets; while internal resources may improve a firm's ability to absorb these externalities, they may also create leakage that benefits neighbouring firms.

Originality/value

It combines two approaches evaluating the moderating influence of internal resources on local externalities. It also offers new empirical evidence from a low-tech industry.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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Article

Miklós Herdon, László Várallyai and Ádám Péntek

The purpose of this paper is to survey, systemize and analyse the e‐readiness of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) and determine which new technologies can be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to survey, systemize and analyse the e‐readiness of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) and determine which new technologies can be applied to build a digital business ecosystem (DBE) for SMEs. Based on the results of a survey, the authors' objectives are to propose an adequate solution system that uses open source solutions for the SME through the development of a prototype based on a DBE concept.

Design/methodology/approach

On the resulting principal components, the authors applied the variance analysis and built two LISREL (a linear structural equation system involving multiple indicators of unmeasured variables) models. LISREL can handle a wide array of problems and models. Based on a survey, an open source prototype solution was developed based on DBE philosophy.

Findings

The authors defined different clusters. An SME can then find within the clusters further methods that could be important for their business. The authors developed two LISREL models, aiming to examine the factors that impact the use of the community applications and how they impact them, as well as the factors that impact the increase of the on‐line sales. Based on the survey, a prototype system was designed and created that can be used for the set‐up of digital business networks.

Practical implications

The paper proposes an adequate solution system that uses open source solutions for the SMEs through the development of a prototype based on a DBE concept.

Originality/value

Building DBEs helps to create and operate value chains that help enterprises to extend their markets. Through their help, the inquirers and buyers get to know the elements of the value chain, and can therefore make decisions much easier. The paper shows how to define e‐attributes of SMEs and clusters to build and use a DBE system for them.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article

Martin Mulder, Thomas Lans, Jos Verstegen, Harm Biemans and Ypie Meijer

The purpose of this paper is to study the learning of entrepreneurs in authentic learning environments. The research questions are: How do entrepreneurs assess their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the learning of entrepreneurs in authentic learning environments. The research questions are: How do entrepreneurs assess their compentencies, and how do employees and external consultants assess the compentencies of these entrepreneurs? What are the competence strengths and weaknesses of entrepreneurs? What are the learning activities that entrepreneurs perform?

Design/methodology/approach

Ten small business owners participated in a self‐assessment and an assessment by employees and external consultants. Follow‐up interviews elicited work‐related learning activities. The interviews were transcribed. Descriptive statistics, t‐tests and correlation tests, and a qualitative analysis of interview transcriptions were performed.

Findings

Competencies are being rated differently. Competence assessment is a potentially powerful learning source. The top competence strength is having a learning orientation. A total of 99 learning activities were found embedded in the innovative work processes of the entrepreneurs. The top three learning activities were reflection, observation and experimentation.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on only ten entrepreneurs. Research is planned with a larger numbers of subjects.

Practical implications

Competence assessment needs to be provided for entrepreneurs in the sector as a tool for deeper self‐reflection, and further performance improvement.

Originality/value

Much research on skills development and workplace learning is about employees in large organisations. However, employers in small and medium‐sized companies are also an interesting professional group to study, since they create working and learning places for employees. Not much is know about their competence development. This study addresses that target group.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article

Abel Duarte Alonso and Seng Kiat Kok

The purpose of this study was to examine pathways towards, and the rationale behind internationalisation from the perspectives of micro firms' operators involved in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine pathways towards, and the rationale behind internationalisation from the perspectives of micro firms' operators involved in the globally competitive wine industry. Moreover, drawing from entrepreneurial action theory, the study developed a theoretical framework to help understanding micro approaches and rationale for internationalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through interviews with 19 micro winery owners and managers operating in the Prosecco Superiore (Italy) and cava industry (Spain).

Findings

Aligned with entrepreneurial action theory, uncertainty in participants' environment, coupled with the associated need to diversify through exports, were predominant drivers of internationalisation. However, internationalisation also emerged through non-deliberate channels, including through growth of wine tourism and increasing foreign wine enthusiasts. Thus, while entrepreneurial action through deliberate means triggered a stronger focus on internationalisation, other passive interventions beyond the control or influence of micro firms, but rather emerge serendipitously, can similarly spur direct action.

Originality/value

The study demonstrated its originality and value in various ways, fundamentally, addressing three knowledge gaps, thereby contributing to practical and theoretical discourses with corresponding value, including managerially. First, it extended literature focussing on micro firms, which as compared to small and medium enterprise research is much more limited. Second, it provided a comparative component, which is much rarer in contemporary research discussing internationalisation amongst micro firms. Third, the study proposed a theoretical framework stemming from the chosen inductive approach, thus, addressing concerns regarding the lack of theoretical rigour or depth in internationalisation activities amongst micro firms.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Ivana Blažková, Ondřej Dvouletý and Ondřej Machek

The paper aims to investigate factors that drive the total factor productivity (TFP) and its growth in the Czech food industry over 2003–2017. The authors’ analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate factors that drive the total factor productivity (TFP) and its growth in the Czech food industry over 2003–2017. The authors’ analysis focuses on firm-level characteristics such as location choice, sub-sector affiliation, use of debt, liquidity, asset turnover, firm size and firm age.

Design/methodology/approach

The determinants of productivity were tested econometrically by estimation of multivariate regression models. The firm-level panel data set consisted of 14,488 observations (data of 980 firms spanning 15 years). TFP was estimated by three regression-based techniques – ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, instrumental variables (IV) approach and two-way generalized method of moments (GMM) regression. All three measures of TFP were used as outcome variables to estimate the impact of firm-level determinants on both TFP level and growth.

Findings

The results have shown statistically significant and reversed U-shaped relationship between the firm age and the TFP level (with a turning point in the age of 12.5 years). However, the dynamic models investigating the TFP growth have found that younger firms achieve higher productivity growth in comparison with older ones. Higher market share and assets turnover were positively associated with both TFP level and its growth.

Research limitations/implications

This study brings several relevant propositions for future research. First, the authors recommend future researchers to study not only differences in the levels of productivity but also determinants of its growth. Second, the authors believe that adding a non-linear component to age as a factor explaining changes in the levels of productivity might be a very relevant contribution to the literature.

Originality/value

Although it is generally accepted that successful and sustainable growth of firms, regions and economies can be achieved particularly through viable companies with high productivity, there is still a limited number of firm-level studies explaining the determinants of productivity levels and growth in agribusiness sectors in transition economies. Therefore, this study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of this important topic.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article

Mariluz Maté-Sánchez-Val and Paolo Occhino

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence about the role of the geography on agri-food firms’ valuations. The goal is to test clusters and agglomeration effects on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence about the role of the geography on agri-food firms’ valuations. The goal is to test clusters and agglomeration effects on the SMEs valuations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose an empirical test applying a spatial regression analysis on a sample constitute by 306 agri-food SMEs located in two municipalities with different economic characteristics: Murcia and Madrid. In addition, the authors applied the discounted cash flow model in order to estimate the SMEs’ economic value.

Findings

The findings show the importance of the geography variables on the SMEs’ performances highlights interesting differences between territories. In particular, the results confirm that the geographical proximity between agri-food firms and between them and external agents is significant on firms’ valuations. The agglomeration effects are verified in both municipality but the density variable present a negative non-linear effect confirming previous studies which indicates that the existence of a large number of firms 05 rise competition, decreasing the economic opportunities of these companies.

Originality/value

This study gives interesting insights to policymakers, researchers and practitioners concerning the importance of the relationships among agents, also favoured by a developed infrastructures system in a fully connected environment.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article

Ali Heidari, Hamid Reza Yazdani, Fatemeh Saghafi and Mohammad Reza Jalilvand

This study aims at characterizing and identifying the existing research on tourism business networks.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at characterizing and identifying the existing research on tourism business networks.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a systematic mapping study to identify and analyze related literature. They identified 225 primary studies, dated from 1997-2016, and classified them with respect to research focus, types of research and contribution.

Findings

Seventy four studies were identified and mapped, synthesizing the available evidence on tourism business networks. “Business networks” with 27 articles is the dominant research focus and “Network configuration” with 22 articles is the next dominant one. Regarding the research type, “Solution proposal” is the most frequently used research type. “Interview” and “Case study”, respectively, were the most used research methods. However, “Agent-based modeling”, “Delphi study” and “Non-linear time series analysis” were used less often. “Philosophical paper” was the most common research type between 1997 and 2002, and after that “Solution proposal” was the dominant research paper type. Further, the number of publications has declined between 2012 and 2014.

Originality/value

This mapping study provides the first systematic exploration of the state-of-art on tourism business networks research. The existing body of knowledge is limited to a few high quality studies.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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