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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Brian Tjemkes and Olivier Furrer

Strategic alliances involve uncertainty, interdependence, and vulnerability, which often create adverse situations. This paper seeks to understand how alliance managers…

Abstract

Purpose

Strategic alliances involve uncertainty, interdependence, and vulnerability, which often create adverse situations. This paper seeks to understand how alliance managers respond to these adverse situations by examining the influence of four exchange variables on response strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

A scenario‐based experiment provides empirical support for a typology consisting of seven conceptually and empirically distinct response strategies: exit, opportunism, aggressive voice, creative voice, considerate voice, patience, and neglect.

Findings

The results indicate that economic satisfaction, social satisfaction, alliance‐specific investments, and the availability of attractive alternatives differentially and interactively affect response strategies.

Research limitations/implications

The study offers two main contributions to alliance literature. First, the seven response strategies accurately represent reactions that alliance managers use to deal with adverse situations. Second, the study findings validate and extend previous alliance research by highlighting that a comprehensive response strategy typology is necessary to disentangle the effects of the four exchange conditions on response strategy use, which fosters theory development and managers' ability to manage their alliances effectively.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the process perspective on strategic alliances by highlighting the various response strategies that alliance managers use to deal with adverse situations and their antecedents.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2018

Yongzheng Qu, Wen Wu, Fangcheng Tang, Haijian Si and Yuhuan Xia

The purpose of this study is to advance and test a new construct, harmony voice. Furthermore, according to the social influence theory, the relationship between zhongyong

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to advance and test a new construct, harmony voice. Furthermore, according to the social influence theory, the relationship between zhongyong, an essential Confucian orientation mode and voice behavior, and the moderating role of coworker’s regulatory focus (promotion focus and prevention focus) has been examined.

Design/methodology/approach

A field study has been designed to test our hypotheses. We used samples of 291 employee–coworker dyads from a variety of organizations in China to test this study’s hypotheses.

Findings

The results of this empirical study show that zhongyong is positively related to harmony voice. Coworkers’ promotion focus strengthens the positive effect of zhongyong on harmony voice, and coworkers’ prevention focus weakens the positive effect of zhongyong on harmony voice.

Research limitations/implications

Traditionally defined voice and harmony voice might cause different risks to the voicer. However, how and what kinds of risks may be differently caused by these two types of voice behaviors have not been examined in this study. Future empirical research can explore the different effects of traditionally defined voice and harmony voice.

Practical implications

Managers responsible for managing Chinese employees should notice the difference in some important ways of thinking between Easterners and Westerners. Specifically, zhongyong may direct people to express issues related to work in ways that are different from those of their Western counterparts. Harmony voice can benefit the Chinese organization without disrupting organizational development.

Social implications

By examining the relationship between zhongyong and harmony voice, we contribute to identifying antecedents of voice by using an emic research perspective.

Originality/value

We made significant theoretical contributions to voice literature. We developed the construct of harmony voice, and we examined the relationship between zhongyong and voice.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Ana Sabino, Fernanda Nogueira and Francisco Cesário

Individuals’ intentional responses to declining job satisfaction have been associated with the EVLN model. Employees’ silence, as an independent construct, can be…

Abstract

Purpose

Individuals’ intentional responses to declining job satisfaction have been associated with the EVLN model. Employees’ silence, as an independent construct, can be understood as an individual, intentional and deliberate decision to retain important information for the organization. The purpose of this paper is to analyze employees’ silence, which can be understood as a fifth individual response to job satisfaction declining, along with the remaining four responses proposed in the EVLN model. It is proposed as an extension to the original model through the introduction of employee silence; the model is referred to as the EVLNS model.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study is quantitative, hypothetical-deductive, correlational and transversal. The sample is composed of 756 professionals working in the higher education sector. The paper used structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses to test its hypotheses.

Findings

Results showed that employees’ silence has a dual factorial structure, which is composed of an adhesion dimension and a rejection dimension. The study also finds that these two dimensions can be integrated as an extension of the original EVLN model. It is found that, although they are related, these dimensions also capture a certain degree of independence, with different levels of influence of job satisfaction.

Practical implications

An important implication is that silence is a complex phenomenon, suggesting that this is more than the simple absence of voice and may have different motives. Additionally, it is important to emphasize that job satisfaction can contribute to different individual responses and managers must act accordingly.

Originality/value

The study contributes to a better understanding of the individuals’ potential responses to declining job satisfaction through the extension of the original EVLN model with the introduction of a fifth response – the employees’ silence.

Objetivo

As respostas intencionais dos indivíduos ao declínio da satisfação com o trabalho têm sido associadas ao Modelo EVLN. O silêncio dos colaboradores, enquanto construto independente de outros, pode ser entendido como uma decisão intencional e deliberada do indivíduo em reter informação importante para a organização. Pretende-se analisar medida o silêncio dos colaboradores pode ser entendido como uma resposta dos indivíduos ao declínio da satisfação com o trabalho, a par das restantes quatro estratégias propostas no Modelo EVLN. Propõe-se uma extensão ao modelo original através da introdução do silêncio denominando-se assim de modelo EVLNS.

Design/metodologia

O presente estudo caracteriza-se pela sua componente quantitativa, hipotético-dedutiva, correlacional e transversal. A amostra é construída 756 profissionais que atuam no sector do ensino superior. Os dados foram analisados fazendo recurso à técnica da modelagem por equações estruturais.

Resultados

Os resultados demonstraram que o silêncio dos colaboradores apresenta uma estrutura fatorial dual, composta por uma dimensão de adesão e uma de rejeição e que estas duas dimensões correspondem à expansão do modelo original EVLN sobre as respostas deliberadas dos indivíduos ao declínio da satisfação. Verifica-se assim que estas respostas apresar de relacionadas apresentam um determinado grau de independência nomeadamente pelos diferentes graus de influência da satisfação com o trabalho.

Implicações

Uma importante implicação deste estudo é o facto do silêncio ser um fenómeno complexo, sugerindo-se que este é mais que a simples ausência da voz e que pode ter diferentes motivos. Adicionalmente, destaca-se também a importância reforçar que a satisfação com o trabalho poderá contribuir para diferentes respostas dos indivíduos, devendo os gestores atuar em conformidade.

Originalidade/valor

O estudo contribui com um melhor entendimento das potenciais respostas dos indivíduos ao declínio da satisfação, nomeadamente através da extensão do modelo original com a introdução de uma quinta estratégia – o silêncio dos colaboradores.

Palavras-chave

Silêncio dos colaboradores, Modelo EVLN, Voz, Saída, Lealdade, Satisfação com o Trabalho

Tipo de artigo

Trabalho de investigação

Objetivo

Las respuestas intencionales de los individuos a la disminución de la satisfacción laboral se han asociado con el Modelo EVLN. El silencio de los empleados, como constructo independiente, puede entenderse como una decisión individual, intencional y deliberada de retener información importante para la organización. Nuestro objetivo es analizar el silencio de los empleados, que puede entenderse como una quinta respuesta individual a la disminución de la satisfacción laboral, junto con las cuatro respuestas restantes propuestas en el Modelo EVLN. Se propone como una extensión del modelo original a través de la introducción del silencio de los empleados; el modelo se conoce como el modelo EVLNS.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El presente estudio es cuantitativo, hipotético-deductivo, correlacional y transversal. La muestra está compuesta por 756 profesionales que trabajan en el sector de la educación superior. El artículo utilizó análisis de modelos de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM) para probar sus hipótesis.

Resultados

los resultados mostraron que el silencio de los empleados tiene una estructura factorial dual, que se compone de una dimensión de adhesión y una dimensión de rechazo. El estudio también encuentra que estas dos dimensiones se pueden integrar como una extensión del modelo EVLN original. Se observa que, aunque están relacionadas, estas dimensiones poseen un cierto grado de independencia, con diferentes niveles de influencia de la satisfacción laboral.

Implicaciones

una implicación importante es que el silencio es un fenómeno complejo, lo que sugiere que esto es más que la simple ausencia de voz y puede tener diferentes motivos. Además, es importante enfatizar que la satisfacción laboral puede contribuir a diferentes respuestas individuales y que los gerentes deben actuar en consecuencia.

Originalidad/valor

el estudio contribuye a una mejor comprensión de las posibles respuestas de los individuos a la disminución de la satisfacción en el trabajo mediante la extensión del modelo EVLN original con la introducción de una quinta respuesta: el silencio de los empleados.

Palabras clave

Silencio de los empleados, Modelo EVLN, Voz, Salida, Lealtad, Satisfacción laboral

Tipo de artículo

Trabajo de investigacion

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Tamara Oukes and Ariane Raesfeld von

Start-ups are companies that are not yet embedded in a pre-existing network of relationships. Studies that researched how start-ups act in their relationships focused on…

Abstract

Purpose

Start-ups are companies that are not yet embedded in a pre-existing network of relationships. Studies that researched how start-ups act in their relationships focused on just one type of action and assumed that start-ups are autonomous in how they choose to act. However, organisational action in relationships is both interactive and dynamic. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a start-up interacts with its partners over time.

Design/methodology/approach

The research aim is addressed through a longitudinal case study of a start-up in the medical device business. It was analysed how this start-up and its six key partners acted and reacted during 18 interactions episodes, what triggered these actions and what the outcomes of their actions were. In addition, the researchers explored if and how the subsequent episodes were related.

Findings

First, the case shows that the past and the future affect current episodes. Second, it shows that action was triggered by both internal and external events which could expand or constrain opportunities for future interactions. Third, the findings show that there was a pattern in the interaction modes used during the relationship. Fourth, the findings show that the initial mode of interaction was often imitated by the counterparty. Finally, it is shown that there are clear links between the trigger, interaction process and outcome in an interaction episode.

Research limitations/implications

The results indicate that besides the focal firm, partners should always be actively and directly involved in any research into organisational action. Moreover, action in relationships should be characterised as a dynamic process that is in a state of continual change.

Practical implications

Managers of start-ups: can influence the outcomes of their relationships through their actions; have to react to both opportunities and conflicts in their relationships; can rely on their network to solve conflicts; and should closely consider their own actions and their counterparty’s actions.

Originality/value

The research is valuable because it studies the interactive and dynamic nature of start-ups’ action in relationships.

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Runtian Jing, Jia Lin Xie and Jing Ning

The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents (psychological contract and perceived reasons for change) and consequences (work behaviors and well-being) of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents (psychological contract and perceived reasons for change) and consequences (work behaviors and well-being) of employees’ commitment to organizational change.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed a conceptual model of the antecedents and consequences of commitment to organizational change. In Study 1, based on interviews, the authors developed an instrument to measure the construct “reasons for change.” In Study 2, the authors collected questionnaire data from 228 employees of a Chinese telecom company undergoing organizational changes and tested the conceptual model using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results showed that the strength of a relational contract (one form of psychological contract) was positively related to normative commitment to change and negatively related to continuance commitment to change. External reasons for change were positively related to affective and normative commitment to change, whereas internal reasons for change were negatively related to affective commitment to change and positively related to continuance commitment to change. Affective commitment was negatively related to exit and aggressive voice. Continuance commitment was positively related to emotional exhaustion, and normative commitment was negatively related to emotional exhaustion.

Research limitations/implications

The single-source cross-sectional design limits the robustness of the conclusions drawn from the findings. Two promising avenues were opened for further research: the interaction of employees’ commitment to change at different levels and the process of social construction of perceived reasons for change.

Practical implications

To facilitate employee commitment to change, organizations should cultivate relational contracts with their employees and attend to the “framing effects” of employees’ perceptions of reasons for change.

Social implications

This study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between employer-employee relations and employee well-being in Chinese society. It suggests that healthy employer-employee relations are beneficial for employee well-being. Moreover, Chinese firms should pay more attention to the changes occurring inside and outside their organizations, which are related to the psychological health of their employees.

Originality/value

The study highlights the importance of relational contracts between an organization and its employees during organizational change process. Moreover, it is among the first to examine the relationship between employees’ perceived reasons for change and their commitment to change.

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Amit Gur, Shay S. Tzafrir, Christopher D. Zatzick, Simon L. Dolan and Roderick Iverson

The purpose of the research was to develop a tool for measuring antecedents of customer aggressive behavior (CAB) in healthcare service settings, by identifying its roots…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the research was to develop a tool for measuring antecedents of customer aggressive behavior (CAB) in healthcare service settings, by identifying its roots in organizational and interpersonal dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

Four studies were conducted. In Studies 1 and 2, antecedents of CAB were identified through analysis of internet reader comments and a questionnaire was distributed to students. In Study 3, scenarios were used to validate the findings of the previous studies. Finally, in Study 4, a scale was developed and validated for measuring organization- and person-related triggers of CAB using samples of 477 employees and 579 customers.

Findings

The concept of CAB was conceptualized and validated. In total, 18 items were identified across five dimensions: personal characteristics, uncomfortable environment, aggressive role models, reinforcement of aggressive behavior and aversive treatment. The scale demonstrated good psychometric results.

Research limitations/implications

The research relies mainly on customer perspective. Employees and additional stakeholders should be included to achieve more accurate information that could contribute to a better understanding of CAB and its roots.

Practical implications

Exploring social and organizational antecedents that trigger CAB could help healthcare managers evaluate and proactively manage CAB and its implications within their organization.

Originality/value

This measurement scale is the first comprehensive tool, based on Bandura’s social learning theory (1973), that may identify and measure antecedents of CAB, and could be used to reduce CAB in healthcare service settings.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

Agrata Pandey, Ranjeet Nambudiri, Patturaja Selvaraj and Ashish Sadh

The literature on destructive leadership has largely ignored the perspective of the subordinate, especially in terms of conflict coping mechanisms. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature on destructive leadership has largely ignored the perspective of the subordinate, especially in terms of conflict coping mechanisms. This study aims to integrate research on destructive leadership and subordinates’ voice behaviour as a conflict coping mechanism. Drawing on the social exchange, conservation of resources and social identity theories, it argues that destructive leadership negatively affects employees’ voice behaviour and that this relationship is moderated by subordinate personality and organization climate.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model was tested on a sample of 275 professionals working in the banking and insurance sector in India using a temporal research design with data collected in two phases six months apart. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used for data analysis.

Findings

The results support the main effect relationship between destructive leadership and subordinates’ voice behaviour and the moderation of subordinates’ personality and organizational climate. Temporal analysis indicates that the nature of some relationships changed across the two time periods.

Practical implications

A greater understanding of destructive leader behaviour and resultant coping strategies of subordinates is likely to provide insights for managers facing such situations. The findings of this study will inform the creation of redressal and voice mechanisms in organizations.

Originality/value

This is among the first studies to examine the impact of negative forms of leadership on subordinates’ conflict coping mechanisms using a temporal lag design across two time periods.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Ela Unler and Sibel Caliskan

Analysis of employee voice has focused on the reasons and managerial issues regarding the available environment to speak up. The purpose of this paper is to understand the…

Abstract

Purpose

Analysis of employee voice has focused on the reasons and managerial issues regarding the available environment to speak up. The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of management attitude on employee voice with the mediating effect of individual’s perceived psychological safety (PPS). Besides, the role of job satisfaction (JS) and being individualist/collectivist as moderators over the effect of psychological safety on employee voice are analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors constructed a framework based on Maynes and Podsakoff’s (2014) view that identifies four different types of voice behavior (supportive, constructive, defensive and destructive). In total, 286 questionnaires were collected from employees working in telecommunication industry.

Findings

Based on analysis, positive management attitude facilitates supportive and constructive voice (CV) and reduces destructive voice (DESV). PPS mediates the relationship with management attitude and DESV. JS level facilitates supportive CV and reduces DESV. Collectivism level of employees moderates PPS and DESV. Path analysis results showed a similar model for mediation effect of safety, and showed a better model fit and explanation for trust mediation between LMX and supportive, constructive and DESV. Supported assumptions would be discussed-based social exchange theory and signaling theory.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is relatively small which limits the external validity of the findings.

Practical implications

Results revealed the managerial attitude over employee voice through perceived work environment (psychological safety) and trust.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first that integrates not only constructive but also DESV into the model.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

Bradford ‘J’ Hall

This study endeavors to deepen our understanding of intercultural conflict by the detailed development of a particular case. The case chosen is the controversy over…

Abstract

This study endeavors to deepen our understanding of intercultural conflict by the detailed development of a particular case. The case chosen is the controversy over spearfishing between the largely white protest community in northern Wisconsin and the Native American (Anishinabe) community in the same region. This study identifies and examines a kernel image which serves simultaneously as common and uncommon ground across the two communities, thus helping to escalate and prolong the conflict. This process is further explored through the identification and articulation of the rhetorical visions which embody the common sense of a community and are expressed through the collective discourse of that community. Finally, implications for intercultural conflict in general are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Abstract

Details

Leading with Presence: Fundamental Tools and Insights for Impactful, Engaging Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-599-3

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