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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2019

Habiba Ibrahim

Guided by the institutional theory of savings, the purpose of this study is to assess the institutional elements of rotating, savings and credit associations (ROSCAs) that…

Abstract

Purpose

Guided by the institutional theory of savings, the purpose of this study is to assess the institutional elements of rotating, savings and credit associations (ROSCAs) that enable participants to save.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used data from in-depth qualitative interviews (N = 10) conducted among the ROSCA group leaders from African immigrant communities in the USA.

Findings

The primary goal for joining the ROSCA group among participants is to achieve economic stability. The results of the study postulate that, through institutional mechanisms and social networks, ROSCAs create an environment for families to save and invest. The emphasis on the concept of “you cannot save alone” underscores the importance of supportive structures to enable low-income households to save. Although “alternative savings programs” such as ROSCAs are imagined as something that less well-to-do persons use, the findings from this study demonstrate that such strategies also appeal to some people with higher socioeconomic status. This appeal and utility speaks to the importance of ROSCAs as an institutional response, rather than just an informal arrangement among persons known to each other.

Research limitations/implications

It is prudent to bear in mind that the study sample is not nationally representative, and therefore, the results presented cannot be generalized to immigrants across the country. However, as one of the few ROSCA studies in the USA, the findings from this study make generous contributions to the immigrants’ savings and ROSCA practices literature.

Practical implications

ROSCAs could be used as a bridge to the formal financial institutions. Non-profit agencies working with these communities could work with these groups to report ROSCA payments to the major credit bureaus, to help them build a credit line in their new country.

Originality/value

Previous studies of ROSCAs have assessed ROSCAs as community support systems and social networks. The current study has analyzed ROSCAs from an institutional perspective by examining the institutional characteristics of ROSCAs comparable to the institutional determinants of savings that enable savings among the participants.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2021

Marcelo Ribeiro, Rosana Frajzinger, Luciane Ogata Perrenoud and Benedikt Fischer

Brazil’s street-based drug use is mostly characterized by non-injection psychostimulant (e.g. crack-cocaine) drug use in Brazil, with limited interventions and service…

Abstract

Purpose

Brazil’s street-based drug use is mostly characterized by non-injection psychostimulant (e.g. crack-cocaine) drug use in Brazil, with limited interventions and service availability. Recently, an influx of multi-ethnic migrants within an urban drug scene in Sao Paulo was associated with heroin use, a drug normatively absent from Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and compare heroin use-related characteristics and outcomes for an attending sub-sample of clients from a large community-based treatment centre (“CRATOD”) serving Sao Paulo’s local urban drug scene.

Design/methodology/approach

All non-Brazilian patients (n = 109) receiving services at CRATOD for 2013–2016 were identified from patient files, divided into heroin users (n = 40) and non-heroin users (n = 69). Based on chart reviews, select socio-demographic, drug use and health status (including blood-borne-virus and other infections per rapid test methods) were examined and bi-variately compared. Multi-variate analyses examined factors independently associated with heroin use.

Findings

Most participants were male and middle-aged, poly-drug users and socio-economically marginalized. While heroin users primarily originated from Africa, they reported significantly more criminal histories, drug (e.g. injection) and sex-risk behaviors and elevated rates of BBV (e.g. Hepatitis C Virus and HIV). A minority of heroin users attending the clinic was provided methadone treatment, mostly for detoxification.

Originality/value

This study documented information on a distinct sample of mostly migration-based heroin users in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Based on the local experience, global migration dynamics can bring changes to established drug use cultures and services, including new challenges for drug use-related related behaviors and therapeutic interventions that require effective understanding and addressing.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Josephine Pui-Hing Wong, Alan Tai-Wai Li, Maurice Kwong-Lai Poon and Kenneth Po-Lun Fung

Canadian HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers and policy-makers are faced with new challenges of providing effective and inclusive care that meets the needs of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Canadian HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers and policy-makers are faced with new challenges of providing effective and inclusive care that meets the needs of the changing populations infected with and affected by HIV. Since 2005 immigrants and refugees from ethno-racial minority communities have comprised close to 20 percent of all new HIV infections in Canada. Anecdotes shared by PLWHAs and service providers indicated that mental health challenges faced by newcomer PLWHAs was a priority concern for HIV prevention, treatment and care. This paper reports on the results of an exploratory study, which examined the complex factors that influence the mental health of immigrants and refugees living with HIV/AIDS (IR-PLWHAs).

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study is informed by a critical social science paradigm, which acknowledges that the everyday reality is shaped by interlocking systems of social processes and unequal power relations. The paper used a qualitative interpretative design and focus groups to explore the intersecting effects of living with HIV/AIDS, migration and settlement, and HIV stigma and discrimination on the mental health of IR-PLWHAs.

Findings

The paper found that in addition to social and economic marginalization, IR-PLWHAs experienced multiple stressors associated with their HIV status: neurocognitive and physical impairments, HIV stigma and discrimination, and fear of deportation. The paper also found that the experiences of stigma and discrimination among IR-PLWHAs were complex and contextual, closely linked to their social positions defined by the intersecting dimensions of race, class, gender, citizenship, sexualities, body norms, and HIV status. The paper concludes that effective HIV prevention, treatment and care, and mental health promotion in newcomer and ethno-racial minority communities must consider the bio-psycho-social connections of different stressors and the interlocking systems of oppression faced by IR-PLWHAs.

Research limitations/implications

This study was exploratory in nature with a small number of participants who were recruited through AIDS organizations in Toronto. Consequently, the recruitment strategy may reach only those who were connected to the AIDS organizations. The paper believes that IR-PLWHAs who were not connected to the AIDS organizations might experience even more social exclusion and marginalization. These factors may limit the transferability of this study.

Originality/value

This is the first study that explores the bio-psycho-social connections and intersecting determinants of mental health among immigrants and refugees living with HIV and AIDS in Canada. The results of this study contribute to cross-sector dialogue among practitioners and researchers in the HIV/AIDS, mental health, and immigration and settlement services sectors.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2019

Duncan Waite and Jason R. Swisher

We are in the midst of a refugee crisis, and the ways in which we approach the issue of unprecedented numbers of people crossing borders will shape our world for…

Abstract

We are in the midst of a refugee crisis, and the ways in which we approach the issue of unprecedented numbers of people crossing borders will shape our world for generations to come. In this chapter, we problematize immunology, capitalism and other lenses through which we construct, label and categorize others and how such constructions and categorizations manifest in educational spheres for migrants, immigrants, refugees and host country nationals. As with access to education, the resources one has also determine one’s ability to migrate and the conditions of one’s resettlement. Therefore, we discuss the ways in which globalization provides greater mobility for those with substantial wealth and how conditions with/in post-modernism serve to create borders between people, their wealth and the social contexts in which they and their wealth reside. We create boxes as labels into which we slot people all too easily. While we critique the discourses and systems that create the socio-political milieu of education for immigrants, migrants and refugees in the US, we also highlight issues abroad, including how language is weaponized in the framing of immigration and those who emigrate.

Details

Education, Immigration and Migration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-044-4

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Bernadette Ludwig and Holly Reed

– The purpose of this paper is to examine health issues among Liberian refugees living in Staten Island and access potential barriers to accessing healthcare.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine health issues among Liberian refugees living in Staten Island and access potential barriers to accessing healthcare.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative methods including interviews (n=68) with West African immigrants, predominantly Liberian refugees, and long-term ethnography were employed to elicit West Africans’ views on health, acculturation, and access to service providers. Framework analysis was employed to analyze the data thematically.

Findings

Chronic health diseases, depression, isolation, and inadequate access to healthcare were the main concerns of the population studied. The findings are in contrast to the public health experts’ concentration on infectious diseases.

Practical implications

The barriers to access proper healthcare have implications for healthcare providers and government institutions and information about these barriers can help them to refocus their health efforts to better address the needs of West African refugees.

Originality/value

Africans are among the newest immigrants in the USA and are considerably understudied compared to other groups such as Latin Americans and Asians. Additionally, there is an abundance research about refugees’ health status when they first arrive in the USA, but there is little data on their health after their resettlement.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2004

Mojúbàolú Olúfúnké Okome

Philanthropy takes many forms among African immigrant communities. It exists in the form of mutual aid for friends, extended family, lineage, and fictive kin. This last…

Abstract

Philanthropy takes many forms among African immigrant communities. It exists in the form of mutual aid for friends, extended family, lineage, and fictive kin. This last category includes, but is not limited to, those from an individual’s ethnic group, or even from their country of origin. Philanthropy is also to be found in the form of kindness and generosity toward strangers. Above all, elements of philanthropy are to be found in the corporatization of community-based efforts to develop the human and material resources among many African ethnic groups. Many studies of the process of urbanization in Africa indicate the ubiquity of formation of hometown organizations that perform social functions including philanthropy among newly urbanized Africans. These organizations assist urbanized home folk from the villages and the towns of origin from which these urbanized groups originally emerged in various respects. The assistance offered include giving material and moral support in times of significant social celebration and mourning, for education as well as for home construction, construction of infrastructure for the home community, and for various other community-based development efforts. The efforts of African immigrants in the United States and elsewhere closely follow the patterns described above. The patterns are so ubiquitous as to warrant a claim of their emergence from a philosophical orientation toward philanthropy in African society.

Details

Race and Ethnicity in New York City
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-149-1

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Risimati Maurice Khosa and Vivence Kalitanyi

This paper aims to investigate migration reasons, traits and entrepreneurial motivation of African immigrant entrepreneurs in Cape Town, South Africa, as there is limited…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate migration reasons, traits and entrepreneurial motivation of African immigrant entrepreneurs in Cape Town, South Africa, as there is limited research on immigrant entrepreneurship in South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical research was conducted under mixed methods paradigm where primary data were gathered from a sample of 93 participants using the convenience sampling technique. Data were gathered through a survey of 72 semi-structured personal interviews and 21 self-administered questionnaires and analysed using SPSS version 21.

Findings

The empirical research unveiled that immigrant entrepreneurs migrate into South Africa for different reasons: political instability and economic reasons were the chief reasons for migration. Immigrants engage into necessity entrepreneurship as a need to survive in the host country and to confront discrimination in the job market. Therefore, immigrant entrepreneurs in Cape Town are pushed, rather than pulled, towards entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

This paper also suggests further research that will evaluate education levels of immigrant entrepreneurs in South Africa, as there is a controversy about the education levels of immigrant entrepreneurs.

Social implications

South Africans need to understand that African foreign entrepreneurs are job creators rather than job takers and to be aware of the skills brought into the country by these entrepreneurs. Accordingly, the current study contributes to peaceful cohabitation between South Africans and African foreign entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This paper provides an empirical analysis of migration reasons, traits and entrepreneurial motivation of African immigrant entrepreneurs in South Africa and also provides an entrepreneurial migration progression.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Magdalena Szaflarski and Shawn Bauldry

Discrimination has been identified as a major stressor and influence on immigrant health. This study examined the role of perceived discrimination in relation to other…

Abstract

Discrimination has been identified as a major stressor and influence on immigrant health. This study examined the role of perceived discrimination in relation to other factors, in particular, acculturation, in physical and mental health of immigrants and refugees. Data for US adults (18 +  years) were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Mental and physical health was assessed with SF-12. Acculturation and perceived discrimination were assessed with multidimensional measures. Structural equation models were used to estimate the effects of acculturation, stressful life effects, perceived discrimination, and social support on health among immigrants and refugees. Among first-generation immigrants, discrimination in health care had a negative association with physical health while discrimination in general had a negative association with mental health. Social support had positive associations with physical and mental health and mediated the association of discrimination to health. There were no significant associations between discrimination and health among refugees, but the direction and magnitude of associations were similar to those for first-generation immigrants. Efforts aiming at reducing discrimination and enhancing integration/social support for immigrants are likely to help with maintaining and protecting immigrants’ health and well-being. Further research using larger samples of refugees and testing moderating effects of key social/psychosocial variables on immigrant health outcomes is warranted. This study used multidimensional measures of health, perceived discrimination, and acculturation to examine the pathways between key social/psychosocial factors in health of immigrants and refugees at the national level. This study included possibly the largest national sample of refugees.

Details

Immigration and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-062-4

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Tim Urdan, Neha Sharma and Marli Dunn

A strong anti-immigrant and anti-refugee sentiment permeates the political discourse in the United States and many Western European countries. This political discourse…

Abstract

A strong anti-immigrant and anti-refugee sentiment permeates the political discourse in the United States and many Western European countries. This political discourse, along with policies designed to limit immigration, is likely to influence the academic motivation of students from immigrant groups. In this chapter, we consider how anti-immigrant sentiment in the host countries may affect the motivation and achievement of immigrant and refugee students. Specifically, we apply findings from research examining stress and anxiety, belonging, identity, teacher expectancies, and stereotype threat to speculate about how these motivational factors may be affected by anti-immigrant rhetoric. Next, we use Maehr’s (1984) theory of personal investment (PI) as a framework for integrating the various components of motivation that can be applied to the current plight of immigrant and refugee students. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion about the steps we can take, both at the personal and the policy levels, to counteract the hostile political discourse and promote higher levels of PI in education among immigrant and refugee students.

Details

Motivation in Education at a Time of Global Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-613-4

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Hamed Ahmadinia, Kristina Eriksson-Backa and Shahrokh Nikou

Immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees living in Europe face a number of challenges in accessing or using health information and healthcare services available in their…

Abstract

Purpose

Immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees living in Europe face a number of challenges in accessing or using health information and healthcare services available in their host countries. To resolve these issues and deliver the necessary services, providers must take a comprehensive approach to better understand the types of health information and healthcare services that these individuals need, seek and use. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop that comprehensive approach.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed publications was performed, with 3.013 articles collected from various databases. A total of 57 qualifying papers on studies conducted in Europe were included in the review after applying the predefined inclusion and exclusion requirements, screening processes and eliminating duplicates. The information seeking and communication model (ISCM) was used in the analysis.

Findings

The findings revealed that while many health information and healthcare services are accessible in Europe for immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees, many of these individuals are unaware of their existence or how to access them. While our findings do not specify what health-related information these groups need, use or seek, they do suggest the importance and value of providing mental health, sexual health and HIV, as well as pregnancy and childbirth information and services. Furthermore, according to our results, health information services should be fact-based, easy to understand and raise awareness about healthcare structure and services available in Europe for this vulnerable population.

Practical implications

This study has a range of practical implications, including (1) highlighting the need for mental health and behavioural health services and (2) stressing the value of addressing cultural context and religious values while investigating (health) information seeking of people with foreign background.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to systematically review and examine the behaviour of immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees in relation to health information and healthcare services in the European context.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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