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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2008

Gemma Burges and Sarah Monk

This paper presents the findings of recent research exploring how local authorities are delivering affordable housing through the planning system, focusing on their use of…

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1109

Abstract

This paper presents the findings of recent research exploring how local authorities are delivering affordable housing through the planning system, focusing on their use of Section 106 (S106) of the Town and Country Planning Act (1990). Policy and practice vary between local authorities. While the amount of affordable housing delivered through S106 has increased, there is pressure on local authorities to improve performance further as affordability has worsened across the country. This paper highlights the issues that local authorities face, and makes some recommendations for good practice.

Details

Housing, Care and Support, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-8790

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Robert Mark Silverman

The purpose of this paper is to examine how executive directors of nonprofit organizations perceive local government performance in affordable housing. It builds on a…

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767

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how executive directors of nonprofit organizations perceive local government performance in affordable housing. It builds on a larger body of research concerning the affordable housing activities of government and community‐based nonprofit housing organizations at the local level.

Design/methodology/approach

This analysis is based on a national survey of neighborhood housing services (NHS) organizations funded by Neighborworks® America. The survey included questions about local government performance in affordable housing and perceptions of factors influencing local government funding decisions. Survey data were supplemented with information gathered from the Neighborworks® America website.

Findings

The findings of this paper indicate that NHS organizations are not completely satisfied with local government performance. Local government performance in affordable housing received lower grades than other levels of government, as well as intermediary organizations and private financial institutions. This dissatisfaction is expressed through nonprofit fields in which these organizations are embedded. These fields have witnessed declining governmental support for affordable housing and expanding influence from philanthropic organizations and the private sector.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the need for government to assume a broader and more activist role in affordable housing policy. In essence, government needs to assume a more activist stance and forge stronger partnerships with nonprofits in response to the growing influence of intermediary organizations and the private sector in nonprofit fields. This would temper some of the excesses brought on by the devolution and nonprofitization of affordable housing policy and neoliberal influences on public policy more generally.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2020

Pavan Namdeo Ghumare, Krupesh A. Chauhan and Sanjay Kumar M. Yadav

The purpose of this paper is to provide affordable housing to low- and middle-income groups. The gravity of India’s housing affordability problem has led us to study and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide affordable housing to low- and middle-income groups. The gravity of India’s housing affordability problem has led us to study and analyse the attributes hindering affordable housing for economically weaker section (EWS) and low-income group (LIG). The attributes such as viable parameters, economic parameters, location and communication, regulatory, source of finance, construction, services and infrastructure parameters affect the supply and demand of affordable housing in Indian urban areas for EWS and LIG with an annual household income below 2 lakhs.

Design/methodology/approach

The judgement sampling is used amongst housing and planning professionals working in five different sectors, including local authorities, housing developers, housing sectors, town planning and property/affordable housing consultant. The Analytical hierarchy process method of multi-criteria decision-making was used to analyse the data collected.

Findings

A detailed analysis of the data collected reveals that a viable parameter is the most governing attribute in the supply and demand process of developing affordable housing. Major reforms can be implemented at various levels of housing development in the urban area that can help in reducing the affordability gap for EWS/LIG. The suggested approach will be helpful for developers, urban planners and decision makers while designing an affordable housing project.

Originality/value

The model being proposed in this paper seeks for a proficient allotment of policies and assets, to some extent, by remedying the current market distortions and different inconsistencies that negatively influence the incentive structure of the affordable housing section in India. This paper offers a plan for a housing procedure that is applicable to all measurements of housing poverty and the groups that sustain it. In this way, the current study is, to a greater extent, a facilitator, and not an immediate solution of affordable housing.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2020

Mario A. Fernandez and Shane L. Martin

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how the staged implementation of inclusionary zoning (IZ) performs relative to conventional IZ programmes in terms of increasing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how the staged implementation of inclusionary zoning (IZ) performs relative to conventional IZ programmes in terms of increasing the number of low- and moderate-income households become homeowners.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies a matching model implemented through a mixed-integer programme model taking Auckland (New Zealand) housing market as a case study. The IZ is simulated by two features: a target price (below which affordable houses are defined) and the income threshold (below which any household gains access to the programme). The staging of IZ consists of first directing affordable houses to low-income households, where those houses that are not sold are cascaded to subsequent population groups with higher incomes.

Findings

The staged implementation of IZ does not necessarily imply that the number of sales will increase both for affordable and market-rate houses. However, a hybrid approach defined by two target prices results in a greater number of sales relative to a conventional IZ and a baseline affordable market while achieving market efficiency and equity.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited to the marginal impact of new affordable houses entering the market. It does not address further market rounds for houses left empty for tractability purposes. Also, the analysis is circumscribed to current renters and not owners, if owners were included they would outbid renters and distort the intended impact of IZ as an affordable housing policy.

Originality/value

The paper has relevance for policymakers because it provides evidence about the dimensions of IZ to have a lasting effect on housing affordability. The model is applied to a single housing market but is suitable to be generalized and adapted to a different urban environment.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2018

Jeffrey Boon Hui Yap and Xin Hua Ng

The purpose of this paper is to explore the affordability of Malaysian housing market, sufficiency of affordable housing and factors influencing the housing affordability…

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6979

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the affordability of Malaysian housing market, sufficiency of affordable housing and factors influencing the housing affordability in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, qualitative research approach was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten industry practitioners from developers and real estate agencies and further validation with three industry experts.

Findings

The findings reveal that housing affordability is a grave concern to average Malaysians, and the supply of affordable housing is insufficient in the current residential property market. Income, property price, land cost and demand and supply are identified as significant factors affecting housing affordability.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings provide an insight rather than definitive information, as the small sample size could limit the generalizability of the findings. Future research can include participants from the public sector and focus on the policy options.

Practical implications

This paper provided numerous policies to ensure successful deliverability of affordable housing which eases government to partner with private sector to formulate a systematic framework for implementation of affordable housing programs and schemes.

Social implications

There is a need for government to pay more attention to housing needs of middle-income groups. Also, the government is urged to ensure transparent balloting process in every implementation of affordable housing programs.

Originality/value

The paper emphasised the issues of undersupply of affordable housing and mismatch of property price and income. The paper also highlights the key reasons behind high housing affordability index. Hence, it is hoped that this paper will encourage positive debate and gain some attention from the policymakers, practitioners and researchers in Malaysia and beyond.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Peter Wyatt

The theoretical case for land value capture is well-known, but the effectiveness of affordable housing delivery as a capture mechanism is not so well-documented. Building…

Abstract

Purpose

The theoretical case for land value capture is well-known, but the effectiveness of affordable housing delivery as a capture mechanism is not so well-documented. Building on the earlier theoretical and empirical work of Whitehead (1991, 2007) and Crook and Whitehead (2002), the purpose of this paper is to consider the provision of affordable housing from a land value capture viewpoint, focusing on the process by which the amount of affordable housing is determined between landowners/developers on the one hand and local planning authorities on the other.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a mixed-mode approach for the data collection. Two surveys of local planning authorities were undertaken, together with a series of case study interviews.

Findings

The paper evaluates whether land value capture has been an effective mechanism for delivering affordable housing by focusing on three principal areas: first, the political agenda in relation to land value capture and the supply of affordable housing; second, the nature and motivation of the stakeholders involved in affordable housing decision-making; and third, the use of economic models as decision tools for determining the amount and type of affordable housing are negotiated.

Originality/value

The research provides some insight into the effectiveness of local authority affordable housing targets as a means of capturing the uplift in land value that results from the grant of planning permission.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Yi Niu

The paper's aim is to estimate the benefits and costs of China's affordable housing program, as well as to provide recommendations to this housing policy.

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1884

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to estimate the benefits and costs of China's affordable housing program, as well as to provide recommendations to this housing policy.

Design/methodology/approach

The Cobb‐Douglas utility function is employed to estimate the net benefits of the affordable housing policy. Both of the sunk costs and current costs are computed, and an improved housing affordability index is used to measure the levels of housing affordability in cities in China.

Findings

The total net benefits of this policy are estimated to range from $234,176.7 million to ¥271,020.4 million. The costs are divided into sunk costs and current costs, computed to be ¥447,598.63 million and ¥328,685.21 million, respectively. The supply size of affordable dwellings is far from adequate due to the low level of housing affordability in China.

Research limitations/implications

The data in this study is insufficient and some information such as the income of occupiers has yet to be estimated. However, if more individual data was available, the conclusion would be confidential.

Practical implications

From this paper the policymakers may understand how to estimate the welfare efficiency of affordable housing policy, adjust the participant regulations and determine the supply of affordable houses.

Originality/value

This paper estimates the benefits and costs of China's affordable housing program as the first study in this area. The Cobb‐Douglas utility function was used in the analysis of China's housing policy.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2011

Jallaludeen Muazu and Derya Oktay

This paper aims to determine the challenges and prospects for affordable housing within the context of sustainability by investigating the socio-economic and environmental…

Abstract

This paper aims to determine the challenges and prospects for affordable housing within the context of sustainability by investigating the socio-economic and environmental impacts of housing developments based on the analysis of four so-called affordable housing schemes in Yola, Nigeria. Using questionnaire survey and indicators developed from literature reviews on affordable and sustainable housing, the findings suggest that due to inadequate availability of housing inputs (land, finance, infrastructure, labor and materials), lack of diversity, improper location, inefficient transport facilities and lack of user participation, the examined developments are neither sustainable nor affordable. The research hence contributes some empirical evidence to overcome the defined shortcomings and provides a basis for governments' housing commitments towards reforming and devising policies for community involvement in housing provision, providing easy access to land with legal title deeds, easy access to housing finance, infrastructure, etc.

Details

Open House International, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2019

Abdul Lateef Olanrewaju and Arazi Idrus

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the affordable housing shortage in the Greater Kuala Lumpur from the suppliers’ perspectives.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the affordable housing shortage in the Greater Kuala Lumpur from the suppliers’ perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were collected through a cross-sectional survey questionnaire comprising 21 determinants and 111 experts in the housing industry.

Findings

The affordable housing shortages are consequences of regulations and policies on land allocations, building materials and the affordable housing market. The government should provide more lands to the developers or the government should directly build affordable housing on their lands. To lower the cost of construction, the government should reduce the importation tax and procedures, and the housing industry should find alternative building materials.

Originality/value

Theoretically, the research provided fresh insights into the causes of housing shortages and reasons for the increase in housing prices. The results will be useful to policymakers towards affordable housing delivery and to the developers and contractors on measures to increase profit margins and increase housing supply.

Details

Property Management, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Anthanasius Fomum Tita and Pieter Opperman

Homeownership provides shelter and is a vital component of wealth, and house purchase signifies a lifetime achievement for many households. For South Africa confronted…

Abstract

Purpose

Homeownership provides shelter and is a vital component of wealth, and house purchase signifies a lifetime achievement for many households. For South Africa confronted with social and structural challenges, homeownership by the low and lower middle-income household is pivotal for its structural transformation process. In spite of these potential benefits, research on the affordable housing market in the context of South Africa is limited. This study aims to contribute to this knowledge gap by answering the question “do changes in household income per capita have a symmetric or asymmetric effect on affordable house prices?”

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of the international literature on house prices and income revealed that linear modelling that assumes symmetric reaction of macroeconomic variables dominates the empirical strategy. This linearity assumption is restrictive and fails to capture possible asymmetric dynamics inherent in the housing market. The authors address this empirical limitation by using asymmetric non-linear autoregressive distributed lag models that can test and detect the existence of asymmetry in both the long and short run using data from 1985Q1 to 2016Q3.

Findings

The results revealed the presence of an asymmetric long-run relationship between affordable house prices and household income per capita. The estimated asymmetric long-run coefficients of logIncome[+] and logIncome[−] are 1.080 and −4.354, respectively, implying that a 1% increase/decrease in household income per capita induces a 1.08% rise/4.35% decline in affordable house prices everything being equal. The positive increase in affordable house prices creates wealth, helps low and middle-income household climb the property ladder and can reduce inequality, which provides support for the country’s structural transformation process. Conversely, a decline in affordable house prices tends to reduce wealth and widen inequality.

Practical implications

This paper recommends both supply- and demand-side policies to support affordable housing development. Supply-side stimulants should include incentives to attract developers to affordable markets such as municipal serviced land and tax credit. Demand-side policy should focus on asset-based welfare policy; for example, the current Finance Linked Income Subsidy Programme (FLISP). Efficient management and coordination of the FLISP are essential to enhance the affordability of first-time buyers. Given the enormous size of the affordable property market, the practice of mortgage securitization by financial institutions should be monitored, as a persistent decline in income can trigger a systemic risk to the economy.

Social implications

The study results illustrate the importance of homeownership by low- and middle-income households and that the development of the affordable market segment can boost wealth creation and reduce residential segregation. This, in turn, provides support to the country’s structural transformation process.

Originality/value

The affordable housing market in South Africa is of strategic importance to the economy, accounting for 71.4% of all residential properties. Homeownership by low and lower middle-income households creates wealth, reduces wealth inequality and improves revenue collection for local governments. This paper contributes to the empirical literature by modelling the asymmetric behaviour of affordable house prices to changes in household income per capita and other macroeconomic fundamentals. Based on available evidence, this is the first attempt to examine the dynamic asymmetry between affordable house prices and household income per capita in South Africa.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

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