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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Ali Acaray and Seda Yildirim

Today’s organizations try to keep their employees loyalty but employees may still feel unsatisfied and adopt negative attitudes. Cynicism, as a negative attitude of…

Abstract

Purpose

Today’s organizations try to keep their employees loyalty but employees may still feel unsatisfied and adopt negative attitudes. Cynicism, as a negative attitude of employees toward their organization, leads to unwanted outputs such as lower performance or lower loyalties that can appear in every kind of sector. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of personality traits on organizational cynicism in the education sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the survey method to collect data and survey forms were distributed to teachers from various private schools in Istanbul, Turkey. With the e-mail survey method, the authors received 254 healthy survey forms from teachers. For personality traits, the five-factor model of personality traits that was developed by McCrae and Costa (1987) was preferred and the organizational cynicism model was evaluated with three basic dimensions as based on Brandes’s (1997) model.

Findings

Based on data from 254 teachers of various private schools in Istanbul, interrelationships amongst personality traits and organizational cynicism were tested. On the basis of the partial least-squares method, the authors found that agreeableness had a negative effect on cognitive cynicism and affective cynicism, conscientiousness had a negative effect on cognitive cynicism and affective cynicism, neuroticism had a negative effect on cognitive cynicism and behavior cynicism, and openness to experience had a positive effect on cognitive cynicism and affective cynicism. Thus, it can be said that personality traits of teachers had a significant effect on organizational cynicism as a result of this study.

Research limitations/implications

This study used two main scales: the scale of McCrae and Costa (1987) for personality traits and the scale of Brandes (1997) for organizational cynicism. The authors adapted both the scales for Turkish culture and the education sector that the results can be considered valid for only this study.

Originality/value

This study shows a significant effect of personality traits on cynicism in the education sector and thus can be considered to be useful for future studies.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Mohamed Mousa

This paper aims to discover the effect of cultural diversity challenges (organizational communication, work- related discrimination and training) on physicians’ cognitive…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discover the effect of cultural diversity challenges (organizational communication, work- related discrimination and training) on physicians’ cognitive, affective and behavioral cynicism in the context of public hospitals, Menoufia (Egypt).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 360 physicians at public hospitals in Menoufia (Egypt) were contacted and all of them received a set of questionnaires. After five follow ups, a total of 240 responses were collected with a response rate of 66.67 per cent.

Findings

The findings suggest that only communication is considered the main and significant predictor for cognitive, affective and behavioral cynicism. Accordingly, when physicians perceive well-coordinated and balanced communication, they feel that their hospital has an adequate level of integrity and consequently will have a positive attitude toward it.

Practical implications

Through well-formulated organizational communication, the hospital administration can decrease the organizational cynicism among physicians and subsequently their unwanted behavior. It is needless to say that when physicians experience an open-door communication climate, they experience a sense of psychological safety and give their very best.

Originality/value

This paper contributes by filling a gap in management and organization literature, in which empirical studies on cultural diversity and organizational cynicism were limited until now.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Muhammad Arslan

Organizational cynicism is a growing trend in contemporary organizations. However, its impact on employee performance remains understudied. The purpose of this study is to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Organizational cynicism is a growing trend in contemporary organizations. However, its impact on employee performance remains understudied. The purpose of this study is to address this gap by investigating the effect of three dimensions of organizational cynicism (cognitive, affective and behavioral cynicisms) on employee performance. The study also investigates the moderating effect of employee engagement on the relationship between three types of organizational cynicism and employee performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data are collected through questionnaire from employees (N = 200) of various health organizations in Pakistan by using a convenient sampling technique. Hierarchal multiple regression models are used by using SPSS.

Findings

The findings reveal that all three types of organizational cynicism (i.e. cognitive cynicism, affective cynicism and behavioral cynicism) have a significant negative relationship with employee performance, while employee engagement moderates this relationship. Moreover, the findings indicate that the majority of respondents are not happy with their organizations. They have the feeling that their organizations are not fulfilling their promises, in fact, are betraying them in different ways. This breach of contract becomes the reason for organizational cynicism among employees and negatively affects their performance at work.

Research limitations/implications

The study has a large population size and it is quite difficult to address the whole population and collect data from a large sample because of time and limited budget.

Practical/implications

The organizational culture can mitigate the negative effect of organizational cynicism and enhance performance by promoting employee engagement. The study helps psychologists to understand employees’ attitudes and improve personnel selection to ensure they recruit the right people. Openness, honesty and early communication can increase predictability and controllability of future events.

Social implications

The job insecurity and lack of adequate compensation are assertive factors towards low productivity and negative attitude toward organization.

Originality/value

According to the researchers’ best knowledge, only few studies tried to investigate the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee performance by using the moderating effect of employee engagement. Therefore, it will be a good contribution in existing literature to understand consequences of cynicisms.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2019

Özgür Kökalan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating roles of organizational spiritual values in the relationship between organizational cycinism and job satisfaction.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating roles of organizational spiritual values in the relationship between organizational cycinism and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was selected by using a convenience sampling method. The sample included in 472 employees from different sectors such as higher education, banking, energy and manufacturing industry. Participants filled in organizational cycinism scale, job satisfaction scale and organizational spirituality scale. Comfirmatory factor analysis and structural equation method were used to detect the direction and level of the relationships between parameters.

Findings

According to the mediating analysis findings, organizational spirituality is the partial reason for the association between behavioral cycinism and job satisfaction. Organizational spirituality is also the full reason for the association between affective cycinism and job satisfaction and the relationship between cognitive cycinism and job satisfaction. This means that organizational spirituality decreases the negative effects of organizational cycinism on job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

This research is not free from limitations just like others. First, the sampling was limited with only four sectors. In future studies, it can be favorable to take data from all other sectors. The second limitation was that organizational spirituality was the only factor that was used to determine the relationships among the three dimensions of organizational cynicism and job satisfaction. The last limitation was regarding the sample size. Although, sample size that was used in this research was enough to conduct all statistical analyses, extended sample size could be used in future studies.

Practical implications

The results of this research may benefit various stakeholders. While determining organizational spirituality elements in an organization, all the stakeholders’ voices should be included, and their values should be taken into consideration. In addition to this, all institutional employees should be trained about spirituality that exists in the organization, so that all employees will develop a strong bond with other employees and the organization. Moreover, organizational spirituality is closely related to organizational justice. If manager wants organizational spirituality to take root in the institution and eliminate the negativities, it is absolutely necessary to apply organizational justice in each and every matter within the organization.

Originality/value

There have been no studies exploring the mediating effects of organizational spirituality on the organizational cynicism and job satisfaction relationship. Therefore, this paper could be accepted as original.

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Usman Aslam, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Kashif Imran and Ubaid- Ur- Rahman

The purpose of this research is to investigate the detrimental effects of cynicism on organizational change. It presents an interactive and novel theoretical research…

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2535

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate the detrimental effects of cynicism on organizational change. It presents an interactive and novel theoretical research model based on organizational cynicism. The study aims to determine the causes of cynicism and suggests remedies for it so that change may be implemented with the consensus of all stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an associational study that aims to test the hypotheses of linear relationships among the variables used in the proposed model. Data have been collected from 417 employees, working for three public sector organizations, by using self-administrated questionnaires. The model proposed in this research has been tested by using regression analysis in Amos 22. The interactive effects have been examined by using Aguinis’s (2004) multiple moderated regression.

Findings

The results reveal that dispositional resistance increases the intention of an employee to exhibit withdrawal behavior and that organizational contextual factors have statistically significant relationships with employees’ withdrawal behavior and their job satisfaction. Moreover, the results of interactive effects are partially significant.

Practical implications

The Government of Pakistan, the managements of public sector organizations and workplace unions can resolve the issues of cynicism and job insecurity by involving employees in decision making and by building trust in change leaders. Employees’ participation and their trust in change leaders can decrease their intentions to exhibit withdrawal behavior and lessen the occurrences of organizational cynicism. In addition, trust in change leaders can raise job satisfaction, while job insecurity can decrease the job satisfaction levels of employees.

Originality/value

This research presents and examines a unique multiple interactive model of organizational cynicism. Until recently, a scant number of studies particular to Asian culture, have investigated the detrimental and interactive effects of cynicism on organizational change.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part
Publication date: 27 March 2006

Pamela Brandes and Diya Das

In this article, we situate organizational cynicism at the nexus of the related constructs of burnout, stress, and antisocial behavior. We expand Dean, Brandes, and…

Abstract

In this article, we situate organizational cynicism at the nexus of the related constructs of burnout, stress, and antisocial behavior. We expand Dean, Brandes, and Dharwadkar's (1998) notion of behavioral cynicism to include cynical humor and cynical criticism. We also propose that cynical behavior has important, non-linear effects on employee work performance. Finally, we suggest that cynical behavior may act as a coping mechanism for employees and that such behavior moderates the stress–performance relationship.

Details

Employee Health, Coping and Methodologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-289-4

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Mike Schraeder, Mark H. Jordan, Dennis R. Self and David J. Hoover

“Unlearning” is discussed as an additional perspective or supplemental strategy for managers/leaders to consider when addressing cynicism in organizations. The article is…

Abstract

Purpose

“Unlearning” is discussed as an additional perspective or supplemental strategy for managers/leaders to consider when addressing cynicism in organizations. The article is not intended to be definitive. The aim of this paper is to generate ideas and encourage further exploration amongst practitioners and scholars regarding the feasibility of this perspective. There are a number of plausible explanations for the origin of cynicism, including the notion that cynicism is learned. As anything that is learned can also be unlearned, “unlearning” seemed to be a compelling perspective worthy of further exploration.

Design/methodology/approach

A targeted literature review of cynicism (with a specific focus on some of the more salient and well-respected research) was utilized to develop a conceptual overview of cynicism, a discussion of key causes/antecedents of cynicism, and common symptoms of cynicism. Select literature was also reviewed relative to the concept of “unlearning”. These varied sources were then synthesized into a framework that outlined the premise of “unlearning” applied to cynicism in organizations.

Findings

This article focuses on the attitudinal dimension of cynicism, discussing “unlearning” as a possible method for addressing cynicism that can be used to supplement, but not necessarily replace, other methods that have proven effective.

Originality/value

Cynicism in organizations has received notable research attention. This article contributes to this important topic by exploring “unlearning” as a supplemental approach or perspective for addressing cynicism with the intent of generating ideas and encouraging further exploration of the feasibility of this approach.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2018

Daniela Geraldes, Ema Madeira, Vânia Sofia Carvalho and Maria José Chambel

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moderating role of affective commitment in the relationship between work-personal life conflict (WPLC) and burnout in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moderating role of affective commitment in the relationship between work-personal life conflict (WPLC) and burnout in the contact center environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained through the participation of a sample of Portuguese employees (n=2,055) of a large company in the contact center sector. Data were analyzed using the Process tool.

Findings

The results support the existence of a positive relationship between both dimensions of WPLC (i.e. time and strain) and burnout (i.e. exhaustion and cynicism). Moreover, the study confirms that the affective commitment moderates the relationship between both dimensions of WPLC and cynicism, buffering these relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional design and the reliance on self-report measures are the main limitations of this study, although no causality was claimed and method biases were controlled.

Practical implications

Contact center managers should develop human resources practices that aid employees to conciliate work and life. Furthermore, these work-life balance practices should be used together with high involvement human resources practices that promote employees’ affective commitment.

Originality/value

This study provides evidence for the need to reconceptualize the traditional work-family conflict, stressing the importance of considering the interference between domains of life, especially in sectors that tend to have young employees.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Alexandre J.S. Morin, Christian Vandenberghe, Marie‐Josée Turmel, Isabelle Madore and Christophe Maïano

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of curvilinear patterns of relationships between workplace affective commitment and in‐role performance…

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1042

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of curvilinear patterns of relationships between workplace affective commitment and in‐role performance, organizational citizenship behaviors and burnout. As most commitment theories assume strictly linear relations with these outcomes, demonstrating that these positive associations do not hold above some ceiling point in the commitment continuum is potentially important for research and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The possibility of nonlinear relations was examined in a sample of 273 hospital employees.

Findings

The results yielded strong support for the authors' hypotheses. Indeed, most of the relations observed (ten of 15) between affective commitment foci and work outcomes were curvilinear, revealing a ceiling to the positive association between commitment and outcomes. Although these results vary in strength across work outcomes and commitment targets, they reveal that affective commitment has negative associations with employee productivity and psychological health at extreme levels.

Originality/value

Methodologically, these results illustrate the need to systematically explore the true nature of relations among constructs, even in areas where it is assumed to be well known. Practically, these results suggest that, ultimately, moderate levels of commitment may be more beneficial than extremely high levels.

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Kristyn A. Scott and David Zweig

Organizational cynicism is on the increase. The purpose of this paper is to explore how dispositions promote cynical attitudes and how to mitigate the negative impact of…

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1344

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational cynicism is on the increase. The purpose of this paper is to explore how dispositions promote cynical attitudes and how to mitigate the negative impact of organizational cynicism for employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The data consisted of two samples (n=312 and n=529) of employed adults. All participants completed online surveys containing the variables of interest. The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

Low levels of core self-evaluation (CSE) predict organizational cynicism which, in turn, mediates the relations between CSE and job attitudes. Importantly, the authors find that supervisory support moderates both the relations between CSE and organizational cynicism and organizational cynicism and job satisfaction.

Originality/value

Little research has directly assessed the role of dispositions in the development of organizational cynicism. The authors suggest that CSE contributes to the development of cynical attitudes. Further, the authors demonstrate that a supportive supervisor can serve as a buffer to mitigate the expression and effects of organizational cynicism on workplace outcomes.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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