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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Lee Phillip McGinnis, Tao Gao, Sunkyu Jun and James Gentry

The understanding of the motives for consumers’ support of business underdogs is generally limited. The purpose of this paper is to help address this important research…

Abstract

Purpose

The understanding of the motives for consumers’ support of business underdogs is generally limited. The purpose of this paper is to help address this important research topic by conceptualizing underdog affection as a theoretical construct capturing the emotional attachment held by some consumers toward underdog business entities and advances two perspectives (self- and other-oriented) to unravel its motivational underpinnings.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the conceptual model, a survey study was conducted involving 365 respondents drawn from an electronic alumni association list from a medium-sized Midwestern university in the USA. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses were used to validate the scales, and the structural equations modeling method was used to test the hypothesized effects.

Findings

The data support most of the hypotheses (eight out of nine). Under the self-oriented perspective, commerce underdog affection is positively influenced by underdog orientation, need for uniqueness, nostalgia proneness, and hope, and is negatively impacted by their materialism level. Only hope did not impact consumer underdog affection. Under the other-oriented perspective, balance maintenance, top dog antipathy, and empathic concern positively influence underdog affection. The other-oriented factors, especially top dog antipathy and balance maintenance, show stronger effects on commerce underdog affection than self-oriented factors.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was geographically restrictive in the sense that it measured only one group of respondents in the USA. The conceptual model is limited in terms of its coverage of the consequences of underdog affection. While discriminant validity is established in the scale development phase of the study, relatively close relationships do exist among some of these theoretical constructs.

Practical implications

Given the significant evidence linking consumers’ underdog affection to underdog support in commerce, small locally owned businesses could use underdog positioning advertising to differentiate themselves against national retailers. Due to their tendency to display higher underdog affection in commerce, people with higher levels of balance maintenance, top dog antipathy, underdog orientation, emphatic concern, and nostalgia proneness, and lower levels of materialism can be segmented for marketing purposes.

Social implications

This research indicates that there are ways in which small business entities and non-profits alike can operate in a business setting that is increasingly more competitive and challenging for underdog entities.

Originality/value

This study integrates the various underdog studies across contexts to examine motives to underdog affection, a construct not yet operationalized in business studies. In addition, hypotheses linking eight specific antecedents to commerce underdog affection, via two theoretical perspectives, are empirically examined to assess relative as well as absolute effects.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Beomjoon Choi and Beom-Jin Choi

– This research aims to examine the consequences of customer justice perception and the role of customer affection in the context of service failure and recovery.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine the consequences of customer justice perception and the role of customer affection in the context of service failure and recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

The authors' findings indicate that procedural and interactional justice perceptions significantly influence customer affection, with distributive justice perception being significant only if the failure severity is high. The present research also provides evidence for the links between customer affection and loyalty, and customer affection and word-of-mouth respectively, indicating that strengthening the emotional tie between customers and companies is crucial after service failure and recovery.

Research limitations/implications

The present research makes a significant contribution by demonstrating the relationship between customer affection and other key constructs such as justice perception, customer loyalty, and word-of-mouth intention.

Practical implications

Customers' distributive justice perception has a significant impact on customer affection especially in a severe service failure situation. Therefore, managers may need to provide monetary compensation for service recovery in a timely manner along with apologies to enhance customer affection when customers experience a high-magnitude service failure. On the other hand, in the case of a low-magnitude service recovery, providing apologies and prompt response to service failures may be enough to win customers back.

Originality/value

The current findings highlight the importance of customer affection in service recovery. The effect of customers' distributive justice perception on customer affection, which is moderated by service failure severity, is also highlighted.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2020

Beomjoon Choi and Hyun Sik Kim

This study aims to investigate the impact of three types of online customer-to-customer interaction qualities on customers' participation intention through customer–firm…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of three types of online customer-to-customer interaction qualities on customers' participation intention through customer–firm affection in online mass service contexts to address the influence of several types of intercustomer interactions.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were amassed using retrospective experience sampling. The hypothesized relationships were examined utilizing structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results demonstrate that the perceived quality of the friend-interaction (e.g. [non-]verbal online interaction with friends), neighboring customer-interaction (e.g. [non-]verbal online interaction with stranger users) and the audience-interaction (crowding) has a significant impact upon customer participation intention, mediated by customer–firm affection.

Research limitations/implications

This research was performed in the situation of online mass services (e.g. massively multiplayer online role-playing games). Future studies could extend the findings by conducting further studies across various types of services and by comparing results across different categories of mass services (e.g. hedonic vs utilitarian).

Practical implications

Online mass service marketers should focus on facilitating all three types of online customer-to-customer interactions (i.e. friend-, neighboring customer-, and audience-interaction). For example, online game developers may need to require users to communicate and collaborate with not only friends but also stranger users to progress and succeed in online multiplayer games.

Originality/value

The current study differs from prior research by addressing the influences of not only online intercustomer interaction qualities but also customer–firm affection on customer participation intention.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2020

Yang Cheng and Yunjuan Luo

Informed by the third-person effects (TPE) theory, this study aims to analyze restrictive versus corrective actions in response to the perceived TPE of misinformation on…

Abstract

Purpose

Informed by the third-person effects (TPE) theory, this study aims to analyze restrictive versus corrective actions in response to the perceived TPE of misinformation on social media in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted an online survey among 1,793 adults in the USA in early April. All participants were randomly enrolled in this research through a professional survey company. The structural equation modeling via Amos 20 was adopted for hypothesis testing.

Findings

Results indicated that individuals also perceived that others were more influenced by misinformation about COVID-19 than they were. Further, such a perceptual gap was associated with public support for governmental restrictions and corrective action. Negative affections toward health misinformation directly affected public support for governmental restrictions rather than corrective action. Support for governmental restrictions could further facilitate corrective action.

Originality/value

This study examined the applicability of TPE theory in the context of digital health misinformation during a unique global crisis. It explored the significant role of negative affections in influencing restrictive and corrective actions. Practically, this study offered implications for information and communication educators and practitioners.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-08-2020-0386

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Seyed Shahin Sharifi

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of the trilogy of emotion – cognition, affection, and conation – on future purchase intentions in consumers of products…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of the trilogy of emotion – cognition, affection, and conation – on future purchase intentions in consumers of products of high involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The author employed two studies on two different products to test the influence of emotion on future purchase intentions in study one and to replicate the results of study one in study two, using structural equation modeling. In study two, brand awareness is regarded as a mediator.

Findings

The results indicate that cognition can influence future purchase intentions, and that affection meaningfully influences future purchase intentions. Additionally, the researcher found that the impact of affection on future purchase intention is stronger than that of cognition on future purchase intentions. Moreover, brand awareness meaningfully influenced cognition, affection, and conation directly, and future purchase intentions indirectly.

Practical implications

Encouraging conditions in which consumers have good thoughts and feelings about a prior purchase can bolster future purchase intentions, empowering the potent in future purchase for the brand involved.

Originality/value

This research validates the impact of emotion – more specifically cognition and affection – on future purchase intentions under mediating role of brand awareness, in a country with growing markets. Hence, it adds to the literature of post-purchase important findings.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Agnieszka Kurczewska, Paula Kyrö, Krista Lagus, Oskar Kohonen and Tiina Lindh-Knuutila

Although the role of reflections in entrepreneurship education is undeniable, the research has focused mainly on their advantages and consequences for learning process…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the role of reflections in entrepreneurship education is undeniable, the research has focused mainly on their advantages and consequences for learning process, whereas their dynamics and interrelations with other mental processes remain unexplored. The purpose of this paper is to better understand how personality and intelligence constructs: cognition, conation, and affection evolve and change along the learning process during entrepreneurship education.

Design/methodology/approach

To better understand reflective processes in entrepreneurial learning this paper adopts the tripartite constructs of personality and intelligence. By employing longitudinal explorative research approach and self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm, the authors follow students’ reflections during their two-year learning processes. First, the authors try to identify how the interplay between the cognitive, conative, and affective aspects emerges in students’ reflections. Then, the authors investigate how this interplay evolves during the individual learning process and finally, by looking for similarities in these learning pathways, the authors aim to identify patterns of students’ reflective learning process.

Findings

All constructs are present during the learning process and all are prone to change. The individual constructs alone shed no light on the interplay between different constructs, but rather that the interplay between sub-constructs should be taken into consideration as well. This seems to be particularly true for cognition, as procedural and declarative knowledge have very different profiles. Procedural knowledge emerges together with emotions, motivation, and volition, whereas the profile of declarative knowledge is individual. The unique profile of declarative knowledge in students’ reflections is an important finding as declarative knowledge is regarded as the center of current pedagogic practices.

Research limitations/implications

The study broadens the understanding of reflective practices in the entrepreneurial learning process and the interplay between affective, cognitive, and conative sub-constructs and reflective practices in entrepreneurship education. The findings clearly indicate the need for further research on the interplay between sub-constructs and students’ reflection profiles. The authors see the study as an attempt to apply an exploratory statistical method for the problem in question.

Practical implications

The results are able to advise pedagogy. Practical implications concern the need to develop reflective practises in entrepreneurial learning interventions to enhance all three meta-competencies, even though there are so far no irrefutable findings to indicate that some types of reflection may be better than others.

Originality/value

The results of the analysis indicate that it is possible to study the complex and dynamic interplay between sub-constructs of cognitive, conative and affective constructs. Moreover, the research succeeded in identifying both individual variations and general reflection patterns and changes in these during the learning process. This was possible by adopting a longitudinal explorative research approach with SOM analyses.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 60 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2019

Danny Tengti Kao and Pei-Hsun Wu

The competition among banks in Taiwan is fierce. The financial services offered by banks are highly similar and banks attempt to devise a variety of marketing campaigns to…

Abstract

Purpose

The competition among banks in Taiwan is fierce. The financial services offered by banks are highly similar and banks attempt to devise a variety of marketing campaigns to gain brand preferences of bank clients. However, little research regarding bank marketing has applied the segmentation strategy to precisely target bank clients. The purpose of this paper is to explore the moderating roles of cognitive load and brand story style in the impact of bank clients’ affective orientation on brand preference of bank clients.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 216 participants who have bank accounts in Taiwan were randomly assigned to a 2 (brand story style: underdog vs top dog) × 2 (cognitive load: low vs high) factorial design. An ANOVA was conducted to examine the interaction effects of affective orientation, cognitive load and brand story style on the brand preference of bank clients. Affective orientation of participants was measured by Affective Orientation Scale.

Findings

Results demonstrate that for bank clients with low and high affective orientation, advertisements characterized by cognitive load (low vs high) and brand story style (underdog vs top dog) will elicit differential brand preferences of bank clients.

Originality/value

This is the first research to examine the moderating effects of bank clients’ affective orientation, cognitive load and brand story style on brand preferences of bank clients. Specifically, this research takes up the call to apply bank clients’ personality traits to examine the impact of bank marketing on brand preferences of banks.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2021

Lini Zhang, Haidong Zhao and Brenda Cude

This study, which is based on the extended hierarchy of effects (HOE) model, aims to examine whether social media interactions with one or more luxury brands can affect…

Abstract

Purpose

This study, which is based on the extended hierarchy of effects (HOE) model, aims to examine whether social media interactions with one or more luxury brands can affect consumers' knowledge of, affection for and purchases of as well as loyalty to luxury fashion brands as a category.

Design/methodology/approach

SoJump (a leading data collection company in China) launched an online survey to collect data from Chinese luxury fashion brand consumers. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to analyze data from the random sample of 308 Chinese luxury fashion brand consumers.

Findings

The findings of this study demonstrated that social media interaction had direct positive influences on three stages of the luxury fashion brand decision-making process – knowledge, affection and loyalty – but not purchases. The results also empirically confirmed that consumers' response to social media interaction follows the cognition-affect-conation sequential process presented in the HOE model.

Practical implications

This study not only provides a new perspective for researchers to investigate the impacts of interactive social media marketing on purchase decision-making in the luxury fashion brand category but also underpins the importance of building interactive alliances for luxury brands to increase consumers' knowledge of, affection for, purchases in and loyalty to the luxury fashion brand category.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to investigate whether social media interactions with luxury fashion brands as a category influence consumers' knowledge of, affection for and loyalty to that category. In addition, this study is the first attempt to explore whether social media interactions can directly influence consumers' luxury fashion brand purchases.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2020

Rania B. Mostafa and Tamara Kasamani

Based on the stimulus–organism–response (SOR) model, the aim of this study is to explore the impact of brand experience (BE) on brand loyalty, with the mediation effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the stimulus–organism–response (SOR) model, the aim of this study is to explore the impact of brand experience (BE) on brand loyalty, with the mediation effect of emotional brand attachment (EBA) dimensions, specifically brand passion, self-brand connection and brand affection.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized a sample of 278 smartphone users in Lebanon. A questionnaire was used for data collection and a mediation analysis was employed to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

The findings revealed that experiential brands promote long-lasting brand loyalty through building brand passion, self-brand connection and brand affection.

Practical implications

To achieve a long-standing brand–consumer relationship, marketing managers should enhance and augment experiential marketing practices as this triggers deep emotional links and builds strong emotional ties with customers.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous studies on BE and loyalty, this research contributes to the literature by deepening the impact of emotions from the EBA perspective, specifically brand passion, brand affection and self-brand connection and posits the latter as mediators to the link between the BE and brand loyalty in the smartphone industry.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Jane Hemsley-Brown and Ibrahim Alnawas

The purpose of this study is three-fold: first, to examine the extent to which service quality (SQ) affects the three components of emotional brand attachment (EBA) (brand…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is three-fold: first, to examine the extent to which service quality (SQ) affects the three components of emotional brand attachment (EBA) (brand passion, brand affection and self-brand connection); second, to investigate the extent to which these three components influence brand loyalty; and third, to test the mediation effect of the components of EBA on the SQ–loyalty relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 355 respondents using an online panel in the UK. Smart PLS2.0 was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Three key findings emerge: first, compared to staff behavior, physical environment tends to have a stronger and more significant effect on the three elements of EBA. Second, brand passion and self-brand connection fully mediate the SQ–loyalty relationship, whereas brand affection partially mediates the same relationship. Finally, the SQ–EBA–loyalty relationship is significantly stronger for repeat visitors compared to first-time visitors.

Practical implications

Hotel brands need to design their facilities and décor and develop guest experiences based on symbolic values and deep emotional aspects. Offering employees customer care training and adopting a consumer-centric, relational, storytelling approach are particularly important to inspire and captivate hotels’ customers and to build and shape profound and enduring affective ties between the hotel brand and its customers.

Originality/value

The findings offer new insights through examining the symbolic consumption and emotional aspects of a guest’s hotel experience as mediators to the SQ–loyalty relationship. The findings also add to the growing body of knowledge of the antecedents of EBA through identifying physical environment and staff behavior as key determinants of EBA.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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