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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2010

Xin Liu, Michael Y. Hu and Pamela E. Grimm

The goal of the paper is to examine the affect transfer process of the brand extension by developing a conceptual framework that integrates two factors important to this…

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2472

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of the paper is to examine the affect transfer process of the brand extension by developing a conceptual framework that integrates two factors important to this process: the expectancy and relevancy of brand extensions.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experimental studies with a sample of 250 respondents provide empirical support that both expectancy and relevancy positively influence the affect transfer process.

Findings

The study first tests both factors at the product level as well as at the product attribute level. The two factors enhance the affect transfer process in different manners. Expectancy facilitates the transfer from the parent product category to the extension, whereas relevancy enhances the transfer from the brand associations to the extension product. The greatest affect transfer occurs when both factors are present.

Originality/value

The study proposes a theoretical framework that for the first time integrates the two main streams of literature in brand extensions. The proposed framework explains the affect transfer process in brand extensions, and helps understand consumers' attitude towards brand extension products.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2021

Guohua Yu and Zheng Lu

The purpose of this study is to elaborate the theoretical mechanism of rural credit input affecting the urban–rural income gap from the perspective of labor transfer, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to elaborate the theoretical mechanism of rural credit input affecting the urban–rural income gap from the perspective of labor transfer, and use a dynamic panel mediation model to test the transmission mechanism of rural credit input affecting the urban–rural income gap through labor transfer, so as to provide an empirical basis for narrowing the urban–rural income gap in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper constructs a mechanism analysis framework for rural credit input affecting the urban–rural income gap. From the perspective of resource allocation and labor transfer, the authors expound the transmission path of rural credit input to the urban–rural income gap and analyze the theoretical mechanism of rural credit input that affects the urban–rural income gap through labor transfer. Based on this, this paper uses the dynamic panel mediation model to test the effect relationship between rural credit input, labor transfer and urban–rural income gap in 31 provinces of China from 2009 to 2018.

Findings

In theory, increasing rural credit input can ease the financial constraints on the development of “agriculture, rural areas and farmers” and provide capital accumulation for the development of rural non-agricultural industries. The development of rural non-agricultural industries can provide more jobs for rural surplus labor, thereby increasing the labor rate of return in rural areas, and ultimately conducive to narrowing the urban–rural income gap. Further, increasing rural credit input can improve the development level of rural non-agricultural industries, thereby promoting the transfer of agricultural labor. At the same time, rural credit input based on the intermediary variable of labor transfer has a significant inhibitory effect on the urban–rural income gap.

Research limitations/implications

This study mainly focuses on the relationship between rural credit input, labor transfer and urban–rural income gap, so it is impossible to use micro-level data to further verify the impact of rural credit input on labor transfer. At the same time, the collection of indicators of rural credit investment in the China Financial Yearbook only started in 2009, which limited the number of samples to a certain extent.

Practical implications

This paper assumes that the economy is mainly composed of urban and rural economic sectors. Therefore, labor can flow freely between urban and rural areas. However, in the near future, China's rural secondary and tertiary industries may develop rapidly, especially with the in-depth implementation of rural revitalization strategy, it is very important to pay attention to the current situation of rural industrial structure and incorporate the factors such as rural industrial structure into the existing model.

Social implications

This study attempts to provide a new perspective and inspiration for rural credit input, the optimal allocation of labor force and narrowing the urban–rural income gap under China's rural revitalization strategy.

Originality/value

Based on the analysis framework of neoclassical economic theory, this paper uses the constant elasticity of substitution production function to establish an urban–rural two-sector nested model that includes credit supply variables and analyzes the mechanism of rural credit input affecting the urban–rural income gap through labor transfer.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Shihao Zhou, Felix Siu and Minhong Wang

The aim of this study is to explore the role of social tie content in the interpersonal knowledge transfer process and to test the effects of different social ties, i.e

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3353

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to explore the role of social tie content in the interpersonal knowledge transfer process and to test the effects of different social ties, i.e. distinguishing instrumental tie and expressive tie, on knowledge transfer, using cognition‐ and affect‐based trust as the mediators.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model was tested through a survey carried out on 152 MBA students of a university in east China, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed for data analysis.

Findings

This research proved that both instrumental and expressive ties will facilitate trust and knowledge transfer. Cognition‐based trust is not essential when low‐tacit, general knowledge is transferred, and the effect of the expressive tie becomes negative when trust is controlled. When transferring general knowledge the instrumental tie is more efficient. However, contrary to the hypothesis, it is found that the effect of the expressive tie is not significantly larger than that of the instrumental tie during the tacit knowledge transfer process.

Research limitations/implications

Besides tacitness, future research may consider involving more dimensions of knowledge into the theoretical model. Longitudinal and cross‐national studies are also needed.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that managers can enhance knowledge transfer among co‐workers by enhancing their instrumental and expressive ties. However, overuse of the expressive tie is risky. The importance of trust construction in organizations is also underscored.

Originality/value

The study reminds scholars to pay attention to the role of tie content in knowledge transfer. The findings also help managers to know how to increase knowledge transfer through promoting intra‐organizational networking.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Yoonhee Park, Doo Hun Lim and Jaeeun Lee

This study aims to examine the direct effects of job support and the indirect effects of individual career planning on the motivational process of training transfer, which…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the direct effects of job support and the indirect effects of individual career planning on the motivational process of training transfer, which consists of the structural relationship between learning goal orientation, learning motivation, transfer motivation and training transfer.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was administered to 255 respondents in South Korea, and 252 valid responses were used for analysis. A hypothetical model was examined using a structural equation model and multi-group analysis.

Findings

This study found that the synchronous process model of training transfer was well validated in the Korean context; moreover, job support promoted employee motivations that led to their training transfer. In addition, career planning was found to have a moderating role in the relationships explored in this study. That is, when the level of career planning was high, job support directly affected the motivation to transfer, and the link between intrinsic learning orientation and motivation to learn was highly activated compared to the group with a low level of career planning.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited by the single-dimensional measurement of its constructs, including job support, goal orientation and motivation to transfer. This limitation should be considered when interpreting the study’s results. In terms of implications, the study suggests that organizations should help individuals identify their career interests and establish a strategy to achieve their career goals by providing information about specific areas of interest.

Originality/value

This study proposes that the motivational mechanisms leading to training transfer are affected by trainees’ level of career planning. In addition, the study findings emphasize the importance of organizations’ role in guiding individual employees’ career planning to facilitate performance through training transfer.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Hanna Moon, Doam Ryu and Dongwon Jeon

Industry skills council (ISC) in Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of its formation and incubation. As a governance model similar to sector councils in Canada and UK…

Abstract

Purpose

Industry skills council (ISC) in Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of its formation and incubation. As a governance model similar to sector councils in Canada and UK, it still requires training and development of talents who work for ISCs. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of training programs that are currently provided to personnel of the ISC to foster their learning systematically and to develop measures for effectiveness of the training programs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study evaluated the training program for the staff of the ISC secretariat as a tool to activate the councils’ main functions. In terms of methodology, we developed an effective training model to measure the training transfer and used it as an analytical framework for evaluation. Success case method was applied to identify the best case of training transfer that reinforces the role and function of ISC.

Findings

Learning transfer can help not only the transfer of the learning contents but also the role of the organization that the members belong to and strengthen the function of the ISC. By transferring the content matter of the learning, it can help strengthen the capacity of members to carry out the roles and functions of the ISC, and further strengthen the functions of the council and the role of key players in labor markets.

Research limitations/implications

An effective training model for the personnel of national sectoral bodies or non-profit organization can be further investigated.

Practical implications

The learning transfer evaluation model for ISC staff has unique characteristics that are different from previous studies. ISC has the characteristics of public goods that are established with government support and are active in developing human resources in each industry sector.

Originality/value

Incubating ISC in South Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of research and policy practice. The research findings in this study lay the foundations for further empirical explorations.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 43 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Jean Boisvert and Suzan Burton

The purpose of this paper is to test and model the effect of parent brand salience, branding strategy and extension innovativeness positioning on the extent of transfer of…

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6384

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test and model the effect of parent brand salience, branding strategy and extension innovativeness positioning on the extent of transfer of associations from the parent brand to a brand extension.

Design/methodology/approach

A field experiment based on a 2×2×2 between‐subjects completely randomized factorial design involving 808 consumers was conducted. Three factors were manipulated: parent brand salience, product innovativeness, and the branding strategy.

Findings

The paper finds that, in addition to the main effects of salience and the branding strategy, all three factors jointly influence the extent of transfer of associations from a parent brand to an extension.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the external validity of a natural experiment, some uncontrolled factors may have influenced the results. Also, transfer was assessed within time constraints (i.e. the time to complete the survey). The “duration” of any transfer effect is likely to be related to the ad exposure, which could be tested in future research.

Practical implications

The findings are important for line extension development since they suggest that the launch of an extension can be designed to maximize or minimize transfer of brand associations from the parent brand to a new line extension, depending on the specific marketing objectives for the parent brand and/or extension.

Originality/value

This paper fills an important gap in the literature in terms of identifying product innovativeness, parent brand salience and the branding strategy as synergistic factors affecting transfer of brand associations for parent brands to their extensions.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Sunyoung Park, Hye-Seung (Theresa) Kang and Eun-Jee Kim

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among supervisor support, awareness of employees’ developmental needs, motivation to learn, training readiness…

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3238

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among supervisor support, awareness of employees’ developmental needs, motivation to learn, training readiness, motivation to transfer and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 216 responses from educational organizations in the USA were analyzed using the structural equation modeling method.

Findings

The findings indicate that supervisor support for training directly affected motivation to learn; both developmental needs awareness and motivation to learn had direct and significant effects on training readiness, motivation to transfer and job performance; developmental needs awareness directly affected motivation to learn; training readiness directly affected motivation to transfer.

Research limitations/implications

This study investigated how supervisor support contributes to motivation, training and job performance. In addition, this study attempted to bridge the gap in the literature by investigating the relationships among supervisor support, developmental needs awareness, learning motivation, training readiness, transfer motivation and job performance.

Practical implications

By conducting an initial needs assessment of participants, human resource development (HRD) practitioners can reflect on what participants want and need when designing and implementing professional development programs. HRD practitioners can also collaborate with participants’ supervisors to prepare for interventions to improve the quality and practicality of existing professional development programs.

Originality/value

Although the extant literature suggests that organizational support, motivation and training transfer are distinct but highly interrelated constructs; little is known about the predictive properties of a supervisor’s role in the training literature. Supervisors play a crucial role in that they can influence their subordinates on whether to participate in training programs. The ability of supervisors to provide adequate support and engage in comfortable communication about training programs may lead to enhanced motivation to learn and to greater training transfer. These potentially desirable effects motivate the researchers to further explore the nature of this component and its relationship with other training outcome variables.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 42 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Yongjian Li, Dan Shi, Xiang Li and Wen Wang

This paper aims to analyze the situation of knowledge dissemination in Chinese rural areas and explore factors that affect the efficiency of knowledge dissemination, to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the situation of knowledge dissemination in Chinese rural areas and explore factors that affect the efficiency of knowledge dissemination, to provide some suggestions for further improvements.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted to collect data in 17 provinces of China, with 267 questionnaires returned out of 300. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis with LISEREL 8.8.

Findings

The results show that factors of knowledge such as government participation, dissemination capability, learning motivation and trust have a positive effect on knowledge transfer. By contrast, factors of knowledge such as complexity and richness of knowledge carriers do not have a significant correlation with the knowledge sharing level.

Research limitations/implications

This paper conducts a cross-sectional analysis while ignoring the longitudinal effects of some factors on knowledge dissemination, such as the reform and opening policy in China. An analysis on a more concrete problem could be conducted for future study.

Practical implications

This paper proposes some suggestions to enhance the efficiency of knowledge dissemination in rural areas from the knowledge dissemination mode, knowledge products and the role of government playing.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first attempts to conduct comprehensive and systematic research on the influential factors of knowledge dissemination. It contributes to literature by offering a systematical empirical study with the consideration of the role of government in knowledge dissemination.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Huong Ha and Vanvela Vanaphuti

This study aims to examine factors that affect the effectiveness of transfer of English language training to the workplace. It investigates the effect of trainee…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine factors that affect the effectiveness of transfer of English language training to the workplace. It investigates the effect of trainee characteristics, training design and work climate on the training transfer to job performance in hospitals in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative method was adopted in this study. The conceptual framework was developed from Lim and Morris’ three-factor model, namely, trainee characteristics, training design and work climate. A total of 378 valid responses from staff of seven hospitals in Thailand were collected from surveys.

Findings

The findings suggest that training transfer depends more on trainees’ psychological state (affective response and self-efficacy) than extrinsic factors. Nearly every aspect of training design could affect training transfer, except trainer effectiveness. This could be related to the particular context of training and the trainees’ prior experience. Work climate factors had the strongest overall effect, with peer and supervisor feedback, compensation and incentives and transfer opportunities being significant.

Originality/value

This study proposes that training design and work climate-related factors deserve more attention than what they have received previously. This study is significant because of the limited empirical evidence for English training transfer outcomes, and the under-examined role of English as a lingua franca in the business world. The findings can help organisations refine training designs and adjust the work environment to improve training outcomes.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2012

Ignacio Redondo

Despite the proliferation of casual advergames on web sites, there is relatively little scientific evidence on which product‐placement qualities and individual consumer…

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3445

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the proliferation of casual advergames on web sites, there is relatively little scientific evidence on which product‐placement qualities and individual consumer characteristics allow a positive affect transfer from game to brand. The purpose of this paper was to examine the influence of placement conspicuousness, exposure duration, and player gender in an experiment with Spanish‐speaking adolescents under real‐world conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Three versions of a casual advergame were created and posted on the popular web site www.jetix.es. Two of the versions embedded ads for M&M chocolate candy, each of which had a different degree of conspicuousness (less versus more conspicuous), and the third version showed no brand placement at all and was used as the control condition. The versions were randomly assigned to 405 participants, and changes in their attitudes to M&Ms were measured.

Findings

The positive affect induced by the casual advergame transferred to M&Ms when it was not inhibited by negative reactions to the brand placement. The transfer of affect occurred after both a brief exposure to the prominent placement and a long exposure to the subtle placement, but no transfer was observed under the opposite set of conditions. Significant transfer in female adolescents but the absence of transfer in their male counterparts suggests a strong gender bias.

Practical implications

There are two implications for marketers who want to persuade adolescents through casual advergames. First, these marketers should segment their casual advergames by designing subtle placements for games with lasting appeal and prominent placements for games with brief appeal. Second, to strengthen male adolescents' brand preferences, marketers should not focus on casual advergames but search for more appropriate entertainment vehicles.

Originality/value

The theoretical framework relies on an unprecedented combination of classical conditioning and psychological reactance theories. The results are of interest for marketers trying to persuade adolescents as well as for public policy advocates trying to protect this vulnerable target group.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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