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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2005

Denise D. Bielby, Molly Moloney and Bob Q. Ngo

Television critics play a central role in the interpretation of cultural forms, objects, and productions. In contrast to critics in elite art worlds, the role and status…

Abstract

Television critics play a central role in the interpretation of cultural forms, objects, and productions. In contrast to critics in elite art worlds, the role and status of television critics are less institutionalized and less well understood. One indicator of the degree and status of the institutionalization of critics’ roles is the codification of evaluative criteria and critical practices. Our research examines whether critics in television draw upon a recognizable set of evaluation criteria, and if so, whether that repertoire of aesthetic concepts increasingly parallels criteria employed by critics in elite art worlds. Using multidimensional scaling to delineate television criticism over the last two decades, a period of considerable transformation in the industry, we find that television criticism attends to a core set of conventional criteria. These include appraisal of formal aesthetic elements, signaling increased attention to television as an art form, while retaining consideration of factors such as entertainment value that are of interest to audiences and business constituencies alike.

Details

Transformation in Cultural Industries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-365-5

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2007

Ji‐Hye Park and Tim Wentling

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of factors associated with e‐learning, particularly computer attitudes and usability, on transfer of training in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of factors associated with e‐learning, particularly computer attitudes and usability, on transfer of training in workplace e‐learning courses.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relied on quantitative data obtained from four online survey questionnaires. The sample of this study was 47 learners who took either one soft‐skill e‐learning course or one hard‐skill e‐learning course in a selected company and their supervisors.

Findings

The results demonstrated that learners' computer attitudes impact their perception of the usability of the e‐learning courses, and that this perception influences the degree of their transfer of training. The results imply that when learners come to an e‐learning class with positive attitudes toward computers, they feel the e‐learning course system to be more satisfactory and efficient, and accordingly they can better transfer what they have learned to job performance.

Research limitations/implications

The sample of this study is limited. Further research studies with various learners should be conducted. Additionally, the measure of transfer merely relied on their perception of it. Further studies should give more attention to the multifaceted measures of the actual transfer. Finally, further research should be conducted to examine other general factors pertaining to the transfer of training in e‐learning settings in addition to computer attitudes and usability.

Originality/value

The study expands the knowledge base regarding transfer of training by focusing on e‐learning, which is rapidly growing and receiving great attention in the workplace, and thus contributes to the establishment of a more comprehensive model of transfer of training.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Shuai Yang, Wenjie Zhao, Yongzhen Ke, Jiaying Liu and Yongjiang Xue

Due to the inability to directly apply an intra-oral image with esthetic restoration to restore tooth shape in the computer-aided design system, this paper aims to propose…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the inability to directly apply an intra-oral image with esthetic restoration to restore tooth shape in the computer-aided design system, this paper aims to propose a method that can use two-dimensional contours obtained from the image for the three-dimensional dental mesh model restoration.

Design/methodology/approach

First, intra-oral image and smiling image are taken from the patient, then teeth shapes of the images are designed based on esthetic restoration concepts and the pixel coordinates of the teeth’s contours are converted into the vertex coordinates in the three-dimensional space. Second, the dental mesh model is divided into three parts – active part, passive part and fixed part – based on the teeth’s contours of the mesh model. Third, the vertices from the teeth’s contours of the dental model are matched with ones from the intra-oral image and with the help of matching operation, the target coordinates of each vertex in the active part can be calculated. Finally, the Laplacian-based deformation algorithm and mesh smoothing algorithm are performed.

Findings

Benefitting from the proposed method, the dental mesh model with esthetic restoration can be quickly obtained based on the intra-oral image that is the result of doctor-patient communication. Experimental results show that the quality of restoration meets clinical needs, and the typical time cost of the method is approximately one second. So the method is both time-saving and user-friendly.

Originality/value

The method provides the possibility to design personalized dental esthetic restoration solutions rapidly.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 38 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2017

Patrick Keilty and Gregory Leazer

The purpose of this paper is to present two models of human cognition. The first narrow model concentrates on the mind as an information-processing apparatus, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present two models of human cognition. The first narrow model concentrates on the mind as an information-processing apparatus, and interactions with information as altering thought structures and filling gaps in knowledge. A second model incorporates elements of unconsciousness, embodiment and affect. The selection of one model over the other, often done tacitly, has consequences for subsequent models of information seeking and use.

Design/methodology/approach

A close reading of embodied engagements with pornography guided by existential phenomenology.

Findings

The paper develops a phenomenology of information seeking, centered primarily around the work of Merleau-Ponty, to justify a more expansive concept of cognition. The authors demonstrate the roles of affect and embodiment in document assessment and use, with a prolonged example in the realm of browsing pornography.

Originality/value

Models of information seeking and use need to account for diverse kinds of human-document interaction, to include documents such as music, film and comics that engage the emotions or are perceived through a broader band of sensory experience to include visual and auditory components. The authors consider how those human-document engagements form virtual communities based on the similarity of their members’ affective and embodied responses, which in turn inform the arrangements, through algorithms, of the relations of documents to each other. Less instrumental forms of information seeking and use – ones that incorporate elements of embodiment and affect – are characterized as esthetic experiences, following the definition of the esthetic provided by Dewey. Ultimately the authors consider, given the ubiquity of information seeking and its rhythm in everyday life, whether we can meaningfully characterize information seeking as a distinct human process.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Azadeh Rezafar and Sevkiye Sence Turk

The increased flexibility in urban planning practice under neoliberal policies had impacts on urban aesthetics, such as causing cities to lose their unique character and…

Abstract

Purpose

The increased flexibility in urban planning practice under neoliberal policies had impacts on urban aesthetics, such as causing cities to lose their unique character and identity, especially in developing countries. However, importance of the control and management of aesthetics has not been adequately addressed in the current planning legislations in the literature. Conventional legislation devices (such as zoning ordinances, building codes, etc.) provide little effect on aesthetic control for the flexible planning era. The aim of the study is to examine how a supplementary legal tool (a checklist) can be developed to provide urban aesthetics control and management for a city under neo-liberal influences by taking into consideration the relationship between urban environmental aesthetics and related legal regulations.

Design/methodology/approach

The research focusses on the Istanbul case. In this study, the aesthetic parameters with factor analysis using urban design parameters that affecting urban aesthetics are determined, how inclusion into the planning laws and regulations of these aesthetic parameters are examined and a checklist for aesthetics control and management are proposed.

Findings

The findings reveal that although there are different and fragmented legal sources that directly or indirectly deal with the aesthetic control and management for urban design and there is a lack of a supplementary legal tool as control management.

Originality/value

Checklists in the aesthetic control area can be a practical legal tool, which can establish a routine by giving proper attention to aesthetic quality and its related parameters of planning for all developing countries under the influence of neoliberal policies.

Details

Open House International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Anwar Ibrahim, Hikmat H. Ali and Wala'a Alqarra

This study aims to evaluate the effect of the installed photovoltaic (PV) systems on the aesthetic perception of the mosque’s architectural form. It also aims to develop a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the effect of the installed photovoltaic (PV) systems on the aesthetic perception of the mosque’s architectural form. It also aims to develop a framework for integrating PV cells with the various elements of the building type.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a mixed-method approach comprising both qualitative and quantitative techniques for data collection procedures. This includes surveys, literature review, focus groups and an experiment.

Findings

The results revealed a negative impact of the building-applied PV panels on people’s perception of the mosque’s architectural form. However, integrating the PV cells with the mosque form was perceived as more aesthetically pleasing. Certain integrating PV strategies integrated more harmoniously with certain mosque styles.

Research limitations/implications

This study is focused on limited styles of one building type. Extra research is needed to explore the differences between the different participated groups.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research that explores the ways the installed PV systems impact the users’ architectural aesthetic perception of the mosque. This study informs the design process and practice and construction industry by highlighting the opportunities PV systems, as a legitimate sustainable energy resource, offers to architects and manufacturers.

Details

Open House International, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2018

Shuyu Lin

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence of open innovation mechanism specific to aesthetic innovation. Prior research have drawn its research attention…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence of open innovation mechanism specific to aesthetic innovation. Prior research have drawn its research attention to technological innovation and focussed on the biopharmaceutical and technological sectors as the main research contexts. Thus, to gain a wider picture of the structural characteristics of innovation ecosystem, this paper aims to complement the existing technological-centred literature and provides understanding of aesthetic innovation by focussing on exploring the role of actors and intermediaries in either facilitating or inhibiting innovation in the creative sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an exploratory study and the qualitative method was employed. With aim to explore aesthetic innovation in the creative sector, this research grounded its context in the UK designer fashion sector, which is part of the creative industries. Data were collected through a series of semi-structured interviews with respondents being purposely selected so as to ensure representativeness. A wider range of participants within the designer fashion sector was covered. Such multiple-sourced data collection approach allowed this research to triangulate data so that research trustworthiness was enhanced.

Findings

The result suggests the role of a broker in beyond traditionally facilitating knowledge exchange. This paper provides empirical evidence regarding the critical role of a broker in shaping the open innovation mechanism when it comes to aesthetic innovation. A broker in fact occupies a strategic position that allows it to negotiate relationships among the connected organisations and thus to govern the interaction mechanism of the innovation ecosystem as a whole. Given the empowered broker in such setting, the relationship between innovation creators and innovation seekers is controlled by a broker, which leads to risk that an innovation creator may not fully appropriate the value that it creates.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is its specific context, that is, the UK designer fashion industry. Such focus limits the scope of generalisation particularly its application to the entire creative sector. Thus, it is suggested that future research may consider to explore other creative industries so that the understanding of the open innovation mechanism from a structural perspective applied to aesthetic innovation can be enhanced.

Originality/value

This paper outlines the structural mechanism of open innovation applied to aesthetic innovation. The result contributes to the literature by complementing the findings derived from technology-centred research. Also, empirical evidence of this study is particularly of value to policy makers in the aspect of creative sector development. The suggested implications provide strategies of innovation ecosystem that could benefit individual actors involved in this open innovation setting and ensure prosper of the sector as a whole.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Ellie Falcone, John Kent and Brian Fugate

Supply chain management literature recognizes that interorganizational networks provide resources that convey critical benefits, such as capital, competitive advantage and…

Abstract

Purpose

Supply chain management literature recognizes that interorganizational networks provide resources that convey critical benefits, such as capital, competitive advantage and efficient strategy implementation. The purpose of this paper is to leverage network theory and identify technological innovations as the antecedents for organizations to achieve stronger interorganizational networks. Specifically, this paper investigates how supply chain technologies of its logistics affiliate, Cainiao Network (CN), affect Alibaba Group’s three fundamental network mechanisms reachability, richness and receptivity and how interorganizational networks subsequently drive Alibaba Group’s performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach was chosen as a methodology to develop an in-depth understanding of the proposed innovations-network-performance framework.

Findings

Results indicate that innovative technologies positively lead to network reachability, richness and receptivity. Stronger interorganizational networks directly lead to higher performance. In addition, CN is identified as a unique innovative business model.

Originality/value

The key contribution of this research is that it investigates Alibaba Group’s performance from a network and innovation perspective. It identifies technological innovations as a key driver for stronger interorganizational networks. Furthermore, three network mechanisms are introduced and investigated as the antecedents of organizational performance. This research also provides a comprehensive description of Alibaba Group and CN.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2008

Natheer Abu‐Obeid, Reem F. Hassan and Hikmat H. Ali

The purpose of the paper is to compare the aesthetic responses of three groups (architects, engineers and non‐experts) to a set of non‐conventional structures.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to compare the aesthetic responses of three groups (architects, engineers and non‐experts) to a set of non‐conventional structures.

Design/methodology/approach

A group of 150 respondents (divided into three equal sub‐groups of architects, structural engineers, and non‐experts) were selected to participate in the main study, which used 14 different non‐conventional structural systems. The images of these systems were derived from an earlier pilot study. The evaluation tool included 38 semantic items, also derived from the pilot study. Two statistical analyses were applied to the collected data: factor analysis and ANOVA.

Findings

Finds, first, that factor analysis revealed a set of factors identified by all participants as meaningful dimensions, by which they evaluate structural systems. Second, ANOVA revealed differences between the three groups when evaluating different structural systems using the identified factors. Differences between the groups were attributed to their different backgrounds and technical training.

Practical implications

The study argues that understanding the aesthetic experience of architects, engineers and ordinary users of structures is essential. First, it helps the designers to establish the basis for selecting appropriate structural methods and materials in relation to building design. Second, it would also help the designers to better understand the relationship between the structure and architecture in terms of a trade‐off between the technical and aesthetic issues. Third, it helps the designers to better understand how their designed structures are perceived by the public.

Originality/value

This study introduces an alternative approach to the study of the aesthetics of structures, with a focus on non‐conventional structures.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Frédéric Godart, Kim Claes and Stoyan V. Sgourev

Drawing on sociolinguistics, this chapter proposes an encoding–decoding perspective on evaluation, conceptualizing codes as interpretive schemas that are encoded by firms…

Abstract

Drawing on sociolinguistics, this chapter proposes an encoding–decoding perspective on evaluation, conceptualizing codes as interpretive schemas that are encoded by firms and decoded by audiences. A key element in this process is code complexity, denoting combinations of interdependent elements. We demonstrate that the evaluation of code complexity depends on the type of audience (professionals and laypersons) and the type of complexity (technological and aesthetic). We analyze the attribution of awards by professionals and the public in luxury watchmaking, featuring three mechanisms: the social embeddedness of audiences, their motivation for evaluation and supply-and-demand matching. The results attest to significant differences in the evaluation of technological and aesthetic code complexity by professionals and laypersons. There is a premium attributed to aesthetic code complexity by professionals and a premium attributed to technological complexity by laypersons. Finding the right type and level of code complexity to pursue in their offerings is a key strategic challenge for producers.

Details

Aesthetics and Style in Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-236-9

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