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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Tugrul Oktay, Harun Celik and Ilke Turkmen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the success of constrained control on reducing motion blur which occurs as a result of helicopter vibration.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the success of constrained control on reducing motion blur which occurs as a result of helicopter vibration.

Design/methodology/approach

Constrained controllers are designed to reduce the motion blur on images taken by helicopter. Helicopter vibrations under tight and soft constrained controllers are modeled and added to images to show the performance of controllers on reducing blur.

Findings

The blur caused by vibration can be reduced via constrained control of helicopter.

Research limitations/implications

The motion of camera is modeled and assumed same as the motion of helicopter. In model of exposing image, image noise is neglected, and blur is considered as the only distorting effect on image.

Practical implications

Tighter constrained controllers can be implemented to take higher quality images by helicopters.

Social implications

Recently, aerial vehicles are widely used for aerial photography. Images taken by helicopters mostly suffer from motion blur. Reducing motion blur can provide users to take higher quality images by helicopters.

Originality/value

Helicopter control is performed to reduce motion blur on image for the first time. A control-oriented and physic-based model of helicopter is benefited. Helicopter vibration which causes motion blur is modeled as blur kernel to see the effect of helicopter vibration on taken images. Tight and soft constrained controllers are designed and compared to denote their performance in reducing motion blur. It is proved that images taken by helicopter can be prevented from motion blur by controlling helicopter tightly.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2021

Mohd Javaid, Ibrahim Haleem Khan, Ravi Pratap Singh, Shanay Rab and Rajiv Suman

Unmanned aerial vehicles are commonly known as UAVs and drones. Nowadays, industries have begun to realise the operational and economic benefits of drone-enabled tasks…

Abstract

Purpose

Unmanned aerial vehicles are commonly known as UAVs and drones. Nowadays, industries have begun to realise the operational and economic benefits of drone-enabled tasks. The Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, drones, etc., represent implementable advanced technologies intended to accomplish Industry 4.0. The purpose of this study is to discuss the significant contributions of drones for Industry 4.0.

Design/methodology/approach

Nowadays, drones are used for inspections, mapping and surveying in difficult or hazardous locations. For writing this paper, relevant research papers on drone for Industry 4.0 are identified from various research platforms such as Scopus, Google Scholar, ResearchGate and ScienceDirect. Given the enormous extent of the topic, this work analyses many papers, reports and news stories in an attempt to comprehend and clarify Industry 4.0.

Findings

Drones are being implemented in manufacturing, entertainment industries (cinematography, etc.) and machinery across the world. Thermal-imaging devices attached to drones can detect variable heat levels emanating from a facility, trigger the sprinkler system and inform emergency authorities. Due partly to their utility and adaptability in industrial areas such as energy, transportation, engineering and more, autonomous drones significantly impact Industry 4.0. This paper discusses drones and their types. Several technological advances and primary extents of drones for Industry 4.0 are diagrammatically elaborated. Further, the authors identified and discussed 19 major applications of drones for Industry 4.0.

Originality/value

This paper’s originality lies in its discussion and exploration of the capabilities of drones for Industry 4.0, especially in manufacturing organisations. In addition to improving efficiency and site productivity, drones can easily undertake routine inspections and check streamlines operations and maintenance procedures. This work contributes to creating a common foundation for comprehending Industry 4.0 outcomes from many disciplinary viewpoints, allowing for more research and development for industrial innovation and technological progress.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2013

Masafumi Miwa, Shinji Uemura, Yasuyuki Ishihara, Akitaka Imamura, Joon‐hwan Shim and Kiyoshi Ioi

With the purpose of clearing up the risk to rotor blades, this paper develops a quad ducted‐fan helicopter using four ducted‐fans instead of four rotor blades in a quad…

Abstract

Purpose

With the purpose of clearing up the risk to rotor blades, this paper develops a quad ducted‐fan helicopter using four ducted‐fans instead of four rotor blades in a quad rotor helicopter.

Design/methodology/approach

Auto hovering test, auto cruise test, and altitude control simulations were conducted to estimate the flight performance of the quad ducted‐fan helicopter.

Findings

Flight performance of the test quad ducted‐fan helicopter is almost same as a commercial quad rotor helicopter, and it succeeds to decrease the risk to the rotor blade. However, endurance is shorter than that of the quad rotor helicopter, because of the ducted‐fan characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

The test quad ducted‐fan helicopter can fly for about four minutes with two packs of fourcell (16.8 V)‐2200 mAh Lipo batteries, and it needs about 3.3 times as much energy as quad rotor helicopter. The authors will improve the performance of quad ducted‐fan helicopter by aerodynamics analysis and design of ducted‐fan system

Practical implications

This is expected to reduce the risk of rotor blade mounted on multi rotor helicopter.

Social implications

The research will facilitate the development of safety autonomous multi‐copters in various civilian applications.

Originality/value

The research purpose is to realize safety multi‐copter flight using ducted‐fan instead of rotor blade.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Navya Thirumaleshwar Hegde, V.I. George, C. Gurudas Nayak and Kamlesh Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to give reviews on the platform modeling and design of a controller for autonomous vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) tilt rotor hybrid…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give reviews on the platform modeling and design of a controller for autonomous vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) tilt rotor hybrid unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Nowadays, UAVs have experienced remarkable progress and can be classified into two main types, i.e. fixed-wing UAVs and VTOL UAVs. The mathematical model of tilt rotor UAV is time variant, multivariable and non-linear in nature. Solving and understanding these plant models is very complex. Developing a control algorithm to improve the performance and stability of a UAV is a challenging task.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper gives a thorough description on modeling of VTOL tilt rotor UAV from first principle theory. The review of the design of both linear and non-linear control algorithms are explained in detail. The robust flight controller for the six degrees of freedom UAV has been designed using H-infinity optimization with loop shaping under external wind and aerodynamic disturbances.

Findings

This review will act as a basis for the future work on modeling and control of VTOL tilt rotor UAV by the researchers. The development of self-guided and fully autonomous UAVs would result in reducing the risk to human life. Civil applications include inspection of rescue teams, terrain, coasts, border patrol buildings, police and pipelines. The simulation results show that the controller achieves robust stability, good adaptability and robust performance.

Originality/value

The review articles on quadrotors/quadcopters, hybrid UAVs can be found in many literature, but there are comparatively a lesser amount of review articles on the detailed description of VTOL Tilt rotor UAV. In this paper modeling, platform design and control algorithms for the tilt rotor are presented. A robust H-infinity loop shaping controller in the presence of disturbances is designed for VTOL UAV.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 December 2017

Jae Sung Kim

The purpose of this paper is to describe the procedure for near-automation of the most commonly used manual georeferencing technique in a desktop GIS environment for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the procedure for near-automation of the most commonly used manual georeferencing technique in a desktop GIS environment for historic aerial photographs strip in library archives.

Design/methodology/approach

Most of the archived historic aerial photography consists of series of aerial photographs that overlap to some extent, as the optimal overlap ratio is known as 60 percent by photogrammetric standard. Therefore, conjugate points can be detected for the overlapping area. The first image was georeferenced manually by six-parameter affine transformation using 2013 National Agriculture Imagery Program images as ground truths. Then, conjugate points were detected in the first and second images using Speeded Up Robust Features and Random Sample Consensus. The ground space coordinates of conjugate points were estimated using the first image’s six parameters. Then the second image’s six parameters were calculated using conjugate points’ ground space coordinates and pixel coordinates in the second image. This procedure was repeated until the last image was georeferenced. However, error accumulated as the number of photographs increased. Therefore, another six-parameter affine transformation was implemented using control points in the first, middle, and last images. Finally, the images were warped using open source GIS tools.

Findings

The result shows that historic aerial strip collections can be georeferenced with far less time and labor using the technique proposed compared with the traditional manual georeferencing technique in a desktop GIS environment.

Research limitations/implications

The suggested approach will promote the usage of historic aerial photographs for various scientific purposes including land use and land cover change detection, soil erosion pattern recognition, agricultural practices change analysis, environmental improvement assessment, and natural habitat change detection.

Practical implications

Most commonly used georeferencing procedures for historic aerial photographs in academic libraries require significant time and effort for manual measurement of conjugate points in the object images and the ground truth images. By maximizing the automation of georeferencing procedures, the suggested approach will save significant time and effort of library workforce.

Social implications

With the suggested approach, large numbers of historic aerial photographs can be rapidly georeferenced. This will allow libraries to provide more geospatial data to scientific communities.

Originality/value

This is a unique approach to rapid georeferencing of historic aerial photograph strips.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 November 2009

Daniele Patier and Jean-Louis Routhier

This paper provides an extensive review of surveys and data-collection programmes focused on urban goods movement (UGM). Surveys investigating passenger urban travel have…

Abstract

This paper provides an extensive review of surveys and data-collection programmes focused on urban goods movement (UGM). Surveys investigating passenger urban travel have a decades-long tradition. The same is not true for UGM. The first specific UGM surveys appeared about 10 years ago in response to the rapid growth of car traffic, congestion, pollution and lack of space. Most of the time, these surveys have been carried out to resolve specific, local problems concerning traffic. Only a few of them have taken a global approach to urban logistics by including all logistics operators (own-account and carriers), all delivery vehicles (heavy and light vehicles), all deliveries and pickups (from express to full payload) and an entire metropolitan area and surroundings. Due to various European programmes, an inventory has been created to analyse urban goods data collection according to spatial level and methodology of capture. With this inventory, European urban freight indicators can be described, along with the units in which they are measured and their purposes. The relevance of urban goods transport surveys lies in their capacity to give decision-makers an account of urban freight transport functioning, ratios and data, so as to help in formulating planning, regulation and forecasting. It appears that focusing on the movement (delivery/pick-up), as the unit of analysis in establishment-driver surveys is the most efficient approach to describe the generation of vehicular flow in the city. This fact is revealed in the French UGM surveys, which take into account the complexity of urban logistics.

Details

Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84-855844-1

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Xin Hu and Xi‐bin Cao

To improve the accuracy of mapping of space‐borne three‐line array cameras.

Abstract

Purpose

To improve the accuracy of mapping of space‐borne three‐line array cameras.

Design/methodology/approach

Derivation of the mathematical model and the error model of the three‐line aerial triangulation, the creation of the simulation data, and the analysis and comparison of the simulating result error.

Findings

When using the photographs, which are acquired by adopting the traditional three‐line array cameras, to map without control, there exists the problem that the accuracy cannot satisfy the requirement.

Research limitations/implications

Do not need the ground control points, and can realize the mapping without control. It is of practical application value to the mapping of stars such as the Moon, Mars.

Practical implications

By adding four small matrix CCDs to the traditional three‐line array cameras, and using the effect of the small matrix, controlling the location of the real photograph point, it can improve the accuracy.

Originality/value

Put forward the LMCCD concept of the combination of the three‐linear and the matrix cameras, and validate in theory.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 78 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Kirsti Korkka‐Niemi, Anna‐Liisa Kivimäki, Kirsti Lahti, Maria Nygård, Anne Rautio, Veli‐Pekka Salonen and Petri Pellikka

The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of groundwater‐surface water interaction when studying, modeling and assessing climate change impacts on river…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of groundwater‐surface water interaction when studying, modeling and assessing climate change impacts on river water management.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigations were focused on River Vantaa and its tributaries in southern Finland. The main methods used involved aerial infrared photography, thermal profiling of river sediments, water quality measurements, isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen δ18O, δ2H and river water temperature measurements. The authors present the first results of the field measurements targeted to identify the groundwater recharge and discharge zones within the river system.

Findings

Groundwater discharge zones were found to have a significant impact on water quality and volume in River Vantaa and its tributaries. In the drainage basin, the aerial infrared photography seemed to be a feasible and cost‐effective method to identify areas of groundwater discharge across the entire river basin. Around 350 groundwater/surface water interaction sites along the 220 km river system could be identified.

Practical implications

The interaction sites identified during the season of low flow rate should be considered as potential risk areas because during flood periods groundwater quality might be at risk due to bank infiltration. This should be considered in river basin management within predicted changing climatic conditions.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt in Finland to map systematically groundwater and river water interactions. The focus of the paper is relevant, because according to the existing climate scenarios, flooding of the main rivers in Finland will be more frequent in future, increasing the probability of groundwater‐surface water interaction.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1980

Raymond Bialopiotrowicz

Although fewer than 150 years have passed since Jacques Daguerre perfected the first photographic image in 1839, the flood of evolving equipment and applications has…

258

Abstract

Although fewer than 150 years have passed since Jacques Daguerre perfected the first photographic image in 1839, the flood of evolving equipment and applications has already generated a broad and richly varied field. Simultaneously one of the youngest arts and one of the newest technologies, photography is now used in medical research, space exploration, criminal investigations, agricultural production, design of industrial machinery, ad infinitum. At one extreme, it records family life and supplies the surest method of identification on drivers' licenses. At the other end of the spectrum, photography (once denounced in haute couture) has within the past five years not only become an “acceptable” art form, but has assumed centerstage in museums and exhibits throughout the United States and Europe.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Stephanie C. Haas, Erich Kesse, Mark Sullivan, Randall Renner and Joe Aufmuth

Purpose – To describe an LSTA‐funded project that digitized 88,000 black and white aerial photographs and 2,500 photomosaic indexes created for Florida by the US…

Abstract

Purpose – To describe an LSTA‐funded project that digitized 88,000 black and white aerial photographs and 2,500 photomosaic indexes created for Florida by the US Department of Agriculture between 1938 and 1971. Technical specifications of digital capture, specialized programming, and project value are reviewed. Design/methodology/approach – The 9 × 9 inch aerial tiles were captured on flatbed scanners; the larger photomosaic indexes were captured using a large format camera. Three software tools were designed for the project: the first tracked each tile through the entire in‐house processing including receipt, assignment, scan completion, QC processing, FTPing to server, and archiving of images. The second automated image collection, from disparate scanning stations, performed basic image manipulation for quality control, and stored collected data in a database. The third tool performed routine image corrections, prepared and deployed web format images, and packed archival image formats preparatory to burning CDs. The tile layer of the GIS interface was created by georectifying the composite photomosaic indexes for each Florida county and linking tiles to appropriate points. Findings – Because aerial photographs are inherently spatial, the development team agreed that a GIS interface was the appropriate vehicle for web presentation. While this environment presents no difficulties for more sophisticated users, GIS functionality is not intuitive. A less complex interface is a top priority for future project refinements. Originality/value – The value of this project is documented in terms of site use and solicited user responses.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

Keywords

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