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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Yuehong Yuan, Jonathan P. Caulkins and Stephen Roehrig

Explores the question of whether the traditional practice of bundling advertisements with content will prevail or become less common on the Internet. Given that revenue…

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Abstract

Explores the question of whether the traditional practice of bundling advertisements with content will prevail or become less common on the Internet. Given that revenue from advertisers is desirable to content providers, the answer mainly depends on whether advertisers will choose to deliver their advertisements by bundling. The decision to bundle in turn depends on the response of customers to bundling and to other advertising strategies. In particular, the relationship between advertising and content provision on the Internet may be affected by this medium’s distinctive characteristics, which affect the choices of advertisers and the response of customers. Thus, one needs to investigate the choices of advertisers, the behavior of customers, and their dependence on the distinctive technological features of the Internet.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 32 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Kihan Kim and Yunjae Cheong

This study employs creative strategies to contentanalyse Super Bowl commercials from 2001 to 2009, focusing specifically on message strategies. The findings aim to answer…

1066

Abstract

This study employs creative strategies to contentanalyse Super Bowl commercials from 2001 to 2009, focusing specifically on message strategies. The findings aim to answer four research questions. What are the message strategies commonly employed in Super Bowl commercials? What are the trends of the message strategies employed in Super Bowl commercials over time? What are the relationships between the message strategies and the commercial likeability? What are the specific roles played by the high- vs. low-involvement product categories?

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2020

Nina Michaelidou, Milena Micevski and Georgios Halkias

The present paper explores how advertisers use consumer culture positioning (CCP) strategies in advertising across countries and product categories.

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Abstract

Purpose

The present paper explores how advertisers use consumer culture positioning (CCP) strategies in advertising across countries and product categories.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a content analysis approach to investigate usage of CCP strategies and symbols across different CCP strategies, countries and product categories. The authors focussed on country of origin (COO) cues as symbols of CCP. The authors collected printed advertisements from countries at different levels of economic development and communication orientation for the content analysis, namely, Austria (n = 182), Hungary (n = 199) and Turkey (n = 120) and products with high- vs low-involvement levels.

Findings

Findings of this study indicated that global consumer culture positioning (GCCP) and local consumer culture positioning (LCCP) advertisements relied more on implicit symbols, while foreign consumer culture positioning (FCCP) advertisements predominantly employed explicit ones. Types of symbols and their utilisation varied across countries and product categories, with language, tag lines/logos and brand names being key components across different advertisements.

Practical implications

The results document the practices of CCP-based advertising, offering important insights on whether and how symbolism can be effectively used for communicating different CCPs across markets.

Originality/value

Little is known in terms of how specific symbols are used to communicate consumers’ culture. In this study, the authors analysed the content of 501 real-print advertisements across multiple countries and product categories. This study contributes to the theory and practice by revealing how consumers’ culture manifests through diverse COO symbols in advertising imagery and by facilitating the application of such manifestations across market contexts.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

H.C. Susan Tai

Differences in cultural values may result in perceptual differences and thus necessitate the use of different advertising message strategies in different cultures. This…

7344

Abstract

Differences in cultural values may result in perceptual differences and thus necessitate the use of different advertising message strategies in different cultures. This paper tests the relationship between cultural values and advertising message strategies employed in service advertising using the affective response approach, rather than content analysis. The results show that Hong Kong advertisers use significantly more transformational messages than in US services advertising. Advertising message strategies and cultural values often relate in a non‐random way. Informational message strategy and realistic culture are found to be strongly associated. When societies are more materialistic, advertisers are more likely to use transformational messages due to the high correlation between materialism and brand image. The result also shows that masculine culture, and cultures with long‐term orientation, idealism or low individualism are more likely to adopt transformational message strategy.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Fernando Fastoso and Jeryl Whitelock

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the implementation of international advertising strategies by first introducing a framework of four options that…

3302

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the implementation of international advertising strategies by first introducing a framework of four options that multinational enterprises (MNEs) can use to implement such strategies and second by drawing on contingency theory to develop and test hypotheses relating to how environmental factors and company characteristics affect such implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses are tested using web‐survey data obtained from 182 Latin American managers based in the Mercosur trading bloc.

Findings

Findings show that the choice of implementation process option is contingent on the environmental factor, cultural homogeneity and the company characteristics subsidiary size and MNE country‐of‐origin, yet not on regional economic integration.

Research limitations/implications

This exploratory study contributes to advertising theory by offering an alternative approach to the consideration of the international advertising standardization question that focuses on the implementation of strategies rather than on their development. The findings further confirm the theory of regional multinationals in the context of international advertising decisions.

Practical implications

The study presents practitioners with four distinct approaches to implementing their international advertising strategies as well as with clear guidelines as to how managers should implement those strategies depending on the specific benefits of standardization they want to achieve.

Originality/value

To the knowledge of the authors, this study is the first to specifically address the implementation of international advertising strategies.

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Andinet Worku Gebreselassie and Roger Bougie

The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of advertising variation and repetition strategies in the context of communicating about social issues in least…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of advertising variation and repetition strategies in the context of communicating about social issues in least developed countries (LDCs).

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 used a between-subjects experimental study using 106 students which were exposed to either the varied advertising condition (a negative appeal followed by a positive appeal or vice versa) or repetition condition (two negative appeals). In Study 2, a total of 111 students from Tilburg University and 95 students from Addis Ababa University participated in the study. A random ordering of experimental envelopes assigned the students to one of the following message order conditions (negative appeal–positive appeal, negative appeal–negative appeal, positive appeal–positive appeal and positive appeal–negative appeal).

Findings

Study 1 shows that for many social issues, an advertising variation strategy (a negative appeal followed by a positive appeal) is more effective than an advertising repetition strategy (two negative appeals) in terms of recall. Study 2 builds on these findings by differentiating between taboo and non-taboo issues. This distinction is important because many social issues, such as HIV, domestic violence and child abuse, for instance, are taboo in LDCs. Interestingly, the findings of Study 1 are reproduced for non-taboo issues but not for taboo issues. If an issue is a conversational taboo in a certain culture, then an advertising repetition strategy that only uses positive appeals is more effective than an advertising variation strategy.

Research limitations/implications

The use of students as participants may be a limitation of both studies. Because the reactions of students to specific message appeals may be age-related, concerns regarding the generalizability of the findings are justified.

Originality/value

Overall, the results of this paper provide useful information to social advertisers on when and how to use different types of advertising strategies in LDCs.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Jing Jiang and Ran Wei

The purpose of this research is to study creative strategy and execution as opposed to all elements of marketing and advertising standardization. It explores the…

12092

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to study creative strategy and execution as opposed to all elements of marketing and advertising standardization. It explores the standardization model (e.g. global, glocal, local, and single case strategy) by examining the international advertising strategies that multinational corporations (MNCs) from North America, Europe, and Asia used in their advertising campaigns targeting two culturally different markets: the United States and China.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis of 210 print advertisements compares the extent of standardization in creative strategy and execution across product country of origin (Japan, Korea, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States). Western versus non‐Western cultural cues are also coded and examined.

Findings

Overall, MNCs are more likely to adopt the glocal strategy than any other strategies in their international campaigns. Specifically, EU‐based MNCs tend to pursue the global strategy, whereas the North America‐based MNCs seem to favor the glocal strategy and Asia‐based MNCs tend to use local strategy. Western and non‐Western cultural values are found to manifest in the American and Chinese ads similarly, indicating a trend of increasing similarity in international advertising in face of global consumer culture.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this content analysis provide a fuller picture in understanding the long‐standing issues of standardization in international advertising because of an approach to analyze creative strategy separately from execution. However, content analysis is inherently limited in inferring causality between observed patterns and mechanisms/variables that account for the patterns. Also, the time frame for sample selection, which is set as a year prior to the 2008 global financial crisis, is another limitation of the study.

Practical implications

There is an ongoing trend of using “one‐creative, multiple‐execution” strategy in international advertising. MNCs may distinguish advertising creative strategy from execution when developing their international advertising campaigns.

Originality/value

First, this study addresses the issue with a clear conceptual definition of standardization and differentiates the strategic and tactic standardization. Second, this is the first attempt to explore the standardization model using a sample of 51 multinational brands from North America, Europe, and Asia. The authors find that MNCs are practicing some standardization advertising strategy, but to varying degrees. Third, this study identifies and empirically tests two external factors – culture and convergence of external markets – that influence standardization.

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

Nikolaos Papavassiliou and Vlasis Stathakopoulos

In the international marketing literature the issue of advertising standardization has ignited a lively and heated debate among academics and managers alike. However, the…

28617

Abstract

In the international marketing literature the issue of advertising standardization has ignited a lively and heated debate among academics and managers alike. However, the decision whether to standardize or not cannot be considered a dichotomous one. Develops a comprehensive framework to capture the relevant factors that determine the selection of the appropriate international advertising strategies and tactics. More specifically, first identifies three broad sets of factors (“local”, “firm” and “intrinsic”) which influence international advertising decisions. Then proposes that the standardization and adaptation of international advertising strategies represent the polar ends of a continuum of transitional stages. Finally, discusses the ways and the degree to which international advertising strategies can be adapted to different situations.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2010

Jean‐Marc Décaudin and Denis Lacoste

The objective of this paper is to study the relevance of a specific approach to services advertising by testing the absolute and relative impact of the product/service…

3606

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to study the relevance of a specific approach to services advertising by testing the absolute and relative impact of the product/service variable on advertising strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

A content study of 4,233 press advertisements, taken from generalist magazines, was conducted using an original analytical framework based on competitive advantage. This framework was used to measure the impact on the advertising strategy of the following variables: type of offer, type of market and industry.

Findings

The research indicates that three variables significantly influence advertising strategy: type of offer, type of market, and industry. However, the type of industry is the most influential variable. The study shows that the product/service contrast alone cannot adequately explain the choice of advertising strategy.

Research implications/limitations

The conclusions indicate that the product‐service variable should not be used in isolation, but rather in combination with other variables such as the type of target and the nature of the sector. The research, however, does not enable one to determine the relevance of the advertising choices highlighted.

Practical implications

The framework can enable one to link marketing strategy to advertising strategy. It enables one to clearly pose the problem of advertising strategy upstream from questions of creative approach and executional tools.

Originality/value

This research shows that the product/service variable is not the best explanatory variable of the advertising strategy.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Dorit Zimand-Sheiner and Amir Earon

The purpose of this paper is to focus on transformations in the advertising industry from the point of view of the role and position of account planners. It questions the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on transformations in the advertising industry from the point of view of the role and position of account planners. It questions the current viability of account planning (AP) as a result of digital disruptions.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 18 face-to-face responsive interviews were conducted among professionals who hold planning responsibilities at advertising agencies. A theoretical thematic analysis revealed five main themes which are associated with the disruption of AP roles.

Findings

The research points out that AP is a profession in transition as part of the advertising industry that is undergoing a major shift. Digital transformations have not yet crystallized in the business domain, and so this period is one of learning and adjustment.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested for advertising practitioners, as well as marketing executives, to encourage AP departments to re-think the core significance of the AP department since the AP role needs to be repositioned or even redefined.

Originality/value

The current research has several significant implications for theory and practice: confronting the role of the strategist in advertising agencies vs digital strategy and Big Data; contributing to the understanding of the dynamics of AP transitional roles as a starting point for re-examination of the advertising creative process; and calling for more research exploring the relationship between agency adoption of digital tools and its approach to AP.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 41000