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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1991

Paula J. Haynes

Advertising effectiveness depends on good media selection. Mediadecisions are typically based upon consummatory, or usage, measures.Though perceived usefulness…

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Abstract

Advertising effectiveness depends on good media selection. Media decisions are typically based upon consummatory, or usage, measures. Though perceived usefulness (instrumental media behaviour) is generally not a consideration, consumers′ perceptions of media types as useful have definite implications for advertising and promotional decisions. Moreover, perceived usefulness of a media type cannot simply be inferred from usage data. This study examines both the reported use of and perceived usefulness of media categories. Though newspapers were reported by respondents to be the most useful media type, the relationship between amount of use (consummatory) and perceived usefulness (instrumental) was strongest for magazines and radio. Findings suggest that television advertising may have less impact, and radio advertising greater impact than often assumed. Findings also suggest a segment of instrumentally prone media users.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 9 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Barbie Clarke

Interviews Paul Jackson, chairman of Media Smart, which is a UK media literacy programme founded in 2002 and focusing on advertising; it is aimed at schoolchildren aged…

Abstract

Interviews Paul Jackson, chairman of Media Smart, which is a UK media literacy programme founded in 2002 and focusing on advertising; it is aimed at schoolchildren aged six to 11, is funded by the media industry and supported by Ofcom, the UK government and the European Commission. Introduces the Responsible Advertising and Children group, which Jackson also chairs and which represents European advertisers, agencies and media; it believes that media literacy for children is more effective than outright advertising bans. Outlines the Media Smart programme, which consists of three modules with materials and a DVD, and includes an introduction to advertising, commercial advertisements aimed at children, and non‐commercial advertising; perhaps the most interesting section is on controversies. Notes Jackson’s intention that Media Smart stay focused on advertising, rather than widening its scope in the way that Concerned Children’s Advertisers has done in Canada.

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Young Consumers, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński and Jacek Pogorzelski

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a…

Abstract

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a company’s activity. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the average recipient associates marketing with advertising, competitions and leaflets about new promotions delivered to houses or offices. Advertising, especially Internet advertising, is one of the most effective forms of marketing and one of the fastest developing areas of business. New channels of communication are emerging all the time – the Internet, digital television, mobile telephony; accompanied by new forms, such as the so-called ambient media. Advertising benefits from the achievements of many fields of science, that is, psychology, sociology, statistics, medicine and economics. At the same time, it combines science and the arts – it requires both knowledge and intuition. Contemporary advertising has different forms and areas of activity; yet it is always closely linked with the operations of a company – it is a form of marketing communication.

The indices of marketing communication presented in this chapter are generally known and used not only by advertising agencies but also by the marketing departments of many organisations. Brand awareness, advertising scope and frequency, the penetration index or the response rate belong to the most widely used indices; others, like the conversion rate or the affinity index, will get increasingly more significant along with the process of professionalisation of the environment of marketing specialists in Poland and with increased pressure on measuring marketing activities. Marketing indices are used for not only planning activities, but also their evaluation; some of them, such as telemarketing, mailing and coupons, provide an extensive array of possibilities of performance evaluation.

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Book part
Publication date: 29 December 2016

Jiska Eelen, Fabiënne Rauwers, Verena M. Wottrich, Hilde A. M. Voorveld and Guda van Noort

This chapter provides an overview of the state of knowledge about creative media advertising; choosing a novel medium that implicitly communicates the message. It explains…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter provides an overview of the state of knowledge about creative media advertising; choosing a novel medium that implicitly communicates the message. It explains what creative media advertising is and how it differs from other unconventional marketing communication formats. It addresses the theoretical mechanisms that explain how creative media affects consumers. Its final purpose is to review all the empirical findings about creative media advertising effects.

Methodology/approach

This chapter presents a systematic literature review of all the empirical research about creative media advertising that explicitly compares its effectiveness with traditional media advertising. The 11 reviewed articles with 16 experiments appeared between 2005 and 2015.

Findings

Overall creative media advertising generated positive evaluative outcomes (e.g., brand attitude) and behavior (e.g., word of mouth and sales). These effects were often mediated by a feeling of surprise and an increase in positive thoughts. It remains unclear whether creative media are perceived as persuasion attempts. Mixed findings exist for cognitive outcomes. Creative media advertising seems beneficial for creating strong brand associations, but brand memory might suffer from the technique if solving the link between the medium and the message takes away mental resources for the brand elements in the advertisement.

Originality/value

By reviewing all the literature about creative media advertising, the authors make recommendations for future research and for using creative media in practice. They emphasize potential boundary conditions and ideal circumstances of using creative media advertising.

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Shu-Chuan Chu, Tao Deng and Hong Cheng

This study aims to provide an assessment of the existing literature on the role of social media advertising in hospitality, tourism and travel (HTT) as well as an agenda…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide an assessment of the existing literature on the role of social media advertising in hospitality, tourism and travel (HTT) as well as an agenda for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

Covering a 15-year time span (2004–2019), this study is focused on journal papers archived in two academic databases in social sciences: Business Source Complete and Communication and Mass Media Complete. Each of the 192 papers collected was coded for 8 major variables: journal, year of publication, research topic, country studied, type of social media investigated, method, theoretical underpinning and key findings.

Findings

Three major topic areas are identified in this study: use of social media from consumer’s perspective, use of social media from organization’s perspective and effects of social media.

Research limitations/implications

Although a few prior papers have provided a literature review of social media in tourism and hospitality, no review-based papers have ever examined social media as an advertising vehicle in the context of HTT. Most reviews to date have been limited to general social media studies, without much advancement of theory building in advertising research.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper represents the first theoretical review of academic research on social media advertising in HTT. The review concludes by suggesting a theoretical framework for studying social media advertising in HTT and offering an agenda for future research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Manel Hamouda

This study aims to deepen the current understanding of social media advertising by using the Ducoffe’s advertising value model. The purpose of this paper is to examine the…

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8459

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to deepen the current understanding of social media advertising by using the Ducoffe’s advertising value model. The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents of advertising value and its consequences on consumers’ attitude and behavior in the specific context of tourism advertising on Facebook.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey was conducted on a quota sample of 352 Tunisian Facebook users. Web-based questionnaires were used to collect the data which was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

Findings indicate that there is a significant relationship between informativeness, entertainment, credibility and social media advertising value. This positive value will affect favorably consumers’ attitude toward social media advertising and their behavioral responses. The moderator effect of corporate reputation was also confirmed in this relationship.

Practical implications

Tourism marketers should focus not only on developing information-rich and entertaining social media advertisements but also a credible content of the ads. Furthermore, Facebook should be systematically integrated by tourism practitioners in their communication strategy as it affects the attitude and consequently the behavior of the consumers especially when the company using social media advertising has a good corporate reputation.

Originality/value

In the tourism context, the effectiveness of social media advertising remains little known to practitioners and scholars despite the frequent use of social media by tourism customers and companies in recent years. So, this research study contributes to a better understanding of the use of social media advertising on Facebook regarding tourism products and services.

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Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Henry Boateng and Abednego Feehi Okoe

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between consumers’ attitude toward social media advertising and their behavioural response and the moderating…

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21432

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between consumers’ attitude toward social media advertising and their behavioural response and the moderating effect of corporate reputation in this relationship. Social media advertising is gradually gaining grounds among practitioners and researchers.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey design was used and the respondents totaled 441. They were selected using convenience sampling technique. Questionnaires were used to collect the data and analyzed using hierarchical regression.

Findings

Findings indicate that there is a significant relationship between consumers’ attitude toward social media advertising and their behavioural responses. Again, it was noted that corporate reputation moderates this relationship.

Research limitations/implications

This study relied on convenience sampling and a cross-sectional survey design, which makes it difficult to generalize the findings and account for changes that occurred in the attitude of consumers.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of the moderating role of corporate reputation in consumers’ attitude toward social media advertising.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Wonsun Shin

The purposes of this study are to examine how parents implement discussion-based parental mediation (i.e. active mediation) to influence the way children understand…

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1252

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this study are to examine how parents implement discussion-based parental mediation (i.e. active mediation) to influence the way children understand advertising on television, computers and smartphones and to investigate factors associated with parental mediation practices.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted with parents in Singapore whose children were watching television, using computers with internet access and using smartphones.

Findings

The degree to which parents engage in active mediation of advertising is similar across different media. Active mediation of advertising is more a function of parents’ attitudes toward advertising directed to children, parents’ concerns about media influence on their children and parental self-efficacy rather than the age of their children.

Research limitations/implications

The survey was conducted in a single country and did not examine the consequences of parental mediation of advertising. Future research should consider cross-cultural perspectives and investigate the outcomes of parental mediation.

Practical implications

For advertising practitioners, this study argues that it is important to understand how parents view different forms of advertising. For media educators and policy makers, this study suggests that various parental factors should be considered to develop effective guidelines for parents.

Originality/value

This study adds novel insights to the literature on consumer socialization by investigating how parents – the primary socialization agents in children’s development of consumption-related behaviors – help children understand advertising across different media.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2018

Laura Frances Bright and Kelty Logan

Social media usage has become ubiquitous in our society – consumers are spending upwards of 20 percent of their media time on social sites interacting with friends, family…

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4743

Abstract

Purpose

Social media usage has become ubiquitous in our society – consumers are spending upwards of 20 percent of their media time on social sites interacting with friends, family and brands (Adler, 2016) and all of this usage is driving fatigue. The purpose of this paper is to examine how advertising factors such as attitude and intrusiveness impact social media fatigue as well as two consumer behavior factors, fear of missing out (FOMO) and privacy.

Design/methodology/approach

A 190-item questionnaire was developed and administered to an opt-in subject pool recruited for web-based research (i.e. online panel). A representative sample of 750 US social media users was recruited for the survey of which 518 respondents were valid and usable.

Findings

Results indicate that FOMO has the greatest impact on social media fatigue, not advertising factors as predicted. In addition, privacy concerns continue to plague consumers and should be monitored by advertisers.

Research limitations/implications

With regard to limitation, the survey contained a variety of self-reported measures that can tend to be under-reported, especially when it comes to social media usage as evidenced in a recent study (Adler, 2016).

Originality/value

This research undertook an investigation of consumer perceptions of social media advertising and how those relate to social media fatigue and psychological factors such as privacy and FOMO. In looking at these constructs, a clearer picture of how consumer perceptions of advertising impact levels of social media fatigue has emerged. In addition, the results provide a better understanding of FOMO, a psychological factor that significantly contributes to social media fatigue.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Shintaro Okazaki and Charles R. Taylor

The primary aim of this article is to identify theoretical foundations that can be used in research on social media in the context of international advertising research…

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39102

Abstract

Purpose

The primary aim of this article is to identify theoretical foundations that can be used in research on social media in the context of international advertising research. An additional objective is to identify future research directions for theory building in this research area.

Design/methodology/approach

The article draws on the extant literature to identify three key theoretical foundations that can be used in research on advertising in media from an advertising perspective: networking capability; image transferability; and personal extensibility. For each of these perspectives, the current state of knowledge, theoretical challenges, and future research directions are summarized.

Findings

The three key theoretical perspectives (networking capability, image transferability, and personal extensibility) provide strong potential for better understanding the advantages and disadvantages of social media use for advertisers. They are also useful for identifying important research gaps that need to be filled in the future.

Research limitations/implications

Research on social media advertising in an international context is still in its infancy, and needs further attention. As few cross‐cultural studies have been conducted, the theories and their application will likely evolve in the future.

Originality/value

A review and conceptual framework pertaining to theoretical perspective used in social media research in an international advertising context has been practically non‐existent. Thus, this article is designed to serve as a solid starting point for future research endeavors.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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