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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1967

WILLIAM KELLY

Automated expense control systems using computers are feasible and have been of great utility in exercising cost control and imp ementing sophisticated auditing procedures…

Abstract

Automated expense control systems using computers are feasible and have been of great utility in exercising cost control and imp ementing sophisticated auditing procedures for advertising expenditures. As a tool of managment, provision of current information in great detail has enabled advertising and product managers to take corrective action quickly and decisively as emergency situations develop. It has facilitated advance planning, and has made possible an effective follow‐up on the progress of the advertising plan as it is worked out during the budgetary period. Surveillance by several independent offices—advertising, product managment, advertising control—makes it less probable that over‐charges, omissions and the like will go undetected. Smaller organisations could certainly benefit from such an advertising control system, but it has become a “must” for the large, decentralised, multi‐product company where because of their number, marketing programs can easily get ”lost in the shuffle“.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Laís Rodrigues, Alessandra de Sá Mello da Costa and Marcus Wilcox Hemais

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how, in three different contexts, the National Council for Advertising Self-Regulation narratively uses its past to build an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how, in three different contexts, the National Council for Advertising Self-Regulation narratively uses its past to build an official history concerning its origins that legitimates advertising self-control as a hegemonic narrative.

Design/methodology/approach

By using the historical research and the “uses of the past” approach, this study identifies, analyzes and confronts three organizational histories of Conar’s origins (both its official and unofficial versions) in the context of the creation of the Brazilian system of advertising self-regulation.

Findings

After a thematic analysis of the documentary sources, the narratives on the National Council for Advertising Self-Regulation’s origins and the self-control process were grouped into three versions: the narrative under the military regime: 1976/1980; the narrative during the process of re-democratization of the country: 1981/1991 and the contemporary narrative: from 2005 onwards. These narratives were confronted and, in consequence, provided, each of them, a different interpretation of the context surrounding the creation and justification for advertising self-control.

Originality/value

The study shows how a consumer defense organization re-historicized its past strategically to gain legitimacy in three different ways through time. It also reveals that organizations strategically use their past to build an intended vision of the future, thus having more agency than the hegemonic literature in management studies usually guarantees. Finally, it exposes the malleability of past narratives through which organizations play a critical role in the ongoing struggle for competing uses of the past. Therefore, the study identifies different organizational stories through time that allow researchers to reflect on several strategic uses of the past by organizations.

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Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Xiaohan Hu and Kevin Wise

The playable ad is a new type of digital advertising that combines interactivity with gamification. Guided by psychological reactance theory, this study aims to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

The playable ad is a new type of digital advertising that combines interactivity with gamification. Guided by psychological reactance theory, this study aims to explore the psychological processes and effects of playable ads on consumers’ perceived control and product attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducted two experiments to examine the relationship between playable ads, perceived control and product attitude. This paper also applied psychological reactance theory and investigated whether perceived control triggered by the interactive features of playable ads influenced psychological reactance toward them.

Findings

Findings from two experiments show that playable ads, compared to video ads, increased consumers’ perceived control, which, in turn, led to more positive attitudes toward the advertised products (Studies 1 and 2). This study also supports psychological reactance theory by revealing that increased perceived control diminished perceived freedom threat and subsequently alleviated consumers’ psychological reactance toward advertising messages (Study 2).

Originality/value

This study sheds light on the effectiveness of a new type of ad-game integration – playable ads. Different from prior research in gamification of advertising, this paper examined the effectiveness of playable ads in an information processing context in which the ads were not the primary task to focus on. This study also extends psychological reactance theory in the context of interactive marketing by exploring the effect of perceived control afforded by digital message features in mitigating reactance.

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Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Howard Johnson

It is undoubtedly the case that advertising plays a significant part in modern economic life in most societies and many view it as an essential part of the operation of a…

Abstract

It is undoubtedly the case that advertising plays a significant part in modern economic life in most societies and many view it as an essential part of the operation of a free market system. Yet it is also the case that our knowledge of how exactly it works and whether the vast amounts spent on it are justified is still uncertain. Lord Leverhulme, the founder of Lever Brothers, is credited with the famous aphorism — ‘one half of advertising does not work but nobody knows which half’ and that perhaps sums up the situation very well. One thing that is generally accepted is that some protection must be provided both to consumers and trade competitors from false or misleading advertising which can lead to market distortions and economic loss to purchasers. Increasingly controversial, however, is the scope and extent of legal and voluntary controls on advertising. In the advertising industry fears are rising about the volume of both national and EEC proposals to restrict or limit advertising and as we move from the '80s, a decade of conspicuous consumption in which advertising flourished, to the caring '90s where environmental issues are to the fore, the advertising industry faces major challenges. Advertising as a whole is facing severe economic and legal challenges after the massive expansion of the 1980's — it is estimated that there was a 4% fall in real terms in UK advertising expenditure in the first quarter of 1990 and an estimated 5% fall in the second quarter. Clients are becoming more demanding and the cosy cartel arrangement whereby advertising agencies made a 15% standard commission on a client's expenditure has gone — commissions are down to 12%‐13% or being replaced by fixed fees. It has been estimated by the Advertising Association that proposed legal restrictions could lead to a loss of £1 bn in revenue for the industry. Multi‐farious pressure groups are campaigning against drink advertising, cigarette advertising and sexism in adverts. The advertising industry's concerns are reflected in a recent report by the Advertising Association — ‘A Freedom Under Threat — Advertising in the EC’. The report indicates a number of areas where legislative controls have been introduced or are proposed to be introduced over the next few years and expresses the fear that controls may be going too far in limiting freedom of ‘commercial speech’. Martin Boase, chairman of the Advertising Association writes in his introduction to the report:

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Evert Van den Broeck, Karolien Poels and Michel Walrave

This paper aims to investigate the role of five highly relevant advertiser- (i.e. personalization and ad placement) and consumer-controlled (i.e. privacy concerns…

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1445

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the role of five highly relevant advertiser- (i.e. personalization and ad placement) and consumer-controlled (i.e. privacy concerns, perceived relevance and Facebook motives) factors in the evaluation and perceived outcomes of personalized Facebook advertising as well as how these factors interrelate.

Design/methodology/approach

Twenty-eight semi-structured interviews, in which elicitation techniques were used, were carried out among 25- to 55-year-old Facebook users.

Findings

The findings point to a complex tradeoff between the risks and benefits of personalized Facebook advertising, in which perceived relevance and Facebook use motives play a vital role.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused on the general Facebook advertising experience, yet the elicitation techniques were applied only on the desktop website. Future research should look further into mobile advertising formats.

Practical implications

Personalization and retargeting algorithms could be improved and ads should be designed with the customers’ interests in mind to improve their effectiveness and reduce privacy concerns.

Originality/value

Social media advertising innovates at a high pace. Yet, the literature shows an urgent need for research into which ad formats and characteristics appeal to users and why (or why not). Qualitative studies into the determinants of advertising outcomes are scarce but highly needed because they can uncover complex interactions between factors and thus provide a deeper understanding.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Debra Harker

The purpose of this paper is to examine the regulatory options available to control advertising on the internet.

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5672

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the regulatory options available to control advertising on the internet.

Design/methodology/approach

The analytical framework for this study was derived from Harker and colleagues' work on effective advertising self‐regulation (ASR). The key areas of the legal regulatory framework, the self‐regulatory framework, prevailing community standards, and industry compliance were examined in the context of the internet; the focus being the achievement of acceptable advertising. Dick's convergent interviewing techniques were utilised during a number of depth interviews with key stakeholders and the data were analysed using Strauss' and Strauss and Corbin's guidelines.

Findings

This qualitative approach allowed great insight to be gained in a “messy” area. A number of regulatory options are suggested, ranging along a continuum from full control to no control. Whilst controlling advertising on traditional media is moving towards best practice, the dynamic context of the internet provides new challenges for all stakeholders in terms of consumer protection.

Research limitations/implications

A significant limitation of any research concerned with the internet relates to the currency of information, and this is difficult to account for in this dynamic environment.

Originality/value

Whilst there have been many research papers describing approaches to traditional ASR, there is little to guide us when it comes to options for controlling online advertising. This paper has attempted to push the research boundary a little further in this regard and is meant to be a paper that will hopefully stimulate other research colleagues to challenge ideas and the traditional view.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2019

Emma Beuckels, Snezhanka Kazakova, Veroline Cauberghe, Liselot Hudders and Patrick De Pelsmacker

Past research suggests that heavy media multitaskers (HMMs) perform worse on tasks that require executive control, compared to light media multitaskers (LMMs). This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Past research suggests that heavy media multitaskers (HMMs) perform worse on tasks that require executive control, compared to light media multitaskers (LMMs). This paper aims to investigate whether individual differences between HMMs and LMMs make them respond differently to advertising in a media multitasking context and whether this stems from differences in the ability versus the motivation to regulate one’s attention. This is investigated by manipulating participants’ autonomy over attention allocation.

Design/methodology/approach

For the first study (n = 85), a between subjects design with three conditions was used: sequential, multitasking under low autonomy over attention allocation and multitasking under high autonomy over attention allocation. This study investigated the inhibitory control of HMMs vs LMMs in a very controlled multitasking setting. The second study (n = 91) replicated the design of study one in a more naturalistic media multitasking setting and investigated the driving role of motivation vs ability for cognitive load differences between HMMs and LMMs and the consequent impact on advertising effectiveness.

Findings

Study I suggests that HMMs perform worse on a response inhibition task than LMMs after multitasking freely (in which case motivation to regulate attention determines the process), but not after their attention was guided externally by the experimenter (in which case their motivation could no longer determine the process). Study II argues that when motivation to switch attention is at play, cognitive load differences occur between HMMs and LMMs. This study additionally reveals that under these circumstances, HMMs are more persuaded by advertisements (report higher purchase intentions) compared to LMMs, while no differences appear when only ability is at play.

Research limitations/implications

Executive control exists of different components (Miyake et al., 2000). The current study only focused on the impact of media multitasking frequency on response inhibition, but it would be interesting for future research to investigate whether media multitasking frequency equally affects the other sub-dimensions. Additionally, the impairment of response inhibition has been shown to predict a large number of other behavioral and impulse-control outcomes such as unhealthy food choices and alcohol and drug use (e.g. Friese et al., 2008). Future research should consider investigating other consequences of heavy media multitasking behavior, both advertising related and unrelated.

Practical implications

From a practical point of view, understanding the mechanisms that are driving the effects of media multitasking on advertising effectiveness for different groups of media-consumers could make it easier for practitioners to efficiently plan their media campaigns. Based on the findings of this study, the authors can derive that HMMs will be more depleted in cognitive resources and inhibitory control when media multitasking compared to LMMs. Consequently, this makes them more prone to advertising messages. This knowledge is of great importance for advertisers who could, based here on, aim to target HMMs more often than LMMs.

Originality/value

Two experimental studies by the authors confirm and add value to previous academic findings about the negative relation between media multitasking frequency and tasks that demand executive control. This study contributed to the previous by investigating whether individual differences between heavy and light media multitaskers make them respond differently toward advertising and whether the driving mechanism of these differences is a lack of motivation or ability to efficiently shift attention.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Bernard Frank Kinman and Gerald Vinten

Tobacco has exercised the interest of the nation since Elizabethan times, and the inhalation of its smoke for pleasure has become very widespread. It was not until the…

Abstract

Tobacco has exercised the interest of the nation since Elizabethan times, and the inhalation of its smoke for pleasure has become very widespread. It was not until the mid‐twentieth century, however, that its effects upon health were suspected. It is now widely accepted that tobacco smoke is implicated in a range of dangerous diseases, although the tobacco industry sometimes argues that the link is not proven. The arguments about the conflicting needs of a large, world‐wide industry and the health and prosperity of individuals and society are complex, and often influenced by conflicting vested interests. Government's involvement in the issues is further complicated by its reliance upon large tobacco revenues. The link between advertising and increased smoking, either by existing or new smokers, is not proved by research, although there are strong indications that it exists. The behaviour of most parties involved, including the tobacco companies, indicates that they share the belief of a link. Voluntary controls upon tobacco advertising have had some effect, in that, for example, advertising in the U.K. is no longer overtly directed at children, but various anti‐smoking lobbies believe voluntary control to be ineffective. The present British government has toyed wth the possibility of statutory control, but faces stiff opposition from back‐benchers and within the cabinet; it is also probably philosophically opposed to such measures. More research is needed into the link between advertising and smoking behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 15 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Gordon E. Miracle and Terence Nevett

Until the late 19th century, the controls on advertising in Britain and the US depended on complying with laws relating to defamation and on the ethical values of…

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1032

Abstract

Until the late 19th century, the controls on advertising in Britain and the US depended on complying with laws relating to defamation and on the ethical values of advertisers and media proprietors. During the 20th century, concerns about public safety from dangerous products or services, recognition of the need to safeguard people from misleading or untrue claims, and attempts to strike a balance in the interests of fair trading have led to movements for both self‐regulation, as well as some legal restrictions on marketing and advertising practices. Differences in British and American practices have arisen from the nature of the legal systems and the cultural mores of the respective societies.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Keke Wu, Yan Yu and Dayong Dong

This paper aims to examine the direct and indirect effects of advertising on investor behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the direct and indirect effects of advertising on investor behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a novel and direct measure of investor attention: the number of investors whose watch lists has the stock.

Findings

The authors find that beyond its direct effect through information dissemination, advertising has an indirect effect with regard to grabbing investor attention and the trading response. The authors further find that an increase in attention induces a positive influence on the impact of advertising on investor behavior.

Originality/value

First, it complements studies of home bias, in which investors are more likely to buy familiar stocks. Second, it also complements the literature on advertising and investor attention and on attention and capital markets. Third, with a new and unambiguous measure of investor attention. Fourth, combining the direct and indirect aspects, this study presents a detailed description of the financial market effect of advertising.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

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