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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Peter Nyheim, Shi Xu, Lu Zhang and Anna S. Mattila

This paper aims to examine the effect of privacy concern, irritation and personalization on Millennials’ perceptions of personalized smartphone advertising avoidance in a…

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1735

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of privacy concern, irritation and personalization on Millennials’ perceptions of personalized smartphone advertising avoidance in a restaurant context. The hospitality industry has witnessed a huge surge in mobile activity over the past few years. Mobility opens up a new communication channel and allows industry to connect with their guests in a more personalized way. However, not all customers welcome the personalized advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 159 Millennials enrolled in a large state university in the Eastern USA using an online self-administered survey. These Millennials were asked to use a restaurant’s smartphone application for 30 days and then complete a survey based on their perceptions of personalized advertising. Descriptive analysis, reliability, factor analysis and regression analysis were used to evaluate the relationships among the four constructs: privacy concern, irritation, personalization and advertising avoidance, with the first three variables as predictors and advertising avoidance as an outcome.

Findings

The results suggest that advertising irritation is positively related to advertising avoidance, perceived personalization is related with less advertising avoidance, while privacy concern is not related to advertising avoidance.

Originality/value

Although advertising avoidance has previously been studied for the past few decades, little research has explored the underlying mechanisms of the Millennials’ avoidance of personalized smartphone advertising in a restaurant context. The current research suggests information pertinent to strategies for marketing personalized smartphone advertisement for restaurant companies.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Zana Knittel, Karolin Beurer and Adele Berndt

The purpose of this research is to explore the reasons for brand avoidance among Generation Y consumers. Researchers have traditionally focused on the positive…

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5616

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explore the reasons for brand avoidance among Generation Y consumers. Researchers have traditionally focused on the positive relationship between consumers and brands, but, increasingly, consumers are consciously avoiding brands.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study consisting of both focus groups and interviews was conducted among Generation Y participants.

Findings

The findings support previous research that identifies four types of brand avoidance, namely, experiential, identity, moral and deficit-value avoidance. However, the study also suggests that an additional type of brand avoidance, namely, advertising avoidance, also occurs. Aspects of advertising that can contribute to brand avoidance include the content of the advertising, the use of a celebrity endorser and the music in the advertising, as well as the response to the advertising. This study thus proposes an expanded framework of brand avoidance.

Research limitations/implications

This study has found support for the existing types and reasons impacting brand avoidance but suggests that advertising may also impact brand avoidance. This is an aspect that requires further research.

Practical implications

For marketing managers, the findings suggest that not only can product experiences result in brand avoidance, but that advertising may be a further reason for this phenomenon.

Originality/value

While there has been a great deal of attention on the positive aspects of brands, research on the negative aspects has largely been ignored. Further, the identification of advertising as a reason for brand avoidance is also suggested.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Paul Edwin Ketelaar, Ruben Konig, Edith G. Smit and Helge Thorbjørnsen

– This paper aims to provide insight into the relationship between religiousness, trust in advertising and advertisement avoidance.

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2802

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide insight into the relationship between religiousness, trust in advertising and advertisement avoidance.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 4,984 participants from the USA, the UK, Germany, Spain and France was conducted.

Findings

This paper shows that religiousness is a (negative) predictor of avoidance of advertisements in traditional and digital media and that advertisement trustworthiness mediates this effect. Higher perceived trustworthiness of advertising among the more religious people leads to less advertisement avoidance. Less religious people trust advertising less and, consequently, show higher advertisement avoidance. The role of religiousness is explained by a positive relationship between religiousness and perceived advertisement trustworthiness because of religious people’s general conformity to authority and because of religion’s emphasis on the good of fellow human beings.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation is that response bias may have occurred because of the self-reported data on advertisement avoidance in different media. Another limitation is that though the use of existing panels has advantages, it also has disadvantages. Two such disadvantages of the sampling procedure are the considerable non-responses and the impossibility of a non-response analysis for our study. Although all the respondents had Internet access and responded fairly quickly to the survey, we do not know whether they are special in any systematic way.

Practical implications

The implication of the current paper is that advertisers might also benefit from more closely examining religion and religiousness as a key variable for segmentation. Religiousness constitutes a relatively stable society grouping, and media vehicles also are available for targeting people with different religions within societies (e.g. Websites, social media, magazines, television channels).

Originality/value

This paper is the first to examine the relationship between religiousness, trust in advertising and advertisement avoidance from an international perspective. This is important because religiousness may have an impact on marketing communication efforts.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Syed Hassan Raza, Hassan Abu Bakar and Bahtiar Mohamad

This study aims to examine the effects of the advertising appeals (AP) on consumers’ behavioural intention, specifically to use global brands. In addition, the study…

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1055

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of the advertising appeals (AP) on consumers’ behavioural intention, specifically to use global brands. In addition, the study investigates how attitude operates as a process variable that mediates the relationship between AP and behavioural intention (BI). This paper also explores the congruity of individuals’ norms in advertising appeal–intention relationship. Centred on the theory of planned behaviour, this study proposes a model that encompasses norm congruence, in which the degree of individuals’ uncertainty avoidance (UA) moderates the relationship between advertising appeal (AP) and behavioural intention (BI), and attitude towards advertising appeal (AT) serve as key causal mechanism that mediates advertising appeal–behaviour relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model was tested using a 2 × 2 experimental design with a sample size of 372.

Findings

Results showed that the relationship between AP and BI based on global brands is significantly mediated by attitude towards AP and moderated by uncertainty avoidance. These findings have yielded partial validation of the proposed model and have provided empirical support for the roles of uncertainty avoidance and attitude towards AP.

Practical implications

The authors propose that marketers should reduce the level of consumers’ uncertainty. Uncertainty avoidance effects can be achieved through the dissemination of norm-congruent advertisement appeals and by placing more weight on social compatibility attributes which may gratify consumers’ interest, sebsequently enhance the intention of Muslim consumers to use global brands.

Originality/value

A moderator is a variable that affects the strength of the relation between the predictor and criterion variable. This paper also explores the congruity of individuals’ norms in advertising appeal–intention relationship. Previous studies did not capture any effects of culturally congruent advertising appeals by considering the level of uncertainty avoidance influence on individuals’ intention to use global brands in a Muslim country context. In response to the recent calls for research to re-examine the antecedents of the theory of planned behaviour, this study re-evaluates the roles of attitude towards AP and the interaction of cultural norms.

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Book part
Publication date: 29 December 2016

Sara Rosengren

The purpose of the chapter is to understand advertising attention in new formats. More specifically, it argues that new advertising formats might force advertising

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the chapter is to understand advertising attention in new formats. More specifically, it argues that new advertising formats might force advertising practitioners and researchers to reframe the challenges of gaining attention as one of understanding advertising approach rather than advertising avoidance.

Methodology/approach

The chapter is conceptual and builds on a review of literature on advertising attention, advertising avoidance, and advertising approach.

Research/practical implications

The chapter concludes with a review of future research directions. More specifically, it points out implications of shifting perspective from advertising avoidance to advertising approach for advertising practitioners and researcher alike.

Originality/value

The chapter offers a novel perspective on advertising attention in new advertising formats. In doing so, it hopes to stimulate more research on consumers’ willingness to approach (rather than avoid) advertising.

Details

Advertising in New Formats and Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-312-9

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Gerard P. Prendergast, Alex S.L. Tsang and Ranis Cheng

Handbills are an interesting advertising medium since they are distributed by people in a social context. Little, however, is known about why handbills are often avoided…

Abstract

Purpose

Handbills are an interesting advertising medium since they are distributed by people in a social context. Little, however, is known about why handbills are often avoided. This study was designed with the purpose of extending previous research on advertising avoidance by using social psychological variables to explain consumers' avoidance of handbills in Hong Kong and the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 337 individuals was conducted (166 in Hong Kong and 171 in the UK). A series of hypotheses relating to perceived handbill clutter, perceived goal impediment, and the perceived manner of the distributer were tested.

Findings

Perceived handbill clutter was found to be the strongest predictor of handbill avoidance in both Hong Kong and the UK. The second strongest predictor was perceived goal impediment. The perceived manner of the distributor did not predict handbill avoidance in Hong Kong, but it did predict handbill avoidance in the UK.

Research limitations/implications

The study's methodology has a number of limitations. First, the measure of the distributor's perceived manner may not have directly tapped the distributor dimensions of importance to handbill avoidance. Second, no account was taken of non-response bias. The model also did not recognize that there may be other variables capable of explaining handbill avoidance.

Practical implications

The results suggest that effort is needed to raise the perceived value of handbills so that their perceived value neutralizes any perceptions of goal impediment. In addition, handbill designers need to find creative ways to stand out from the clutter. In the UK, deportment should be considered when distributors are recruited and trained.

Originality/value

Handbills are frequently used as a promotional tool. In two contrasting countries, this study found that perceived handbill clutter, perceived goal impediment, and perceived manner of the distributer influence handbill avoidance. The research has extended theoretical knowledge related to advertising avoidance and generated insights that are likely to be of practical value to marketers.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Erdener Kaynak, Ali Kara, Clement S.F. Chow and Ali Riza Apil

The empirical, cross-national study reported here examines how time orientations influence attitudes toward advertising in two emerging Asian economies with very different…

Abstract

Purpose

The empirical, cross-national study reported here examines how time orientations influence attitudes toward advertising in two emerging Asian economies with very different background and time orientation, namely Macau and Georgia. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaire was used as an instrument to conduct a survey for the study. The questionnaire design was adapted from Rojas-Méndez et al. study. The two samples were collected through either a drop-off-and-pick-up method or street-intercept interview.

Findings

Georgians are found to be more past oriented and had had more suspicious feelings about advertising whereas Macau data indicated more future-orientation was the most dominant dimensions and they had better dispositions towards advertising.

Practical implications

With the findings, managers of different time orientation markets can consider one more factor to strike for the optimal balance in placing their promotional budget between pull and push strategy, and between above-the-line and below-the-line activities when executing the pull strategy.

Social implications

Government of different time orientation can be more informed of the effectiveness of using advertising to communicate with its citizens in its culture.

Originality/value

Studies on how time orientation relates to attitudes toward advertising are few and such relationship appears to be never compared within two Asian countries with very different background and time orientation.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 May 2021

Simone Aiolfi, Silvia Bellini and Davide Pellegrini

The research aims to investigate how individuals can be persuaded to make purchases through repeated and personalized messages. Specifically, the study proposes a…

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3137

Abstract

Purpose

The research aims to investigate how individuals can be persuaded to make purchases through repeated and personalized messages. Specifically, the study proposes a framework of the potential benefits and risks of the online behavioral and data-driven digital advertising (OBA), which can help researchers and practitioners to better understand shopping behavior in the online retailing setting. In addition, the research focuses on the role of privacy concerns in affecting avoidance or adoption of OBA.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach with partial least square (PLS) regression method to test the research hypotheses through data coming from a structured questionnaire.

Findings

OBA is a controversial type of advertising that activates opposing reactions on consumers' perspective. Specifically, acceptance of the OBA is positively related to relevance, usefulness and credibility of the personalized advertisements, while the intention to avoid personalized ads is strictly related to the privacy concerns. Consequently, OBA acceptance and avoidance affected the click intention on the ad and the behavioral intention that are decisive for the success of data-driven digital advertising.

Originality/value

Prior research came up with complex theoretical frameworks that explain antecedents of OBA focusing only on ethical issues in marketing, on the effectiveness of a single OBA campaign or on how to create a successful advertising campaign. However, no study focuses on the intended or actual behavior of shoppers. Specifically, filling the gap in the existing literature, our research applies an SEM approach to identify both benefits and risks and the antecedents of the actual behavior of individuals in terms of actual purchases promoted by OBA.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Steve Dix and Ian Phau

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a scale (SITUZAP) to measure the situational factors that trigger channel switching, specifically within the…

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1149

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a scale (SITUZAP) to measure the situational factors that trigger channel switching, specifically within the television environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The domain construct is defined and 14 potential scale items were drawn from the literature and qualitative research. The scale was purified during the pilot phase and three scale items removed. The scale was re‐tested during the main study via an independent sample, confirming the two‐dimensional nature of the scale.

Findings

Reliability analysis indicates that the scale is internally consistent with co‐efficient alpha high across both pilot and main studies. Moreover, confirmatory factor analysis supports the two‐factor measurement model – “advertising triggers” and “RCD empowerment”. The test‐retest result (r=0.662) further provides evidence of stability within the scale. The scale has also been verified for content, criterion, discriminant, and nomological validity. All other indicators are within the acceptable range of statistics.

Originality/value

This is the first scale that measures the effect of situational factors on channel switching.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Xiaodong Li, Chuang Wang and Yanping Zhang

Due to customers' extensive avoidance behavior, social commerce may be less successful than anticipated. This study investigates the underlying mechanism and antecedents…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to customers' extensive avoidance behavior, social commerce may be less successful than anticipated. This study investigates the underlying mechanism and antecedents that influence customers' avoidance of peer-generated advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the general framework of avoidance behavior, we propose a theoretical model for the context of a mobile social network, with tie strength as the user-related factor and violation of shared language, advertisement relevance and information overload as contextual variables. Using survey data collected from 334 customers on WeChat, we empirically examine the research model and hypotheses.

Findings

Tie strength and advertisement relevance are negatively associated with avoidance behavior, whereas information overload and violation of shared language have significantly positive effects. Furthermore, tie strength weakens the negative relationship between violation of shared language and avoidance behavior but strengthens the positive relationship between advertisement relevance and avoidance behavior.

Originality/value

The findings extend understanding of advertisement avoidance behavior and can guide practitioners' improvement of advertising efficiency in mobile social networks.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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