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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Mohammed M. Almossawi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of religion on the effectiveness of product packages in attracting customers’ attention, and forming their…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of religion on the effectiveness of product packages in attracting customers’ attention, and forming their attitudes, preferences, and buying decisions. In other words, the study aims at finding out how do Muslims respond to product packages including elements believed to disagree with the Islamic values, in this study referred to as “contentious packages.”

Design/methodology/approach

To test the five hypotheses, the study recruited 300 young Muslims in Bahrain, chosen from the population of 14,000 students of the University of Bahrain aged between 20 and 25, 26 percent male and 74 percent female. The primary data were collected through personal interviews with the selected sample, using a specially designed questionnaire. The questionnaire included ten questions covering two personal questions for age and gender and eight other questions attempting to find out Muslims’ responses to contentious packages in terms of attention, attitudes, buying intention, company image, and word-of-mouth.

Findings

Findings indicate that use of contentious packaging runs a high risk of tarnishing a company’s reputation and appeal. Muslims who live by Shari’a and the dictates of the Kuran will consider such companies to be promoters of fornication, and will therefore boycott such companies in order to prevent them from corrupting the purity and piety of the community. If advertising firms continue to fail in recognizing the profundity of these beliefs within Muslim communities, both their fiscal success and reputation run the risk of suffering substantial damage.

Practical implications

The findings of this study send six important messages to multinational companies doing business in Islamic countries. First, Islam governs all aspects of Muslim life, including consumer behavior. Second, to prosper in Islamic countries, choose packaging that does not contradict or offend the principles and values of Islam. Third, recognize that much packaging that has proven to be effective in Western countries will not be successful in Islamic countries due to vastly different cultural environments. Fourth, a contentious package may result in a steep drop in the sales. Fifth, using contentious packages may damage the reputation. Sixth, you can attract more Muslims by using non-contentious packages.

Originality/value

This paper is of great value to companies who wish to expand their practice in Muslim countries. Its findings promise to improve advertising standards and to increase both company profits and customer satisfaction.

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Hanna Berg, Magnus Söderlund and Annika Lindström

The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer response to pictures of smiling models in marketing, focusing on the roles of emotional contagion from the smiling models…

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2264

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer response to pictures of smiling models in marketing, focusing on the roles of emotional contagion from the smiling models and the perceived typicality of marketing with smiling models.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports the findings from three experimental studies, comparing consumer response to two versions of an advertisement (Study 1) and a packaging design (Study 2 and 3), including either a picture of a smiling or a non-smiling model. To measure consumer response, a combination of self-report questionnaires and eye-tracking methodology was used.

Findings

The pictures of smiling models produced more consumer joy and more positive attitudes for the marketing. The positive effects on attitudes were mediated by consumer joy, and the effects on consumer joy were mediated by the perceived typicality of the marketing with smiling models.

Originality/value

Despite the ubiquity of photos of smiling faces in marketing, very few studies have isolated the effects of the smile appeal on consumer response to marketing objects. By comparing marketing where the same model is shown smiling or with a neutral facial expression, the positive effects were isolated. The roles of emotional contagion and perceived typicality in this mechanism were also examined and implications of the findings for research and practitioners are discussed.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Huda Khan, Larry Lockshin, Richard Lee and Armando Corsi

The common market practice by global consumer brands to create localised packaging for foreign markets conflicts with findings that cast doubt on this strategy. By…

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1434

Abstract

Purpose

The common market practice by global consumer brands to create localised packaging for foreign markets conflicts with findings that cast doubt on this strategy. By examining the differential influence of standard (Western) and local (Chinese) packaging on Chinese consumers’ perceptions and choice behaviour, this study aims to examine whether this strategy is effective or even necessary.

Design/methodology/approach

A pre-test first identified suitable products and brands. Using a multiple methods approach, online participants in China first rated the brands and packaging of hedonic and utilitarian products. The ratings were then validated by triangulating with the results of a discrete choice experiment that captured participants’ choice behaviour.

Findings

For hedonic products, standard packaging is rated more positively and chosen more often than local packaging. For utilitarian products, there are no differences in ratings and choice. For hedonic products, brand likeability is higher for standard packaging than for local packaging. For utilitarian products, brand likeability does not differ between the two packaging types.

Research limitations/implications

These findings cast doubt on the effectiveness of indiscriminate packaging localisation. International marketers need to rethink their approach, particularly in non-Western markets. Interviews with five brand managers in charge of major consumer brands in China revealed their actual market practice and further illuminate this study’s findings.

Originality/value

This is first study to question the common market practice of packaging localisation and investigate the differential effects of standard versus local packaging of foreign products on consumers’ perceptions and choice behaviour.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Clive Nancarrow, Len Tiu Wright and Ian Brace

This paper illustrates how an understanding of consumer models, psychological processes and the appropriate use of marketing research techniques can help in the design of…

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12892

Abstract

This paper illustrates how an understanding of consumer models, psychological processes and the appropriate use of marketing research techniques can help in the design of food packaging and label copy to provide a company with a competitive advantage. The paper examines the significance of the marketing functions of a pack and the perceptual processes of consumers in their information search concerning pack design and labelling in marketing research. Case study material is introduced to help illustrate the main points.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 100 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2020

Dhananjay Bapat

The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of advertising, brand-related-stimuli, on the dimensions of sensory, emotional and intellectual brand experience.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of advertising, brand-related-stimuli, on the dimensions of sensory, emotional and intellectual brand experience.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is divided into two parts. In the first part, the objective is to examine antecedents to brand experience dimensions for umbrella brand and product brand using an experimental study; in the second part, the relationship among brand experience dimensions, brand experience evaluation and brand loyalty was examined using structural equation modeling by incorporating the measures after exposure to advertisement for both types of brands.

Findings

Based on a 2 × 2 factorial design, the results confirm that the main effect of advertisement exists on sensory, emotional and intellectual brand experience. For product brand, brand experience evaluation was mediator between both intellectual brand experience and emotional brand experience with brand loyalty. The effect of interaction between branding strategy and advertisement was not significant. For an umbrella brand, brand experience evaluation acted as a mediator between emotional brand experience dimension and brand loyalty. For product brand, brand experience evaluation acted as a mediator between both intellectual brand experience and emotional brand experience dimension with brand loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

The research has implications with regard to the antecedents and consequences of brand experience and offers implications for branding strategy.

Originality/value

The present study is integrated and comprehensive, as it covers various facets of brand experience.

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Michael F. Walsh, Karen Page Winterich and Vikas Mittal

This research aims to explore how consumer responses to logo redesign (from angular to rounded) are contingent on brand commitment and self‐construal. The authors aim to…

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4113

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to explore how consumer responses to logo redesign (from angular to rounded) are contingent on brand commitment and self‐construal. The authors aim to explore two issues. First, what is the role of brand commitment on response to logo redesign and underlying brand attitude? Second, how does situational accessible self‐construal influence brand commitment in situations like this?

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses two field experiments; one using the general public via mall intercepts and the second with undergraduate college students.

Findings

In two studies the authors show that brand commitment negatively influences evaluation of inconsistent information (i.e. rounded logo), and this negative logo evaluation mediates the impact on brand attitude. They also find that motivated reasoning may be at play showing that when faced with inconsistent information brand commitment not only increases thought generation but, specifically, negative thoughts about the logo. Study 2, using more realistic stimuli shows that the deleterious effect of inconsistent information (i.e. new logo) is attenuated when the inconsistent information – i.e. rounded logo – is congruent with the consumers' self‐construal (i.e. interdependent self‐construal).

Research limitations/implications

The authors advance the literature on self‐construal in advertising by identifying that self‐construal framing of ads may impact consumer response regardless of individual differences in self‐construal. They build on the work of Tsai who examined the effects of consumer characteristics such as product involvement and product knowledge in light of self‐construal differences on ad evaluation and purchase intentions.

Practical implications:

The findings presented here suggest that consumers' responses to atypical brand information may be dependent on their level of brand commitment. This research shows that logo redesign in particular, and introduction of inconsistent information in general is a process that should be carefully managed. The second experiment shows that the independent message frame is the preferred approach for multi cultural/global marketers. In primarily independent cultures, one should target highly committed customers. In primarily interdependent cultures one can target both strongly and weakly committed consumers. These findings can help companies entering international markets or dealing with global brands. Beyond advertising, this research has application to other forms of brand aesthetics including packaging and web site design.

Originality/value

This study is the first to show that self‐construal framing can act as a boundary condition on the role that consumer commitment plays in shaping ad evaluations and purchase intentions regardless of chronic self‐construal.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Case study
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Abhinandan Jain and Vivek Singh

In March 2010, Mr. Chandra Shekhara Reddy, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, was reviewing the launch plan for the first brand of cooking oil, Freedom Refined Sunflower…

Abstract

In March 2010, Mr. Chandra Shekhara Reddy, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, was reviewing the launch plan for the first brand of cooking oil, Freedom Refined Sunflower Oil, of GEF. GEF was set up by a professional turned entrepreneur, in Andhra Pradesh in 2009. The case provides a brief profile of the entrepreneur and the overall business strategy including brand architecture. It describes the launch plan, particularly the key decisions of brand name, packaging, sales promotion and distribution. Data on household use and competing brands of oils in Andhra Pradesh, South India and entire India is also included.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

Bert Rosenbloom

Getting product strategies to work out as planned is a tough job. One of the most frequently overlooked factors needed for effective product strategy implementation is…

Abstract

Getting product strategies to work out as planned is a tough job. One of the most frequently overlooked factors needed for effective product strategy implementation is channel member support at the wholesale and/or retail levels. Without strong support and follow‐through by these channel members, product strategies are much less likely to be successfully implemented. This article discusses five product strategies commonly used by consumer goods manufacturers, and discusses the channel management implications associated with each. By being alert to these product management/channel management interfaces, many of the problems of poor channel member support and follow‐through can be avoided.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2020

Michel Laroche, Rong Li, Marie-Odile Richard and Muxin Shao

This study aims to investigate how consumers respond to global brands adapting to local elements. Specifically, this study identified three factors (i.e., cultural…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how consumers respond to global brands adapting to local elements. Specifically, this study identified three factors (i.e., cultural compatibility, cultural elements authenticity and cultural pride) affecting the purchase intentions (PIs) toward global brands using Chinese elements among Chinese consumers in China and Chinese immigrants in North America. Another aim is to examine the moderating role of acculturation in the relationship between cultural pride and PIs among Chinese immigrants.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies were conducted to test the hypotheses in China and North America. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the factor structure. Hierarchical regression was used to test the main effects and moderated regression analysis was used to test the moderation effect.

Findings

Results show that cultural compatibility, cultural elements authenticity (CEA) and cultural pride positively affect the PIs toward global brands with Chinese elements for both Chinese consumers and Chinese immigrants. Further, among Chinese immigrants, acculturation moderates the relationship between cultural pride and PIs.

Originality/value

This study explored the factors influencing the PIs toward global brands using Chinese elements, filling a research gap. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine how perceived CEA affects consumers’ PIs toward global brands with Chinese elements. Further, the findings have implications for global brands that want to target Chinese consumers and Chinese immigrants in overseas markets.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1983

A.M. Elbashier and J.R. Nicholls

Examines the barriers caused by cultural differences when marketing goods in the Middle East. Highlights the growth of Islamic countries in the international marketplace …

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2025

Abstract

Examines the barriers caused by cultural differences when marketing goods in the Middle East. Highlights the growth of Islamic countries in the international marketplace – exports soared from $15,000 million in 1973 to $78,000 million in 1978. Draws on the results of research with companies actively involved in marketing in the Arab world. Defines the concept of culture. Describes how custom and tradition, language, literacy and symbolism can impact on the marketing mix. Concludes that to carry out a successful marketing policy in the Middle East, companies must: Approach cultural problems in an organized and systematic way; Carry out in‐depth market research; Consider employing Arab national in senior marketing positions; Observe tradition and avoid offending beliefs; Observe tradition and avoid offending beliefs; Recognize sub‐cultures within the Arab world and the speed and scope of change in the region.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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