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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2012

Robert Crawford and Ruth Spence‐Stone

This paper seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the operations and decisions made by Australian advertising standards bodies, the Advertising Standards Council and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the operations and decisions made by Australian advertising standards bodies, the Advertising Standards Council and its successor, the Advertising Standards Board. It also seeks to identify whose interests have been served by these advertising standards organisations – those of the public or those of the advertising industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Using annual reports and reports in mainstream press outlets, this paper compares the two advertising standards bodies, their respective organisational structures, and their decisions, in order to identify the key issues that have confronted Australia's advertising regulation bodies.

Findings

In addition to demonstrating the fundamental similarities between the Advertising Standards Council and the Advertising Standards Board, this paper raises serious questions about self‐regulation and the way that it serves the advertising industry's interests ahead of the public interest.

Originality/value

This is the first long‐term comparative survey of the operations, activities and decisions of the Advertising Standards Council and the Advertising Standards Board that also reveals the fundamental shortcomings of the current advertising standards codes.

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Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Michael Volkov, Debra Harker and Michael Harker

The purpose of this article is to bring together established research in the field of consumer complaint responses: to contextualise this research into the area of…

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1635

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to bring together established research in the field of consumer complaint responses: to contextualise this research into the area of complaints about advertising in Australia; and to empirically test the proposition that it is possible to construct a profile of complainants about advertising in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

Postcodes obtained from the Advertising Standards Board complaints database were entered into Pacific Micromarketing's MOSAIC software, which uses data at the postcode level to cluster individuals into homogeneous groups.

Findings

Characteristics shared among consumers who engage in “amplified voicing” include above average income levels, above average disposable income levels, higher than average education levels, professional and associate professional occupations, middle‐ to late‐middle‐aged household heads and above average representation of working women. Their interests tend towards culture, technology, entertaining, sport, food and fashion.

Research limitations/implications

Complainants seem to be unrepresentative of those most likely to be disadvantaged by “unacceptable” advertising. It is suggested that it now falls to advertising professionals and marketing academics to encourage greater involvement of all members of Australian society in the current complaints process and build wider understanding of practices that contravene the regulatory system.

Originality/value

This study investigates the effects of advertising on consumers and hence on society in general, and examines the changing nature and structure of the advertising self‐regulatory system in Australia. Though based on fieldwork in Australia, it provides an international perspective, and is potentially transferable to other societies.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Book part
Publication date: 8 December 2021

Nipa Saha

This chapter explores the development of advertising regulations governing food advertising to children in Australia since the 1940s. By introducing the advertising and…

Abstract

This chapter explores the development of advertising regulations governing food advertising to children in Australia since the 1940s. By introducing the advertising and marketing self-regulatory system, the Australian Government is taking a neoliberal approach, advocating for the free market to initiate and sustain the country’s economic development, instead of greater government regulation. By examining the primary and secondary literature, such as government reports and research, and newspaper and academic articles, this chapter outlines different regulatory initiatives adopted by both the government and food industry to limit food and beverage advertising to children on television and online, in order to prevent obesity rates increasing in children. This chapter synthesizes and critically evaluates food industry and public health studies, government and non-government reviews, and other research studies to evaluate the influence of self-regulation on Australian television food advertising within the neoliberal context since the 1990s. It contributes to the literature on food advertising regulations for children in Australia by offering evidence of how the government, public health authorities and the food industry have attempted to keep pace with changes in the advertising, marketing and media industries by developing and reviewing advertising codes. It identifies the loopholes that exist in these self-regulatory codes and concludes that Australia’s current advertising regulatory arrangements are failing to protect our children from unhealthy food marketing on television, especially on relatively under-regulated online platforms such as social media and branded websites. The issues identified in this chapter could aid the food and beverage industry, as well as the self-regulatory system, to offer comprehensive and applicable solutions to combat Australia’s obesity crises by implementing new legislations that align with different marketing practices.

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Media, Development and Democracy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-492-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Debra Harker

Advertising is the most visible element of modern marketing, however it is often accused by its critics of being intrusive and pervasive, and neither of these accusations…

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8847

Abstract

Advertising is the most visible element of modern marketing, however it is often accused by its critics of being intrusive and pervasive, and neither of these accusations can be refuted by a worldwide industry which spends billions of dollars each year reaching and persuading its target markets through daily bombardment of hundreds, if not thousands, of advertisements in most developed countries. In this article a conceptual framework of “acceptable advertising” is presented, discussed, and used to analyse the regulation of advertising in five countries around the world. The exercise succeeds in enhancing our understanding about how to improve the acceptability of advertising in contemporary societies.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Nipa Saha

This paper aims to outline the historic development of advertising regulation that governs food advertising to children in Australia. Through reviewing primary and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to outline the historic development of advertising regulation that governs food advertising to children in Australia. Through reviewing primary and secondary literature, such as government reports and research, this paper examines the influence of various regulatory policies that limit children’s exposure to food and beverage marketing on practices across television (TV), branded websites and Facebook pages.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews studies performed by the food industry and public health researchers and reviews of the evidence by government and non-government agencies from the early 19th century until the present day. Also included are several other research studies that evaluate the effects of self-regulation on Australian TV food advertising.

Findings

The government, public health and the food industry have attempted to respond to the rapid changes within the advertising, marketing and media industries by developing and reviewing advertising codes. However, self-regulation is failing to protect Australian children from exposure to unhealthy food advertising.

Practical implications

The findings could aid the food and beverage industry, and the self-regulatory system, to promote comprehensive and achievable solutions to the growing obesity rates in Australia by introducing new standards that keep pace with expanded forms of marketing communication.

Originality/value

This study adds to the research on the history of regulation of food advertising to children in Australia by offering insights into the government, public health and food industry’s attempts to respond to the rapid changes within the advertising, marketing and media industries by developing and reviewing advertising codes.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Debra Harker

The purpose of this paper is to examine the regulatory options available to control advertising on the internet.

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5672

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the regulatory options available to control advertising on the internet.

Design/methodology/approach

The analytical framework for this study was derived from Harker and colleagues' work on effective advertising self‐regulation (ASR). The key areas of the legal regulatory framework, the self‐regulatory framework, prevailing community standards, and industry compliance were examined in the context of the internet; the focus being the achievement of acceptable advertising. Dick's convergent interviewing techniques were utilised during a number of depth interviews with key stakeholders and the data were analysed using Strauss' and Strauss and Corbin's guidelines.

Findings

This qualitative approach allowed great insight to be gained in a “messy” area. A number of regulatory options are suggested, ranging along a continuum from full control to no control. Whilst controlling advertising on traditional media is moving towards best practice, the dynamic context of the internet provides new challenges for all stakeholders in terms of consumer protection.

Research limitations/implications

A significant limitation of any research concerned with the internet relates to the currency of information, and this is difficult to account for in this dynamic environment.

Originality/value

Whilst there have been many research papers describing approaches to traditional ASR, there is little to guide us when it comes to options for controlling online advertising. This paper has attempted to push the research boundary a little further in this regard and is meant to be a paper that will hopefully stimulate other research colleagues to challenge ideas and the traditional view.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Winston Fletcher

Outlines some of the ways in which advertising to children differs from advertising to other groups: no other market is so fragmented and rapidly changing, involves…

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3881

Abstract

Outlines some of the ways in which advertising to children differs from advertising to other groups: no other market is so fragmented and rapidly changing, involves advertising to users who rarely purchase and purchasers who rarely use, or is as beset with regulatory controls and by constant political attacks. Considers each of these factors and their significance to advertisers: fragmentation of the children’s market reflects the precise age bands for toys and games; since children do not usually buy the goods themselves, advertisers must simultaneously excite and appeal to children yet reassure the adults who make the purchasing decisions; regulatory controls on advertising in the UK are far more restrictive than many people realise; and the political antagonism to advertising concerning children focuses on the issues of obesity and the pressure that children exert on their parents to buy advertised goods.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2002

Michael Volkov, Debra Harker and Michael Harker

Advertising expenditure has risen globally and in Australia there has been a 2.7‐fold increase in the last ten years. It is suggested that some advertisements may be…

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2943

Abstract

Advertising expenditure has risen globally and in Australia there has been a 2.7‐fold increase in the last ten years. It is suggested that some advertisements may be “unacceptable”, that is, unfair, misleading, deceptive, offensive, false or socially irresponsible. This research is concerned with consumer behaviour and consumer complaint behaviour specifically in the area of advertising in Australia. The findings indicate that complainants are significantly different from the population at large. This research will afford the regulatory bodies a better understanding of the complaining public as well as educating marketing communications strategists in effectively reaching their target markets.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Gordon E. Miracle and Terence Nevett

Until the late 19th century, the controls on advertising in Britain and the US depended on complying with laws relating to defamation and on the ethical values of…

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1032

Abstract

Until the late 19th century, the controls on advertising in Britain and the US depended on complying with laws relating to defamation and on the ethical values of advertisers and media proprietors. During the 20th century, concerns about public safety from dangerous products or services, recognition of the need to safeguard people from misleading or untrue claims, and attempts to strike a balance in the interests of fair trading have led to movements for both self‐regulation, as well as some legal restrictions on marketing and advertising practices. Differences in British and American practices have arisen from the nature of the legal systems and the cultural mores of the respective societies.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

Andrew Grainger and Steven J. Jackson

The message to international marketers has long been “think global, act local”, but the complexity of the issue has rarely been explored empirically. This analysis…

Abstract

The message to international marketers has long been “think global, act local”, but the complexity of the issue has rarely been explored empirically. This analysis examines the notion of disjuncture herein defined as points of ambiguity, incongruity and conf lict that emerge when global sport-advertising campaigns are released within local cultural settings. The purpose of the paper is to move beyond the “think global, act local” adage by examining the politics and contradictions associated with local regulatory control of global sport advertisements in a specific national context, namely New Zealand.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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