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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński and Jacek Pogorzelski

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a…

Abstract

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a company’s activity. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the average recipient associates marketing with advertising, competitions and leaflets about new promotions delivered to houses or offices. Advertising, especially Internet advertising, is one of the most effective forms of marketing and one of the fastest developing areas of business. New channels of communication are emerging all the time – the Internet, digital television, mobile telephony; accompanied by new forms, such as the so-called ambient media. Advertising benefits from the achievements of many fields of science, that is, psychology, sociology, statistics, medicine and economics. At the same time, it combines science and the arts – it requires both knowledge and intuition. Contemporary advertising has different forms and areas of activity; yet it is always closely linked with the operations of a company – it is a form of marketing communication.

The indices of marketing communication presented in this chapter are generally known and used not only by advertising agencies but also by the marketing departments of many organisations. Brand awareness, advertising scope and frequency, the penetration index or the response rate belong to the most widely used indices; others, like the conversion rate or the affinity index, will get increasingly more significant along with the process of professionalisation of the environment of marketing specialists in Poland and with increased pressure on measuring marketing activities. Marketing indices are used for not only planning activities, but also their evaluation; some of them, such as telemarketing, mailing and coupons, provide an extensive array of possibilities of performance evaluation.

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Smitha Vasudevan and F.J. Peter Kumar

Brand awareness is a key cognitive metric and a vital component of consumer-based brand equity. Generating and maintaining brand awareness has been an important metric for…

Abstract

Purpose

Brand awareness is a key cognitive metric and a vital component of consumer-based brand equity. Generating and maintaining brand awareness has been an important metric for brands and a significant outcome of advertising and promotional activities. Brand awareness has been studied over the years in the context of market share and mind share and is considered to be the fundamental starting point of a brand relationship. Most branding variables are challenged in their linear definitions by the multi-dimensionality of the connected online world. Consumers may start their brand journey with brand awareness and then proceed to explore higher options in a non-linear fashion. This challenges traditional advertising and brand salience models. In the web context, brand awareness could even happen with little prior cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to explore the little researched area of brand awareness in the context of Indian websites.

Design/methodology/approach

The study leveraged technology to study the brand discovery behaviour of real estate website users in India. The authors looked at essentially modified processes such as the brand experience journey, specifically, the sources and antecedents of brand awareness for real estate websites. Considering the fact that direct and indirect traffic to a website is indicative of the brand awareness metrics, the authors analyse the metric as a basis of the comparison.

Findings

Brand awareness in the digital world can be attributed as firm generated, user generated and, as the authors also discover, experience initiated. The altered dimensions have a profound impact on the brand advertising spends of not just digital brands, but all marketers who will find digital technology increasingly central to their brand communication efforts.

Research limitations/implications

Burgeoning websites and media proliferation have increased the source set for website discovery. Customers do not rely solely on advertising or chance encounter to discover a new brand. Usage of search engines remains the key point of discovery for brand awareness. Some of the respondents recognised websites from prior advertising exposure and selected the brand from the consideration set offered in the search results for their keyword search. In other cases, brand awareness followed brand experience as the users did not process the brand information or, in most cases, were not aware of the brand name prior to website visit. The quality of brand experience created brand awareness and had further implications, including brand visit intent.

Practical implications

While mass media television advertising and ubiquitous online advertising can build brand awareness, the impact of search engine advertising and search engine optimisation is equally significant, if not more important. Brand managers can additionally focus on branding on the search channel in the light of increasing search intensity. Beyond traditional keyword planning, this can be an enhanced branding platform for reaching out to specific behavioural or character traits of the target audience. Brand experience can mature from task completion to brand awareness and higher level values if the website includes key brand messages and goals.

Originality/value

This paper offers insight into the little known field of online brand management. Information intermediary websites are unique in their value proposition, and brand building is challenging. Real estate websites have grown in popularity, but have not merited researcher attention. This paper offers a unique perspective on branding websites, specifically in the context of emerging markets like India.

Details

Property Management, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Chen-Hsun Ho, Kuang-Hui Chiu, Hsin Chen and Anastasia Papazafeiropoulou

As blogs have become an important information communication medium, selecting blog types that are appropriate and effective for the products they are to promote is now an…

Abstract

Purpose

As blogs have become an important information communication medium, selecting blog types that are appropriate and effective for the products they are to promote is now an important issue in corporate advertising. However, the impact of different blog types on consumers and their advertising effectiveness are issues seldom addressed in the existing literature. The purpose of this paper is to view product information that consumers post on blogs as advertisements and compares advertising effectiveness between different blog types to help enterprises properly employ blogs in their marketing campaigns.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental design was adopted, and 12 experimental contexts were designed. A valid sample of over 2,000 responses was collected to study between-group differences in advertising effectiveness.

Findings

The analytical results showed between-group difference in advertising effectiveness, which indicated that blog advertising effectiveness varies with different combinations of product constructs and blog types.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study related to the price factor was not incorporated into the experimental model, and shopping channels were not limited. There might be a gap between the prices of the experimental products and the average expense of online shoppers.

Originality/value

The study proposed a framework which can help enterprises to evaluate the type and brand awareness of a product to be promoted and to select the blog type that maximizes advertising effectiveness (perceived risk, ad attitude, brand attitude, and purchase intention) in diffusing product information.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2008

Laetitia Radder and Wei Huang

Knowledge of brand awareness and its role is important for the design of an organisation's marketing strategies. This study aims to determine the brand awareness of high…

Abstract

Purpose

Knowledge of brand awareness and its role is important for the design of an organisation's marketing strategies. This study aims to determine the brand awareness of high‐ and low‐involvement products among Black and non‐Black students enrolled at a South African university.

Design/methodology/approach

A self‐administered survey was completed by a convenience sample of 300 students of the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The focal high‐involvement product was sportswear clothing and the low‐involvement product, coffee.

Findings

The results indicated a higher awareness of high‐involvement product brands than of low‐involvement product brands. Advertising played an important role in the awareness of sportswear clothing brands, but seemed unimportant in the case of coffee. The brand name was important for coffee, while the name and the logo played a role in students' awareness of sportswear brands.

Research limitations/implications

This study was limited to students of the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU) in Port Elizabeth, South Africa and to sportswear clothing and coffee product categories. Future studies could comprise larger samples, different contexts and other product or service categories.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that marketers employ different strategies to create and increase brand awareness for high‐ and low‐involvement products.

Originality/value

Previous research found that brand awareness played an important role in low‐involvement products; however, little is known about brand awareness differences between high‐ and low‐involvement products, particularly with respect to the brand awareness of South African students.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Grzegorz Mazurek, Anna Miotk and Artur Maciorowski

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are…

Abstract

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are currently enjoying a period of fast and stable growth. This is manifested by the growing number of both Internet users and companies which – to an ever-increasing extent – use the Internet as a form of communication (both internal and external), promotion, sales etc. Expenditures on Internet advertising are growing continuously and now constitute more than 25% of all advertising expenditure. A natural consequence of this development is the need for the standardisation and organisation of the world of the Internet. These activities will result in a greater awareness of the benefits which this medium provides, increasing the possibilities of its use, and – most importantly – the opportunity to evaluate the return on investments made on the Internet. Nowadays, it is clear that many companies are striving to increase the quality of their activities on the Internet or to improve the effectiveness of such activities. As a consequence, the number of companies that look for indices which would enable the making of more precise and effective decisions in the scope of online operations is growing.

This chapter is dedicated to the phenomenon of the increasing role of the Internet in business, including the scale of its use by Polish and international companies. We present the most commonly used measures of marketing activities on the Internet and in social media. This group includes the indices which make it possible to determine whether a company actually needs a website. Other measures allow for the improvement in the effectiveness of the activity on the Internet, whereas others specify the costs of activities on the Internet and often serve as the basis for settlements between a company and advertising agencies or companies specialising in website design. It is worth emphasising that the Paid, Earned, Shared, Owned (PESO) model, worked out by Don Bartholomew,1 is the basis for creation and description of indices concerning social media. This model has gained certain popularity in the social media industry. It does not, however, specify how individual indices should be named and calculated. It maps already existing indices and adapts them to specific levels of marketing communication measurement. All the measures indicated by the author of the model have been grouped into five major areas: exposure, engagement, brand awareness, action and recommendations. This model– similarly to all models of performance measurement – inspired by the sales funnel concept, adjusts certain standard indices and proposals of measurements for specific levels. Additionally, the measures are divided into four types, depending on who the owner of the content is: Paid (P) – refers to all forms of paid content; Owned (O) – all websites and web properties controlled by a company or brand; Earned (E) – the contents about a given brand created spontaneously by Internet users; and Shared (S) – the contents shared by Internet users.

Details

Mastering Market Analytics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-835-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2011

Matthias Sander and Claudia Fantapié Altobelli

This paper examines the effects of virtual advertising in a sports broadcast setting. We analyse the conspicuousness of virtual advertising and match the results with…

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of virtual advertising in a sports broadcast setting. We analyse the conspicuousness of virtual advertising and match the results with explanatory variables like brand awareness, duration of exposure and frequency of exposure. Furthermore, we measure the role of attitudes towards advertising in general and its impact on attitudes towards virtual advertising of the respondents. Our results indicate that most respondents recognise virtual advertising as such. Advertising effectiveness is driven to a large degree by the frequency of exposure. A positive attitude towards advertising in general leads to a positive attitude towards virtual advertising of the participants.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Dessy Kurnia Sari, Suziana Suziana and Donard Games

This paper aims to investigate the effects of informativeness, entertainment and credibility of social media on the perceived value of advertising for Muslim millennial…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effects of informativeness, entertainment and credibility of social media on the perceived value of advertising for Muslim millennial parents. It evaluates the impact of these variables on brand awareness and purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a mixed-method analysis with two stages. In the first stage, information from social media was collected. The second stage involved an online survey of 210 Muslim millennial parents. Structural equation modeling-partial least squares was used to test the study’s prediction.

Findings

The results showed that informativeness, entertainment and credibility of the message significantly influence Muslim millennial parents’ perceived value of social media advertising. These aspects also have a significant effect on brand awareness and purchase intention. The parents appreciate entertainment most, followed by the informativeness and credibility of the message.

Practical implications

This study offers new insights on Muslim millennial parents as a new segment in the market. Social media advertising is the most appropriate strategy for approaching this segment, and therefore, should be given much attention by marketers. The message created needs to be informative, entertaining and credible. It should consider culture, Islamic values and tradition.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the evaluation of a new trend for Muslim millennials as young parents. The tendency to spend more time using social media as the primary source of information is evaluated. Additionally, this study gives marketers a better understanding of Muslim millennial parents, especially in a collective society.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Su-Houn Liu, Chen-Huei Chou and Hsiu-Li Liao

– The purpose of this paper is to focus specifically on the examination of factors influencing the effectiveness of product placement in social media.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus specifically on the examination of factors influencing the effectiveness of product placement in social media.

Design/methodology/approach

Two field experiments were used to test research models and questions. In each experiment, random sampling was used to assign volunteers into groups, controlled by different experimental settings. Questionnaires were distributed to the volunteers in order to collect their attitude toward advertisement, brand impression, and intention to click the advertisement. Their browsing behavior was measured by click through rate, browse depth, and browsing time.

Findings

The paper found that the effects of product placement conducts (product prominence and presentation) in social media are similar to the effects of product placement in other media. Also, a match between the vehicle and product would create deeper browsing depth and longer browsing time on the product web site. Product placement on a higher awareness vehicle would be more effective for marketing.

Originality/value

This study makes its contribution in understanding the effectiveness of product placement in social media on delivering a marketing message. The results further highlight the importance of “integrating” the product placement content with its context and its vehicle.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Tho D. Nguyen, Nigel J. Barrett and Kenneth E. Miller

This paper seeks to compare some key antecedents of brand loyalty between two emerging markets: Thailand and Vietnam.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to compare some key antecedents of brand loyalty between two emerging markets: Thailand and Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 603 female consumers of international shampoo brands, including 304 consumers in Bangkok, Thailand and 299 users in Hanoi, Vietnam, a model was tested that incorporates key determinants of brand loyalty – perceived quality, brand awareness, advertising attitudes, and distribution intensity – by means of structural equation modeling.

Findings

The paper found that there are positive relationships between perceived quality and brand loyalty, between brand awareness and perceived quality, between advertising attitudes and brand awareness, and between distribution intensity and brand awareness in both markets. However, the relationship between brand awareness and brand loyalty was found only in the Vietnamese market, and the relationship between advertising attitudes and perceived quality was only found in the Thai market. Finally, no relationship between distribution intensity and perceived quality was found in either market.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of this study is the examination of only one concept that stands for strong brands, i.e. brand loyalty. Several other concepts, such as brand relationship quality and brand impressions, should be investigated in future research in order to compare and contrast with those found in advanced economies.

Practical implications

The results of this study suggest that managers of international brands in emerging markets should recognize the differences between markets in order to design effective loyalty programs for each market.

Originality/value

A major contribution of this study is to empirically compare the impacts of perceived quality, brand awareness, advertising attitudes, and store image on brand loyalty in two emerging markets: Thailand and Vietnam.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2007

Susan H.C. Tai

This study aims to investigate the relationship between successful brand advertising campaigns in China and various factors such as message/creativity, media selection…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationship between successful brand advertising campaigns in China and various factors such as message/creativity, media selection, market research, competition, market share, product uniqueness, and agency/client relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for the study were collected by mailing a questionnaire to 283 advertising agencies executives who were selected from the All‐Asia Ad Agency Guide. A total of 1,086 questionnaires were sent out and 163 were returned for a response rate of 15 per cent. Factor analysis was first used to identify various success factors, and ANOVA was used to compare the means of each factor related to the degree of success of the campaign. Correlation analysis was then used to examine the relationship between successful brand advertising campaign and various success factors.

Findings

The results of the ANOVA indicate that there are significant relationships between some items in each factor and the degree of success of an advertising campaign. Correlation analysis further reveals that message/creativity, media selection, market research, market share, and product uniqueness are significantly related to the success of brand advertising in China. No significant relationship is found between brand success and competition or agency/client relationship.

Research limitations/implications

The respondents may have been biased about the extent to which their advertising campaigns are successful or how creative an advertisement should be. Their perceptions of successful or creative advertising could be very different, especially in relation to those questions that asked respondents to critique their own work. All of these affect the rigor of the study. Another limitation of the study is the low response rate. If the sample size had been large enough, comparisons could have been made concerning the correlates of successful brand advertising across different regions in China.

Originality/value

In addition to providing researchers with further understanding of brand advertising in China, this study provides some insights about the ways in which multinational advertising managers contribute to successful brand advertising.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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