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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Mayank Jyotsna Soni

This study aims to explore how different involvement levels within a single television program influence recall of cognitive vs affective advertisements aired during that…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how different involvement levels within a single television program influence recall of cognitive vs affective advertisements aired during that television program.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies of 2 (program involvement: high vs low) × 2 (advertisement involvement: cognitive vs affective) between subject design were conducted; one study was for cognitive program and other study was for affective program. Existing scales were used after conducting reliability and validity tests.

Findings

The influence of different levels of involvement with a television program on recall of cognitive and affective advertisements was found. Specifically, recall of cognitive advertisement was found to be higher when involvement with television program is low than when involvement with program is high. Recall of affective advertisement was found to be lower when involvement with program is low than when involvement with program is high.

Practical implications

Results indicate that cognitive advertisements are recalled more at point of low involvement with program, whereas affective advertisements are recalled at point of high involvement with program. The implications are in the field of understanding and making advertisement airing decisions.

Originality/value

When the television program progresses, the story tends to build, and hence, the involvement increases. Therefore, involvement level with the program at initial point and later point can vary. This study identified the possibility of cognitive advertisement being recalled more at initial point of a television program, i.e. at low involvement, and affective advertisement being recalled more at the later point of the same television program, i.e. at high involvement.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Andinet Worku Gebreselassie and Roger Bougie

The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of advertising variation and repetition strategies in the context of communicating about social issues in least…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of advertising variation and repetition strategies in the context of communicating about social issues in least developed countries (LDCs).

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 used a between-subjects experimental study using 106 students which were exposed to either the varied advertising condition (a negative appeal followed by a positive appeal or vice versa) or repetition condition (two negative appeals). In Study 2, a total of 111 students from Tilburg University and 95 students from Addis Ababa University participated in the study. A random ordering of experimental envelopes assigned the students to one of the following message order conditions (negative appeal–positive appeal, negative appeal–negative appeal, positive appeal–positive appeal and positive appeal–negative appeal).

Findings

Study 1 shows that for many social issues, an advertising variation strategy (a negative appeal followed by a positive appeal) is more effective than an advertising repetition strategy (two negative appeals) in terms of recall. Study 2 builds on these findings by differentiating between taboo and non-taboo issues. This distinction is important because many social issues, such as HIV, domestic violence and child abuse, for instance, are taboo in LDCs. Interestingly, the findings of Study 1 are reproduced for non-taboo issues but not for taboo issues. If an issue is a conversational taboo in a certain culture, then an advertising repetition strategy that only uses positive appeals is more effective than an advertising variation strategy.

Research limitations/implications

The use of students as participants may be a limitation of both studies. Because the reactions of students to specific message appeals may be age-related, concerns regarding the generalizability of the findings are justified.

Originality/value

Overall, the results of this paper provide useful information to social advertisers on when and how to use different types of advertising strategies in LDCs.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Eric Van Steenburg

The paper aims to determine the effectiveness of specific online advertisements, comparing banner ads that are brand‐reinforcing versus ones that are product‐reinforcing.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to determine the effectiveness of specific online advertisements, comparing banner ads that are brand‐reinforcing versus ones that are product‐reinforcing.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses three experimental design studies to empirically test the hypotheses based on the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) by manipulating type of online banner advertisement (brand‐type versus product‐type) and measuring individual need for cognition (NFC).

Findings

Consumers high in NFC recall product‐type banner ads more readily than those low in NFC, while brand‐type banner ads are more likely to be recalled by low‐NFC consumers. However, high‐NFC consumers recall brand‐type ads under all situational influences tested. And while consumers low in NFC recall product‐type banner ads featuring a directive better than their high‐NFC counterparts, they do not recall directive ads at a greater rate than high‐NFC consumers recall brand‐type ads.

Research limitations/implications

While previous research has found that variations in ad size, color, interactivity, and web site location affect recall, this research only measured static banner ads that appear at the top of the page. However, because it is the first to examine involvement in terms of NFC in combination with brand‐ and product‐type ads, the research sheds new light on consumer awareness of two types of banner ad strategies adopted by marketing managers today.

Practical implications

In an online context, the type of banner ads used by marketing managers should be paired with the web site based on how much time consumers spend at the site and how many pages they click through at the site. All things being equal, however, managers should favor brand‐type banner ads over product‐type banner ads.

Originality/value

The research extends understanding of ELM as it relates to type of banner ad while establishing a potential research stream for better understanding of how consumers process various types of online ads. At the same time, it provides new evidence that can help marketing managers make better strategic decisions regarding their online marketing mix.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński and Jacek Pogorzelski

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a…

Abstract

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a company’s activity. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the average recipient associates marketing with advertising, competitions and leaflets about new promotions delivered to houses or offices. Advertising, especially Internet advertising, is one of the most effective forms of marketing and one of the fastest developing areas of business. New channels of communication are emerging all the time – the Internet, digital television, mobile telephony; accompanied by new forms, such as the so-called ambient media. Advertising benefits from the achievements of many fields of science, that is, psychology, sociology, statistics, medicine and economics. At the same time, it combines science and the arts – it requires both knowledge and intuition. Contemporary advertising has different forms and areas of activity; yet it is always closely linked with the operations of a company – it is a form of marketing communication.

The indices of marketing communication presented in this chapter are generally known and used not only by advertising agencies but also by the marketing departments of many organisations. Brand awareness, advertising scope and frequency, the penetration index or the response rate belong to the most widely used indices; others, like the conversion rate or the affinity index, will get increasingly more significant along with the process of professionalisation of the environment of marketing specialists in Poland and with increased pressure on measuring marketing activities. Marketing indices are used for not only planning activities, but also their evaluation; some of them, such as telemarketing, mailing and coupons, provide an extensive array of possibilities of performance evaluation.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

L.W. Turley and J. Richard Shannon

Explores the effects of advertising in a sports arena on message recall, purchase intentions, and actual purchase behavior. The findings from this study suggest that…

Abstract

Explores the effects of advertising in a sports arena on message recall, purchase intentions, and actual purchase behavior. The findings from this study suggest that consumers can recall at least some of the ads they are exposed to in these captive situations but most do not produce any lasting memory trace. The data also indicate that several independent variables, most notably frequency of exposure to the advertising message, are positively associated with recall, purchase intentions and actual purchasing behavior. The findings from this study indicate that advertisements in this setting can have an impact on the behavior of consumers. However, more research is needed in this setting to identify specific execution variables which differentiate between ads which create an impact, and those that do not.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Bruno Tomaselli Fidelis, Jorge Henrique Caldeira Oliveira, Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi and Renê Oliveira Joaquim Santos

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of sexual appeal in print media on consumers’ brand recall. More specifically, the differences between the fixation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of sexual appeal in print media on consumers’ brand recall. More specifically, the differences between the fixation time on the “image” and “logo” elements in advertisements, with and without sexual appeal, were verified.

Design/methodology/approach

The correct research is experimental in nature, and divided into three stages: choosing the print advertisements to be viewed by the participants with eye tracking, capturing participants’ eye movements using a special eye tracking equipment and completing the questionnaire for calculating the number of brands recalled by the participants.

Findings

The authors have identified that there are no statistically relevant differences between the number of brands recalled, whether the advertisement does or does not have any sexual appeal.

Practical implications

The use of sexual appeal in advertisements on print media must be made with caution, and several implications for the textile and apparel industry are expressed in the conclusions.

Originality/value

The study’s relevance is threefold: the authors present more recent results about the relationship between sexual appeal and brand recall, as the most recent research study of a similar type was published in the late 1990s; they adopt key concepts from the neuromarketing field in an attempt to connect memory with the capacity of different components of the advertisements, to attract the visual attention of consumers; and they present results for three different product categories (alcohol, apparel and perfume).

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1984

Paul J. Hensel and Alan J. Dubinsky

Portraying sex in advertisements is a widely used technique by many marketers in their promotional programmes. Some previous research has explored the relationship between…

Abstract

Portraying sex in advertisements is a widely used technique by many marketers in their promotional programmes. Some previous research has explored the relationship between attitudes toward advertising and effectiveness of sexy advertisements. However, there are gaps in this research and the authors describe an investigation which attempts to fill these gaps.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2007

Hee-Sook Yoon and Doo-Hee Lee

Very low click-through rates (CTR) raise serious questions about the effectiveness of banner advertisements. However, we believe that the effect of a banner ad is not…

Abstract

Very low click-through rates (CTR) raise serious questions about the effectiveness of banner advertisements. However, we believe that the effect of a banner ad is not limited by clicks. Banner ad information itself can be processed by the audience.

We propose that the exposure effect of a banner ad exists even when the banner is not clicked. The results of our experiments strongly support this effect. Analyses also revealed that a non-clicked banner ad can create as strong of an exposure effect as clicked banner ads. Also, audiences that are able to recall the existence of the banner ad on a web page develop stronger implicit memory than those who cannot. Researchers are invited to re-test these interesting findings in various cultures with differing levels of Internet penetration and experience.

Details

Cross-Cultural Buyer Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-485-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

Timothy R. Graeff

Reviews and critiques literal views of product comprehension whichrely on recall of key product claims to measure “correct”comprehension. Presents a constructive view of…

Abstract

Reviews and critiques literal views of product comprehension which rely on recall of key product claims to measure “correct” comprehension. Presents a constructive view of comprehension where product comprehension is seen as the process of forming personal interpretations of a product′s self‐relevance. Promotional strategies should be designed to suggest, encourage, and facilitate personal interpretations of the self‐relevance and positive consequences of product use. Marketers can use protocol probing procedures to obtain feedback about the personal interpretations consumers form during product comprehension.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2020

Lizardo Vargas-Bianchi and Marta Mensa

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect on brand name recall in advertisements with varying levels of female sexual objectification content among young…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect on brand name recall in advertisements with varying levels of female sexual objectification content among young millennials and the effect of distraction on this recall effort. The question arises whether this group evokes those brands that appear in advertisements using different levels of objectification content.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a correlational design that includes two studies with different groups of subjects: an assessment of perceived female sexual objectification levels in a set of ads and a quasi-experimental study that used the assessed perceived levels of female objectification and brand name short-term recall scores of those ads, with and without the intervention of an attention distractor.

Findings

Results suggest that female sexual objectification content exerts a limited influence on brand name recall between participants. In addition, it is not men who remember brand names from ads using sexual objectified images, but young women.

Research limitations/implications

The study had an exploratory scope and used a small non-probabilistic sample. Subjects belong to a cultural context of Western world developing economy, and thus perceived female objectification may vary between different cultural settings. Results refer to graphic advertisements, though this cohort is exposed to other audiovisual content platforms.

Originality/value

Several studies have addressed female objectification in advertising and media, but few focused on young Latin American audiences and its impact on the recollection of advertised brands. Brand name retention and awareness is still a relevant variable that the advertising industry takes in account as one of several predictors toward buying decisions. Even less research has been made on Latin American social and cultural contexts.

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