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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Chun Kit Lok

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption

Abstract

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.

Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.

TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.

The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.

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E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Even Fallan

This paper aims to explore whether internal context – decision-makers’ perception of characteristics of the information content – might predict the variation in adoption

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore whether internal context – decision-makers’ perception of characteristics of the information content – might predict the variation in adoption rates of different types of content, and whether innovation adoption theory might represent important factors of this decision-making process Corporate management decides what types of environmental information content to disclose/adopt.

Design/methodology/approach

Actual adoption rates of 13 information content categories are computed using content analysis of annual reports for 62 listed companies. Each content category is seen as an innovation the company decides to adopt or not. Interviews with management in several companies illustrate the decision process of disclosure, and help predict adoption rates. Predicted and actual adoption rates are compared.

Findings

Adoption rates vary considerably among the 13 types of content. The absolute level of adoption rates is affected by company size and environmental risk. However, those content categories that have either relatively high or low adoption rates are consistent among the subsamples, regardless of these corporate characteristics. This consistent variation in adoption rates seems to be predicted well by innovation adoption theory and its focus on the five attributes of the information itself: compatibility, trialability, complexity, observability and relative advantage.

Research limitations/implications

The theoretical framework allows for different or changing internal and general contexts, and should be applicable to other settings, even though the particular predictions for adoption rates in this paper may not be applied as such.

Originality/value

The level of analysis is changed from company level, which dominates previous research, to information content (individual content categories). Perceived attributes of the information content itself and innovation adoption theory are used for the first time to explain reason for the reporting practice, and are considered fruitful tools to predict consistent variations in adoption rates among different types of content. This approach provides new insight into the driving forces of supply of disclosure.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Erhan Pişirir, Erkan Uçar, Oumout Chouseinoglou and Cüneyt Sevgi

This study aims to examine the current state of literature on structural equation modeling (SEM) studies in “cloud computing” domain with respect to study domains of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the current state of literature on structural equation modeling (SEM) studies in “cloud computing” domain with respect to study domains of research studies, theories and frameworks they use and SEM models they design.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic literature review (SLR) protocol is followed. In total, 96 cloud computing studies from 2009 to June 2018 that used SEM obtained from four databases are selected, and relevant data are extracted to answer the research questions.

Findings

A trend of increasing SEM usage over years in cloud studies is observed, where technology adoption studies are found to be more common than the use studies. Articles appear under four main domains, namely, business, personal use, education and health care. Technology acceptance model (TAM) is found to be the most commonly used theory. Adoption, intention to use and actual usage are the most common selections for dependent variables in SEM models, whereas security and privacy concerns, costs, ease of use, risks and usefulness are the most common selections for causal factors.

Originality/value

Previous cloud computing SLR studies did not focus on statistical analysis method used in primary studies. This review will display the current state of SEM studies in cloud domain for all future academics and practical professionals.

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Book part
Publication date: 29 May 2020

Femi Oladele and Timothy G. Oyewole

Abstract

Details

Social Media, Mobile and Cloud Technology Use in Accounting: Value-Analyses in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-161-5

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Sunday C. Eze, Vera C. Chinedu-Eze and Adenike O. Bello

While traditional theories of information and communication technology (ICT) adoption have been deployed to study ICT adoption in the past, these theories considers ICT…

Abstract

Purpose

While traditional theories of information and communication technology (ICT) adoption have been deployed to study ICT adoption in the past, these theories considers ICT adoption as static and rely on conceptualising factors as variables and predicting their levels of outcome at a single decision stage. Although much has been credited to these theories, they have continuously ignored the fact that as decisions to adopt are made and challenged along the adoption process, such decision can be influenced by the same, different or combination of factors at different stages of the adoption process. This paper aims to examine ICT adoption from a dynamic process perspective and to explore the key determinants and how these differ from one stage of the adoption process to another.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative method was adopted in this study. Both unstructured and semi-structured interviews were conducted in two separate stages using purposeful random sampling. Hybrid approach of thematic analysis was adopted in analysing the data.

Findings

This study develops a framework informed by actor network theory (ANT) concepts and finds that using ANT to examine the process of adoption helps to unveil the recursive nature of the process. The study reveals that the 14 determinants identified in this study influenced adoption at different stages. Factors such as ease of use, managerial time, customer focus and adoption influenced adoption at all the stages. This reveals that factors influencing ICT adoption are not static at one particular stage rather it may influence ICT adoption at different stages.

Research limitations/implications

Qualitative research is often subjective and interpretive in nature, and one of the limitations is the sample used in this research. Considering the small number of interviews carried out in this study, the generalisation of finding and the framework remains to be established across a wider population. Therefore, the factors presented could be limited considering that a number of practitioners that are involved in establishing emerging ICT are numerous. Therefore, other factors are prevailing to other industries or sectors that may provide scholars another way of examining these factors. Also, the framework demonstrates that it is a valuable analytical tool for researchers to examine how and why different actors including small and medium enterprise (SME) managers act around emerging ICT.

Originality/value

This study develops a framework that revealed the interactive and recursive nature of ICT adoption and the determinants influencing the process of ICT adoption at different stages thereby advancing ICT adoption research. The study challenges researchers to always consider ICT adoption as dynamic and unpredictable instead of one-off action as factors influencing its adoption are not static rather; they vary from one stage to another.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Suchada Vichitvanichphong, Amir Talaei-Khoei, Don Kerr and Amir Hossein Ghapanchi

One may categorize assistive technologies for aged care into two types, namely, supportive (helping the elderly with their everyday activities) and empowering (obtaining…

Abstract

Purpose

One may categorize assistive technologies for aged care into two types, namely, supportive (helping the elderly with their everyday activities) and empowering (obtaining physical or educational training to help seniors to maintain their capabilities). This paper looks at the impact of this perspective in the adoption of technologies that are used to aid already declined functions in comparison with technologies that are used to empower an elderly person’s capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to extract the factors that influence adoption of assistive technologies among seniors and the theories used in this context.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was conducted on relevant peer reviewed papers. A preliminary exploratory search was conducted to identify keywords and online databases for the search. A total of 104 papers published since 2000 were analyzed after title, abstract and full text filtering.

Findings

The study summarizes and categorizes the factors impacting the adoption of assistive technologies among seniors. The paper analyses the theoretical support utilized by literature and maps the empirical evidence for supportive and empowering technologies.

Research limitations/implications

This research like any other literature review is limited to the search keys. However, the keys have brought to this work from a preliminary search.

Practical implications

The work informs nursing professionals on the process to adopt technologies among seniors. The paper also helps technology developers to design technological products that are easier to adopt for older adults.

Originality/value

It was found that existing adoption theories are able to handle supportive technology adoption mainly because of the direct link between usage and improved functionalities. However due to the indirect effect of empowering technologies, elderlies lag in benefit realization for empowering technologies. This opens avenues of research and requires future work and utilization of new theoretical approaches in this area. The paper indicates propositions, claims and suggested questions for future research in both supportive and empowering technologies.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2020

Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Khaksar, Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi, Bret Slade and Sobhan Asian

This study focuses on the adoption of wearable technologies in a context where care-providing organizations can offer, in collaboration with caregivers, better care…

Abstract

Purpose

This study focuses on the adoption of wearable technologies in a context where care-providing organizations can offer, in collaboration with caregivers, better care. Drawing on dual-factor theory and from the caregiver perspective, this study identifies and examines factors of technology adoption in four developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was undertaken using a quantitative approach. A survey was distributed among 1,013 caregivers in four developing countries in Asia including Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iraq and collected quantitative data for model validation and hypotheses analysis. Building on the technology adoption literature, we identified six constructs that impact the behavioral intention of caregivers to use wearable technologies in aged care-providing organizations.

Findings

Our dual-factor model was successfully validated, and all hypotheses were supported. However, different results were found in the selected countries within the cross-country analysis.

Originality/value

This study has significant implications for the study of emerging technologies in aged care service operations. It provides a theoretical framework that may be adapted for future research, enabling practitioners in aged care to better understand the crucial role of technology adoption in service operations. Less attention was paid to the adoption of wearable technologies in aged care, particularly in developing countries, where healthcare services in aged care impose heavy costs on care providers.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Nurmazilah Mahzan and Andy Lymer

The use of computer-assisted audit techniques and tools (CAATTs) is a part of many professionally recommended audit procedures. This paper aims to argue that obtaining a…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of computer-assisted audit techniques and tools (CAATTs) is a part of many professionally recommended audit procedures. This paper aims to argue that obtaining a better understanding of the factors underlying successful CAATTs adoptions would be helpful to aid wider development of these technologies in internal audit functions.

Design/methodology/approach

To help develop the understanding of the factors that lead to successful adoption of GAS, this paper uses current theories that are seeking to better explain the various elements that constitute IT adoption processes. In particular, it makes use the “Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology” (UTAUT). UTAUT is used to structure the analysis of ten semi-structured, qualitative, interviews of key decision-makers in adoptions of CAATTS in internal audit functions in exploring the key factors that drove the successful adoption of these IT technologies. The most widely used CAATTs tools available to internal auditors is currently GAS. This study specifically focuses on GAS tools.

Findings

This paper explores the successful adoption of GAS in ten cases to draw out the general factors that appear to be essential elements that lead to successful adoptions. From this basis, the paper proposes an initial model, built on existing theories of IT adoption more generally, as a theoretical basis for GAS adoption by decision-makers in an internal audit setting to better understand what may be essential factors to their adoption decisions to be likewise successful. Results suggest that two constructs from UTAUT (performance expectancy and facilitating conditions) appear to be particularly important factors influencing successful adoptions of GAS in this domain. However, the UTAUT constructs of social influence and effort expectancy are not found by this study to be as important in this specific IT adoption domain. UTAUT also proposes four moderating factors that influence the constructs. This paper explores two of these moderators – experience and voluntariness – and shows that both are keys to the constructs application to this domain.

Originality/value

The paper examines the motivation for CAATTs adoption by internal auditors using the UTAUT framework commonly used in information system research but not so to date in this domain where there is professional guidance suggesting wider use of technology should be made compared to actual usage.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Rajasshrie Pillai and Brijesh Sivathanu

This study aims to use the novel approach of applying the behavioural reasoning theory (BRT) to understand the relative influence of reason for and reason against the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use the novel approach of applying the behavioural reasoning theory (BRT) to understand the relative influence of reason for and reason against the adoption of mobile learning applications (M-learning apps) among information technology (IT) and information technology enabled services (ITeS) employees.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveys 680 employees of IT and ITeS companies in India to examine the adoption of M-learning apps for learning using the BRT and the primary data analysis was done using the partial least squares-structural equation modelling technique.

Findings

It is found that the context-specific adoption factors for M-learning apps are hedonic motivation, self-efficacy, learning autonomy, ubiquitous and relative advantage, whereas the reasons against adoption of the M-learning apps are traditional barrier, usage barrier and image barrier. It is also found that values of openness to change positively affect the reasons for adoption and do not significantly affect reasons against adoption of M-learning. Values of openness to change affect the attitude towards M-learning apps and attitude affects the adoption intention of M-learning apps for learning.

Research/limitations/implications

This cross-sectional study was conducted only in the Indian IT/ITeS firms and future research can be conducted in other sectors and countries to generalize the results.

Practical implications

This research uniquely highlights the adoption factors both for and against, which should be considered while developing marketing strategies for M-learning apps’ adoption. It is imperative for training managers to consider these factors during the selection of M-learning apps and for designers while designing the M-learning apps.

Originality/value

This study provides new insights towards the use of mobile apps for learning with the employees’ perspective using the BRT theory and it highlights the reason for adoption and reason against adoption of M-learning apps.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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