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Article

Lauren Grace Moulds and Andrew Day

Adolescent violence towards parents (AVTP) has damaging impacts on family relationships, however, little is known about the characteristics of the families in which it…

Abstract

Purpose

Adolescent violence towards parents (AVTP) has damaging impacts on family relationships, however, little is known about the characteristics of the families in which it occurs. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize current knowledge of the AVTP characteristics to help to inform the development of more effective community responses.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for a Rapid Evidence Assessment taking an ecological approach to organize current knowledge about the characteristics of both victims and perpetrators of AVTP. It synthesized 20 empirical studies identified from a systemic review of published literature.

Findings

The assessment concludes that adolescents who perpetrate AVTP typically experience high levels of comorbid mental health concerns, drug and alcohol use, anger difficulties and trauma. The victims (parents) are characterized as having strained relationships with other family members and trauma profiles.

Practical implications

Policy and practice responses should be tailored to systemically address needs in the identified areas. This review further illustrates the limitations of current knowledge, highlighting inconsistencies in both definitions and findings, particularly related to key characteristics.

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind to systemically search this literature and only include the most rigorously designed studies. It adds value to the developing field of AVTP by providing the scaffolding of the characteristics of families who have been impacted.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Book part

Nicola Jones, Yitagesu Gebeyehu and Joan Hamory-Hicks

There is a growing recognition that social norms play a key role in perpetuating gender- and age-based violence, and that tackling social norms must be an integral…

Abstract

There is a growing recognition that social norms play a key role in perpetuating gender- and age-based violence, and that tackling social norms must be an integral component of prevention and response interventions to ensure meaningful progress towards the ambitious targets of eliminating gender-based violence (Sustainable Development Goal [SDG] Target 5.2) and violence against children (SDG 16.2) by 2030. However, existing research often fails to adequately capture life-course and context-specific complexities. To explore these challenges, this chapter focuses on adolescents’ vulnerabilities to violence in Afar, one of the Ethiopia’s most disadvantaged regions. Drawing on findings from the Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) mixed-methods 2018 baseline research, and using a socio-ecological framework, the chapter highlights that while the patterning of violence experienced by adolescent girls and boys is shifting across generations at the micro-level, gender- and age-related social norms remain deeply entrenched in both migrating and settled pastoralist communities. At the meso-level, institutional barriers to addressing adolescents’ experiences of violence include a lack of basic infrastructure, a dearth of confidential reporting spaces, limited adolescent- and gender-friendly personnel within the police and justice sectors, and poor coordination. At the macro-level, the chapter underscores the significant disconnect between Ethiopia’s progressive national policies and adolescents’ experiences of violence, reflected in the availability and quality of prevention and response services. The chapter concludes that to adequately tailor services to local realities and tackle adolescents’ specific vulnerabilities, a fine-grained analysis of the gendered and generational experiences of violence in its diverse forms is critical.

Details

Victim, Perpetrator, or What Else?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-335-8

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Book part

Mallory D. Minter, Monica A. Longmore, Peggy C. Giordano and Wendy D. Manning

Prior researchers have documented significant effects of family violence on adult children’s own risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet, few studies have examined…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior researchers have documented significant effects of family violence on adult children’s own risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet, few studies have examined whether exposure to family violence while growing up as well as emerging adults’ reports of their current peers’ behaviors and attitudes influenced self-reports of intimate partner violence perpetration. The current study based on interviews with a large, heterogeneous sample of men and women assessed the degree to which current peers’ attitudes and behaviors contributed to risk of intimate partner violence perpetration, net of family violence.

Methodology/approach

Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 928), we examined associations between family violence indicators, peers’ behaviors and attitudes, and self-reports of intimate violence perpetration among adults ages 22–29. We used ordinary least squares regression and controlled for other known correlates of IPV.

Findings

For men and women, we found a significant relationship between witnessing parental violence during adolescence and IPV perpetration in emerging adulthood, and a positive relationship between current peers’ IPV experiences and attitudes and respondents’ perpetration. We also found that for respondents who reported higher, compared with lower, peer involvement in partner violence, the effects of parental violence were stronger.

Originality/value

We provided a more comprehensive assessment of peers’ IPV to this body of research, which tends to focus on family violence. Studies have examined peers’ attitudes and behavior during adolescence, but we extended this work by examining both peer and familial influences into emerging adulthood.

Details

Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-262-7

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Book part

Henriikka Weir and Catherine Kaukinen

The present study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Ad Health) to evaluate the effects of exposure to violent victimization in childhood…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Ad Health) to evaluate the effects of exposure to violent victimization in childhood on adolescent delinquency and subsequent adult criminality.

Methodology/approach

Using Longitudinal Latent Class Analysis (LLCA), the present study investigates whether there are distinct and diverse longitudinal delinquency trajectories among those exposed to violence in childhood.

Findings

Findings from the current study indicate that there are three distinct trajectories of delinquency and offending from age 14 to 27 for both males and females exposed to violence in childhood. Further, it appears that violent victimization in childhood bridges the gender gap in delinquency between males and females. Thus, childhood violent victimization, and the fact that females are victimized by parents/caregivers and romantic partners at higher rates than males, might be partially responsible in explaining the narrowing of the gender gap between male and female offending in the recent decades. At the same time, childhood violent victimization also seems to impact males and females in somewhat different ways. Practically, all female victims stop offending by their late 20s, whereas a fairly large proportion of males exposed to violent victimization in childhood steadily continue offending.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study was able to identify the diverse impacts of violence exposure on engagement in subsequent delinquency, it did not examine the unique contributions of each type of violence on adolescent outcomes or the chronicity of exposure to each of these types of violent victimization. We were also not able to measure all types of violence experiences in childhood, such as exposure to parents’ or caregivers’ intimate partner violence.

Social implications

While early prevention would be the most desirable option for both genders for the most optimal outcome, the retrospective intervention and treatment programs should be gender-specific. For males, they should heavily focus on providing alternative ways to cope with anger, impulse control and frustration, as well as teach empathy, cognitive problem solving skills, verbal communication skills, and tangible life and job skills. For females, most successful intervention and treatment programs may focus on helping the girls through a transition from adolescence to adulthood while providing mental health, medical, and family support services.

Originality/value

The paper uses a unique methodological approach to identify distinct and diverse longitudinal delinquency trajectories. The findings demonstrate how more resilient individuals (in terms of externalizing behaviors) can bring down the mean scores of delinquency even though many other individuals can be severely affected by violence exposure in childhood.

Details

Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-262-7

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Victim, Perpetrator, or What Else?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-335-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Kevin P. Haggerty, Anne McGlynn-Wright and Tali Klima

Adolescent problem behaviours (substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy, and violence) are costly not only for individuals, but for entire communities. Policy…

Abstract

Purpose

Adolescent problem behaviours (substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy, and violence) are costly not only for individuals, but for entire communities. Policy makers and practitioners that are interested in preventing these problem behaviours are faced with many programming options. The purpose of this review is to discuss two criteria for selecting relevant parenting programmes, and provide five examples of such programmes.

Design/methodology/approach

The first criterion for programme selection is theory based. Well-supported theories, such as the social development model, have laid out key family-based risk and protective factors for problem behaviour. Programmes that target these risk and protective factors are more likely to be effective. Second, programmes should have demonstrated efficacy; these interventions have been called “evidence-based programmes” (EBP). This review highlights the importance of evidence from rigorous research designs, such as randomised clinical trials, in order to establish programme efficacy.

Findings

Nurse-Family Partnership, The Incredible Years, the Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), Strengthening Families 10-14, and Staying Connected with Your Teen are examined. The unique features of each programme are briefly presented. Evidence showing impact on family risk and protective factors, as well as long-term problem behaviours, is reviewed. Finally, a measure of cost effectiveness of each programme is provided.

Originality/value

The paper proposes that not all programmes are of equal value, and suggests two simple criteria for selecting a parenting programme with a high likelihood for positive outcomes. Furthermore, although this review is not exhaustive, the five examples of EBPs offer a good start for policy makers and practitioners seeking to implement effective programmes in their communities. Thus, this paper offers practical suggestions for those grappling with investments in child and adolescent programmes on the ground.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

Content available
Article

Randal G. Ross, Julia Maximon, Jonathan Kusumi and Susan Lurie

Violence is elevated in older adolescents and adults with schizophrenia; however, little is known about younger children. This report focuses on rates of violence in…

Abstract

Violence is elevated in older adolescents and adults with schizophrenia; however, little is known about younger children. This report focuses on rates of violence in younger children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. A retrospective review of structured diagnostic interviews from a case series of 81 children, ages 4-15 years of age, with childhood onset of schizophrenic-spectrum illness is reported. Seventy-two percent of children had a history of violent behavior, including 25 children (31%) with a history of severe violence. Of those with a history of violence, 60% had a least one episode of violence that did not appear to be in response to an external stimulus (internally driven violence). There was no significant impact of age or gender. For many children, these internally driven violent episodes were rare and unpredictable, but severe. Similar to what is found in adolescents and adults, violence is common in children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. General violence prevention strategies combined with early identification and treatment of childhood psychotic illnesses may decrease the morbidity associated with childhood psychotic violence.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article

Melati Sumari, Dini Farhana Baharudin, Ida Hartina Ahmed Tharbe, Norsafatul Aznin A. Razak and Norfaezah Md Khalid

This study aims to explore the family experiences of delinquent adolescents and uses a descriptive phenomenological research design.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the family experiences of delinquent adolescents and uses a descriptive phenomenological research design.

Design/methodology/approach

The study explores the family experiences of delinquent adolescents and uses a descriptive phenomenological research design. Eight adolescents that were under detainment in a rehabilitation centre in Malaysia participated in the study. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and reflective journals.

Findings

Five themes common to the participants’ experience were inductively identified from the analysis. These were: life without guidance, alienation and isolation, conflict on how the family is managed; I am still a little child and prisoners at home.

Originality/value

Despite many studies on delinquent adolescents were conducted in Malaysia, no study has been conducted so far to explore and understand the experience of female adolescents in their families.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

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Article

Sarah Baxendale, Leanne Lester, Robyn Johnston and Donna Cross

– The purpose of this paper is to examine risk factors associated with Western Australian secondary school students’ involvement in violence-related behaviours.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine risk factors associated with Western Australian secondary school students’ involvement in violence-related behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study examined data collected using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire from 542 school students aged 13-17 years. The questionnaire measured risk factors associated with being a perpetrator and/or victim of violence-related behaviours.

Findings

Gender was significantly associated with being a victim and perpetrator of violence-related behaviours. Males were significantly more likely than females to be a victim of threatening and physical violence at school, and to be a perpetrator of physical violence at school and in the community. Males were significantly more likely than females to watch violent media, with exposure to violent media associated with physically hurting someone at school. Students involved in greater acts of animal cruelty had increased odds of being involved in all forms of the violence measured.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations such as the cross-sectional nature of the study and the small sample size are noted, along with suggestions for future research.

Practical implications

Implications of the research for practitioners working with adolescents, with a particular focus on the school setting, are discussed.

Originality/value

Most previously published research on adolescent involvement in violence has been conducted outside Australia, and as such, may not be directly applicable to the experiences of young people in Western Australia.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

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