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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Neena Sondhi and Himanshu Joshi

This study aims to segment and profile young internet addicts in India and examine their state of well-being.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to segment and profile young internet addicts in India and examine their state of well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

Young’s Internet Addiction Test was adapted to identify and profile cohorts among the internet addicts. Diener’s satisfaction with life scale was used to measure the well-being. Convenience sampling was used to conduct an online survey and obtain a representative sample of 320 urban internet users. A mixed-method approach was deployed and exploratory factor analysis followed by k-means cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were used to analyse the quantitative data.

Findings

Data analysis revealed the existence of three distinct clusters: non-addicts (135), potential internet addicts (n = 128) and addicts (n = 57). Smartphones and tablets were the primary devices for accessing the internet. Wi-Fi and data cards were used by all groups for internet browsing, messaging and visiting social networking sites. The usage hours were higher for the potential internet addicts and internet addicts. These groups also faced considerable internal conflict and dissonance in their inability to control their addictive behaviour and online cravings. The non-addicts were more satisfied with their life conditions and better adjusted than the other two groups.

Research limitations/implications

The incidence of diverse internet addicted groups needs to be validated through a larger sample in other regions and geographies. There is also a dire need to study other vulnerable groups, such as internet-savvy adolescents.

Originality/value

The study found the existence of well-defined segments and identified unique areas of conflict for each group, which subsequently affected their sense of well-being.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Antonio D. Jimenez

This study examines the consequences of stigmatization that occurred during a tuberculosis outbreak concentrated among Puerto Rican clients enrolled in a Chicago drug…

Abstract

This study examines the consequences of stigmatization that occurred during a tuberculosis outbreak concentrated among Puerto Rican clients enrolled in a Chicago drug treatment center. Using ethnographic methods, I examine three factors that contributed to the stigmatization of those with TB. One factor concerns the fear elicited by the deadly disease that aroused reactions among Puerto Rican community members that were derived from earlier experiences. A second factor involves traditional public health measures enacted in response to the outbreak that facilitating labeling of those with TB, further fueling stigmatization. A third factor concerns the re‐articulation of group boundaries occurring among drug program inhabitants, whereby TB‐impacted persons were marginalized in order to reaffirmed the status of others whose identity had been compromised by the epidemic. The study’s implications for public health are discussed and suggestions are offered for developing innovative intervention approaches.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 23 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Raymond Kerns‐Zucco

Investigates recovery from drug addiction in the USA as an interactive social process. Describes what the author terms “the hermeneutic process” – a verbal interchange…

Abstract

Investigates recovery from drug addiction in the USA as an interactive social process. Describes what the author terms “the hermeneutic process” – a verbal interchange between two addicts, making the addiction “real” and, therefore, the addicts become aware of the addiction, creating a personal biographical text which translates, in a group setting, into a text of social history, with which other group members can identify. Indicates then that addicts should interact with other addicts and recovering addicts, so stimulating dialogue and reflection. Observes that recovering alcoholics suggest that alcoholism is a “thinking problem” rather than a “drinking problem” and that it is necessary to realize the truth of past experiences and overcome any denial. Talks about distorted interpretations on an individual and social level, providing some illustrative examples. Discusses the task of the clinical sociologist in aiding addiction recovery.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

John Corkery

Aims This paper examines (a) the relationship between notifications to the Home Office Addicts Index and deaths of notified addicts, and (b) the survival rates of such…

Abstract

Aims This paper examines (a) the relationship between notifications to the Home Office Addicts Index and deaths of notified addicts, and (b) the survival rates of such addicts.Design and participants Data came from the Home Office Addicts Index covering (a) notifications of opiate and cocaine addicts seeking treatment in the UK between 1966 and 1996, and (b) deaths of notified addicts between 1967 and 1996.Measurement Date of first notification; date of death; numbers of notifications in different times.Findings The proportion of addicts dying compared to the number of new notifications 20 years earlier rose from 2 to 7 in 10 between 1988 and 1993. There is constancy in the relationship between numbers of death and new notifications for up to 10 years before death. The proportion of the cumulative notified population dying between 1985 and 1993 remained consistent at 0.6% or 0.7%. The average length of time between first notification and death increased by six months between 1985‐90 and 1991‐96. Whilst the absolute number of deaths rose between 1984 and 1993, the proportion of newly notified addicts dying each year fell from 2.1% to 0.5%.Conclusions An increase in notifications was directly associated with a proportionate increase in addict deaths. One can expect the number of serious‐end drug users who die to increase with time, especially given the continuing role played by opiates ‐ chiefly heroin and methadone ‐ and increasingly cocaine in drug‐related deaths. At the same time, one can expect such individuals to survive for longer periods than did addicts in past decades.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2011

Salman Mushtaq, Joby Maucoli Easow, Vania Mendes and Jason Luty

Injectable opioid therapy (prescribing heroin for heroin addicts to inject) remains a highly controversial and expensive option. Recent research has shown significant…

Abstract

Purpose

Injectable opioid therapy (prescribing heroin for heroin addicts to inject) remains a highly controversial and expensive option. Recent research has shown significant benefits for this therapy in otherwise refractory patients. The aim of this paper is to assess the public opinion regarding heroin prescribing to addicts and to determine what effect the cost of this might have on their opinions.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire after reading a vignette which described current opioid maintenance therapy. Two vignettes were generated and the experimental group was randomised to receive the additional information that the cost of heroin prescribing was £15,000 per addict, per year.

Findings

Questionnaires were received from 187 subjects (response rate 74 percent). For the control group, 23 percent agreed and 58 percent disagreed with prescribing heroin to addicts (23 vs 62). For the experimental group, where the additional cost of £15,000 per addict was introduced into the vignette, 10 percent agreed and 75 percent disagreed (10 vs 71). The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05; χ2). In total, 58 percent of people were opposed to the idea that heroin should be prescribed to heroin addicts on the National Health Service but this rises to 75 percent when the annual cost of prescribed heroin (£15,000) is included.

Originality/value

This study supports an earlier survey that showed over 80 percent of the general public opposed the prescription of diamorphine to addicts even to reduce crime. Heroin prescribing remains controversial and lacks public support.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Book part
Publication date: 16 May 2007

Ronald J. Burke and Teal McAteer

This chapter addresses a number of issues related to work hours and work addiction. The dependent variables associated with working long hours include health-related…

Abstract

This chapter addresses a number of issues related to work hours and work addiction. The dependent variables associated with working long hours include health-related illnesses, injuries, sleep patterns, fatigue, heart rate and hormone level changes, as well as several work/non-work life balance issues. Motives for working long hours such as joy in the work, avoiding job insecurity or negative sanctions from a superior, employer demands, are addressed in detail, and a multitude of moderators shown to have affected the work hours and well-being relationship, are reviewed. These include reasons for working long hours, work schedule autonomy, monetary gain, choice in working for long hours. The chapter suggests a need for more research to better understand workaholism and work addiction, as well as provides a number of implications and organizational and societal suggestions for addressing work-hour concerns.

Details

Exploring the Work and Non-Work Interface
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1444-7

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Book part
Publication date: 10 January 2007

Amar Dhand

This paper addresses the problem of access in ethnographic research from a learning theory perspective. It extends a recent symbolic interactionist approach to the problem…

Abstract

This paper addresses the problem of access in ethnographic research from a learning theory perspective. It extends a recent symbolic interactionist approach to the problem (Harrington, 2003) by conceptualizing access as a process of ‘legitimate peripheral participation’, broadly understood as the processes that enable ‘newcomers’ to become part of the sociocultural practices of a community (Lave & Wenger, 1991). I present evidence from my journey of gaining access to three social structures of a group of heroin addicts in India: a non-governmental organization (NGO), a small group of ‘brothers’, and a friendship with a key informant. Using this evidence, I argue that the ethnographer negotiates identity roles, acquires an understanding of the ‘rules’ of interaction, and engages in educative processes that make him or her a legitimate peripheral participant.

Details

Methodological Developments in Ethnography
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-500-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2009

M. T. Arends, H. A. De Haan and G.I.C.M. Van ’T Hoff

Heterogenic care of addicted detainees in the various prisons in the Netherlands triggered the National Agency of Correctional Institutions of the Ministry of Justice, to…

Abstract

Heterogenic care of addicted detainees in the various prisons in the Netherlands triggered the National Agency of Correctional Institutions of the Ministry of Justice, to order the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement (CBO) to formulate the first national guideline titled ‘Pharmacological care for detained addicts’. This article presents the content of this guideline, which mainly focuses on opioid‐dependent addicts. In the Netherlands, approximately 50% of the detainees are problematic substance abusers, while again half of this group suffers from psychiatric co‐morbidity. In addition, somatic co‐morbidity, especially infectious diseases, is also common. Due to the moderate outcome seen with voluntary drug counselling regimes in prison, there is a policy shift to extent utilization of legally enforced approaches. Continuity of care is of great importance. In case of opioid addicts this, in general, means continuation of methadone maintenance treatment. Aftercare immediately after detention and optimalization of medical information transfer is crucial. This guideline aims to realize optimal and uniform management of addiction disorders in the Dutch prison system.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2012

Rebecca Ranz, Rachel Dekel and Haya Itzhaky

The purpose of this paper is to focus on comparing background characteristics, self‐efficacy, and family support of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on comparing background characteristics, self‐efficacy, and family support of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and of veteran Israelis who join therapeutic communities in Israel, and their adjustment to these communities. The aim of this research was to examine whether therapeutic communities are an appropriate rehabilitative setting for immigrants who come from a different cultural background.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample consisted of 213 people with addictions, who were being treated in therapeutic communities in Israel: 110 were Israeli‐born and 103 were immigrants from the FSU. The data in the present study are based on questionnaires, which the participants completed upon their arrival into the communities: socio‐demographic data; perceived self‐efficacy in resisting the temptation of drugs; and family support. The dropout rates from the therapeutic communities were also examined.

Findings

The findings indicate that the addicts who immigrated from the FSU had lower self‐efficacy in resisting high‐risk drug situations as well as lower levels of family support, whereas the dropout rate from the treatment program was considerably higher among the Israeli‐born participants.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that the therapeutic community is an appropriate setting for addicts from the FSU, and that they had a lower dropout rate than did the Israeli‐born addicts. Thus, the main value of this research is that it suggests that the communities are an appropriate rehabilitative setting for the immigrants.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2020

Dragan Miljkovic

Episodes of compulsive eating may lead to addiction. Changing relative prices does not always work for many food addicts turned overweight or obese individuals. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Episodes of compulsive eating may lead to addiction. Changing relative prices does not always work for many food addicts turned overweight or obese individuals. This paper points to when such situations may arise and how they can be remedied.

Design/methodology/approach

We modify the standard neoclassical economics model assumption of indifference curves being convex to the origin. It becomes violated in situations when compulsive eaters become food addicts. As a result of that, the assumption of the concave (quasi-concave) utility function is violated too. We also introduce the possibility that compulsive eaters may have stable but nonconstant preferences.

Findings

Most important finding of our model is that a smooth dynamic path to addiction, caused by habit, disappears. Hence, the ability for smooth adjustment to relative price changes due to policies targeting obesity may not be applicable for a compulsive addict. We postulate the existence of thresholds past in which irreversible harm to addicted overeaters may occur. Reaching such states implies that no economic tools at our disposal could reverse the harm, which, in turn, deem that many policies directed at altering relative prices are ineffective in correcting overeating addiction and its consequences.

Social implications

Even if we believe in consumer sovereignty, it is possible to shape consumer behavior via policy actions, including the behavior of extremum seekers turned addicts. The public policy of obesity should consider, in this case, its social cost.

Originality/value

No prior research has considered food addiction in light of compulsive eating caused by extremum-seeking behavior. Addiction correcting food policies always relied on either rational or myopic addiction models.

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