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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Meshack O. Efeoma and Ola Uduku

The purpose of this paper is to adduce the most appropriate thermal comfort assessment method for determining human thermal comfort and energy efficient temperature…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adduce the most appropriate thermal comfort assessment method for determining human thermal comfort and energy efficient temperature control in office buildings in tropical West Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the Adaptive Thermal Comfort Standard, from its research evolution to its contemporary use as an environmental design assessment Standard. It compares the adaptive component of ASHRAE Standard 55 and the European CEN/EN 15251. It begins by reviewing relevant literature and then produces a comparative analysis of the two standards, before suggesting the most appropriate Adaptive Thermal Comfort Standard for use in assessing conditions in tropical climate conditions. The suggested Standard was then used to analyse data collected from the author's pilot research into thermal conditions, in five office buildings situated in the city of Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria.

Findings

The paper provides insight as to why the ASHRAE adaptive model is more suitable for thermal comfort assessment of office buildings in the tropical West African climate. This was demonstrated by using the ASHRAE Thermal Comfort Standard to assess comfort conditions from pilot research study data collected on Nigerian office buildings by the author.

Originality/value

The paper compares the adaptive component of ASHRAE Standard 55 with CEN/EN 15251, and their different benefits for use in tropical climates. It suggested the need for further research studies and application of the ASHRAE Adaptive Thermal Comfort Standard in the tropical West African climate.

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Subhashini S., Thirumaran Kesavaperumal and Masa Noguchi

Occupants dwelling in hot climatic regions of India for a longer term are tolerable to high temperature levels than predicted by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating…

Abstract

Purpose

Occupants dwelling in hot climatic regions of India for a longer term are tolerable to high temperature levels than predicted by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standards. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the thermal sensations (TS) and neutral temperature of the occupants in naturally ventilated (NV) and air-conditioned (AC) classrooms of two technical institutions located in the same premises in the suburbs of Madurai. The main focus of this study is to understand the occupants’ behaviour in response to the thermal conditions of the educational buildings particularly in the warm and humid climatic zone of Madurai.

Design/methodology/approach

This research collected data through field studies. The data included 383 survey questionnaires from NV classrooms and 285 from AC classrooms, as well as on-site measurements of interior and exterior weather conditions. The TS results show that the students preferred well-designed NV classrooms than AC classrooms. A new adaptive comfort equation derived from this study can be applied to NV classrooms in warm and humid climates where mean outdoor temperature exceeds 40°C.

Findings

The neutral temperature derived for NV classrooms in Madurai ranged from 29°C to 34°C. Thus, the occupants in the NV classrooms of the higher learning educational institutions in the warm and humid climatic region of Madurai can adapt well to higher indoor temperature levels than predicted by ASHRAE comfort levels with minimum adjustments.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to only occupants in two premier higher learning technical educational institutions located in Madurai region within 5–10 km within the city limits to understand the implications of microclimate with respect to the urban context. Thus, further research is required to examine the tendency under local conditions in other regions beyond those applied to this study.

Social implications

The findings of this study showed that occupants in higher learning educational intuitions in Madurai prefer NV classrooms than AC classrooms. Therefore, with rising demands of energy use for mechanical ventilation and the associated high cost for running AC buildings, architects should prioritize the design of energy efficient buildings through the optimal use of passive design strategies for ventilation and thermal comfort. This study gives a base data for architects to understand the adaptive limitations of occupants and design NV buildings that can promote natural ventilation and provide better thermal environments that can help increase the productivity of students.

Originality/value

This paper was an attempt to develop the adaptive comfort model for NV classrooms in Madurai regions. There has been no attempt to identify the adaptive comfort levels of occupants in higher learning technical educational institutions located in warm and humid climatic region of India.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2012

Mike Adebamowo and Adetokunbo O. Ilesanmi

Buildings have a considerable impact on the environment being responsible for a substantial proportion of global energy consumption, thus contributing significantly to the…

Abstract

Buildings have a considerable impact on the environment being responsible for a substantial proportion of global energy consumption, thus contributing significantly to the anthropogenic CO2 emissions, which evidence suggests is the main cause of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation measures are required to tackle the challenges of climate change. Adaptive measures – structural and behavioural strategies – are the focus of this paper. Structural strategies include flexible and adaptive structural systems; while behavioural strategies cover the spatial, personal, and psychological control measures which may influence the design and operations of buildings. The study explores the adaptive thermal comfort of occupants and examines the design strategies for adapting buildings to climate change in the tropical context, with a view to determine the effectiveness of these strategies as observed in the case study. The study was conducted during the rainy and dry seasons in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, located in a warm humid climate zone.

The Institute of Venture Design student hostel was used as case-study to conduct the survey on a sample of 40 respondents by means of structured questionnaire. The respondents' thermal sensation and access to thermal controls were determined, and their thermal sensation and thermal adaptability in both seasons comparatively analyzed. Indoor environmental parameters including air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were also measured. The data were analyzed using relevant descriptive and inferential statistics. The study discussed the effectiveness of design strategies available for building adaptation in an era of climate change within the warm humid environment, concluding on the need for greater synergy between the techno-structural and socio-behavioural dimensions of building adaptation.

Details

Open House International, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Kees A.C. van der Linden, Stanley S.R. Kurvers, Arjen A.K. Raue and Atze A.C. Boerstra

This paper sets out to highlight several aspects of a project, aimed at developing an advanced thermal comfort guideline, based on the adaptive thermal comfort theory.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to highlight several aspects of a project, aimed at developing an advanced thermal comfort guideline, based on the adaptive thermal comfort theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper introduces the new Dutch adaptive guideline for thermal comfort. The initial method exceeding hours (TO) is discussed, as well as the more recent method of weighted temperature exceeding hours (GTO). An evaluation of the practical and theoretical shortcomings of the TO and GTO methods is discussed, as well as the rationale behind the adaptive ATG guideline. Furthermore, the results are presented of computer simulations in which the predictions of the different methods are compared. Productivity effects of the new guideline are also discussed, as well as the implications for cooling system sizing and energy efficiency.

Findings

The adaptive temperature limits (ATG) guidelines appears to be a more reliable method for the assessment of thermal comfort, in particular for passive, free‐running buildings, compared with the PMV‐based method of weighted temperature exceeding hours (GTO). Furthermore, the ATG method allows for a wider temperature range for Alpha type buildings and gives more opportunity for the development of sustainable, naturally ventilated buildings and limiting cooling energy.

Research limitations/implications

Although the new ATG method shows promising results, more research is needed. The exact distinction between Alpha and Beta is still subject to further research, as well as the question whether a certain amount of exceeding hours of the ATG limits should be accepted.

Practical implications

The ATG method is being used in The Netherlands for the assessment of thermal comfort in the design stage as well as in the assessment of the performance of buildings in use.

Originality/value

This paper discusses the first application of the adaptive thermal comfort theory in a practical guideline.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2012

Shariful Shikder, Monjur Mourshed and Andrew Price

Recent climate change projections estimate that the average summertime temperature in the southern part of Great Britain may increase by up to 5.4°C by the end of the…

Abstract

Recent climate change projections estimate that the average summertime temperature in the southern part of Great Britain may increase by up to 5.4°C by the end of the century. The general consensus is that projected increases in temperature will render British dwellings vulnerable to summer overheating and by the middle of this century it may become difficult to maintain a comfortable indoor environment, if adaptation measures are not well integrated in the design and operation of new dwellings, which are likely to remain in use beyond the 2050s. The challenge is to reduce overheating risks by integrating building and user adaptation measures, to avoid energy intensive mechanical cooling. Developing guidelines and updating building regulations for adaptation, therefore, requires an understanding of the baseline scenario; i.e. the performance of existing buildings in future climates.

This paper aims to investigate the performance of new-build multi-occupancy British dwellings for human thermal comfort in the present-day and projected future climates in four regional cities: Birmingham, Edinburgh, London and Manchester. Evaluations are carried out by a series of dynamic thermal simulations using widely adopted threshold temperature for overheating, as well as adaptive thermal comfort standards. This study thus offers a unique perspective on regional variations of performance and provides a clearer snapshot because of the use of more appropriate adaptive comfort standards in the evaluations. Finally, the paper sheds light on possible personal and building adaptation measures to alleviate overheating risks.

Details

Open House International, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Peiman Pilechiha, Alireza Norouziasas, Hoorieh Ghorbani Naeini and Kasmir Jolma

In vernacular buildings, many climatic and passive solutions have been used to create indoor thermal comfort. Seasonal occupant movement is an example of a traditional…

Abstract

Purpose

In vernacular buildings, many climatic and passive solutions have been used to create indoor thermal comfort. Seasonal occupant movement is an example of a traditional response to increasing thermal comfort. This article investigates the influence of these user behaviours on thermal comfort in courtyard houses.

Design/methodology/approach

Parametric models of three different scenarios of courtyard houses are simulated. The courtyard houses are located in Shiraz, Iran, and share the same orientation and construction materials. To enhance the accuracy of the study, the indoor adaptive thermal comfort (ATC) analysis is performed with three different window-to-wall ratios (WWR) of 25, 50 and 75%. The ACT analysis is performed on an hourly basis for summer and winter scenarios.

Findings

The results demonstrate that the indoor ATC is 8.3% higher in winter than in the summer in the seasonal zones. During the summer, the amount of ATC is relatively sustained in all zones. Unlike common beliefs, seasonal movement can enhance the ATC, especially during winter, specifically in the northern part of the courtyard. In northern zones, the seasonal movement of occupants improves the indoor ATC from 10.1 to 23.7%, and in southern zones, the improvement is from 2.2 to 4.8%.

Originality/value

This research presents a new numerical investigation into occupants' seasonal movements in courtyard houses during summer and winter. It provides a precise pattern to show how much this seasonal movement can affect the habitant's ATC.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Arnaud Louis Sountong-Noma Ouedraogo, Adamah Messan, Daniel Yamegueu and Yezouma Coulibaly

A major challenge faced by West Africa is to find comfortable housing as a result of climate change and population growth. The climatic adaptation of buildings and their…

Abstract

Purpose

A major challenge faced by West Africa is to find comfortable housing as a result of climate change and population growth. The climatic adaptation of buildings and their indoor environment become an essential condition for maintaining the health and productivity of the occupants. This paper proposes a model to assess the thermal comfort of naturally ventilated buildings in hot and dry climates in Burkina Faso.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method is an adaptive model which relies on a combination of parameters such as the operative temperature, the new effective temperature and the basic parameters of thermal comfort. It consists in proposing the zones of thermal comfort on the diagram of the humid air for each climatic region.

Findings

A decision-making tool is set up for evaluating the comfort of buildings to better consider the bio-climatic concept through a long-term comfort index. This comfort index is defined and is used to assess the degree of thermal discomfort for various types of housing. Two natural ventilation pilot buildings located in Ouagadougou were considered. The results show that the pilot building whose wall are is made of Earth blocks achieves 26.4% of thermal comfort while the building made of hollow cement block achieves 25.8% of thermal comfort.

Originality/value

The decision-making tool proposed in the present study allow building stakeholders to better and easily design, assess and improve the thermal environment of buildings.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2020

Charles Munonye

The paper aims to determine the thermal comfort perception of schoolchildren from a warm and humid environment. There is a concern about the effect of high temperature on…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to determine the thermal comfort perception of schoolchildren from a warm and humid environment. There is a concern about the effect of high temperature on the health and academic performance of schoolchildren.

Design/methodology/approach

Objective and subjective methodological approaches were adopted to collect data during the fieldwork in the selected primary schools. ASHRAE adaptive comfort model was adopted to analyze the data.

Findings

The paper provided empirical results about the comfort requirements of schoolchildren from the warm and humid environment. During the occupied school time, the studied schoolchildren were found to tolerate temperatures higher than the upper limit temperature recommended by ASHRAE Standard 55. The paper recommends that the studied children may not need any active ventilator to be thermally comfortable during the occupied school hours

Originality/value

The paper found the range of temperatures that schoolchildren from the warm and humid environment can adapt to. The information may be useful to architects, engineers and facility managers

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Nurul Hayati Yong, Qi Jie Kwong, Kok Seng Ong and Dejan Mumovic

As suggested in many previous studies, good thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) played a significant role in ensuring human comfort, health and productivity in…

Abstract

Purpose

As suggested in many previous studies, good thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) played a significant role in ensuring human comfort, health and productivity in buildings. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the thermal comfort and IAQ conditions of open-plan office areas within a green-certified campus building through a post occupancy evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the field measurement method, environmental dataloggers were positioned at three office areas during office hours to measure the levels of thermal comfort parameters, CO2 concentrations and the supply air rates. At the same time, questionnaires were distributed to the available office staff to obtain their perception of the indoor environment. The findings were then compared with the recommended environmental comfort ranges and used to calculate the thermal comfort indices.

Findings

Results show that the physical parameters were generally within acceptable ranges of a local guideline. The neutral temperature based on the actual mean vote at these areas was 23.9°C, which is slightly lower than the predicted thermal neutrality of 25.2°C. From the surveyed findings, about 81% of the occupants found their thermal environment comfortable with high adaptation rates. A preference for cooler environments was found among the workers. Meanwhile, the air quality was perceived to be clean by a majority of the respondents, and the mean ventilation rate per person was identified to be sufficient.

Research limitations/implications

This study focussed on the thermal environment and air quality at selected office spaces only. More work should be carried out in other regularly occupied workplaces and study areas of the green educational building to allow a more thorough analysis of the indoor air conditions.

Practical implications

This paper highlights on the thermal comfort and air quality conditions of the air-conditioned office spaces in a green-certified campus building and is intended to assist the building services engineers in effective air conditioning control. The findings reported are useful for thermal comfort, IAQ and subsequently energy efficiency improvements in such building type where adjustments on the air temperature set-point can be considered according to the actual requirements. This study will be extended to other green campus spaces for a more exhaustive analysis of the indoor environment.

Originality/value

There is limited information pertaining to the environmental comfort levels in offices of green campus in the tropics. This study is, therefore, one of the earliest attempts to directly explore the thermal comfort and IAQ conditions in such workplace using both on-site physical measurement and questionnaire survey.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2005

W.L. Tse, Albert T.P. So, W.L. Chan and Ida K.Y. Mak

To examine the role of predicted mean vote (PMV) in air‐conditioned environments by conducting a thermal comfort study.

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Abstract

Purpose

To examine the role of predicted mean vote (PMV) in air‐conditioned environments by conducting a thermal comfort study.

Design/methodology/approach

A formal statistical approach was adopted for the credibility of the study. Thermal measurements and questionnaire filling were carried out in commercial offices to collect the required data. Statistical analysis on the collected data and logical reasoning were then employed to derive the conclusions.

Findings

Provide an evidence to support PMV to be an appropriate thermal comfort index in air‐conditioned environments. Guarantee high productivity of occupants by using PMV in air‐conditioning control.

Research limitations/implications

Future research work should be carried out to investigate any significant relationship between improvement in PMV and the profits gained by occupants inside an air‐conditioned space. With such relationship, it is possible to develop an intelligent air‐conditioning control to yield the most cost‐effective thermal environments for commercial offices.

Practical implications

Air‐conditioning engineers are highly recommended to employ PMV to assess the thermal comfort environment in air‐conditioned offices.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the importance aspect on choosing a thermal comfort index for comfort assessment in air‐conditioned offices. The index itself should not consider adaptive actions. Otherwise, the productivity of occupants would be severely deteriorated. It is well known that PMV is the thermal comfort index that can fulfill this requirement.

Details

Facilities, vol. 23 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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