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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Yam B. Limbu, C. Jayachandran, Barry J. Babin and Robin T. Peterson

Previous studies that examined the role of empathy and nonverbal immediacy on business-to-business (B2B) salesperson performance is limited in scope and yielded…

2807

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies that examined the role of empathy and nonverbal immediacy on business-to-business (B2B) salesperson performance is limited in scope and yielded inconclusive evidence. Grounded in Plank and Greene’s (1996) framework of salesperson effectiveness, this paper aims to empirically investigate the mediating role of adaptive selling behavior through which empathy and nonverbal immediacy influence sales force performance and the form of empathy (cognitive or affective) that has the most beneficial role in improving relationship (versus outcome) salesperson performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using cross-sectional data that were collected from 422 pharmaceutical sales representatives, this study used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Adaptive selling behavior mediates the effect of perspective taking empathy and empathic concern on relationship performance. However, the impact of empathy on outcome performance is not significant through adaptive selling behavior, but perspective taking empathy has a direct influence on outcome performance. Contrary to expectations, nonverbal immediacy is not mediated by adaptive selling behavior but has a direct and positive impact on relationship performance.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study have several implications for recruitment, training and assessment of salespeople in a B2B context. Based on the empirical evidence, it is highlighted that firms may use different forms of empathy and nonverbal cues to promote adaptive selling behavior that impact sales force performance (i.e. outcome or relationship).

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study which simultaneously examines the mediating role of adaptive selling behavior in the relationship between three antecedent variables that relate to sales force empathy and nonverbal communication (i.e. perspective taking empathy, empathic concern and nonverbal immediacy) and two aspects of B2B sales performance (relationship and outcome).

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Sunil Budhiraja and Neerpal Rathi

The study aims to examine the association between learning culture and adaptive performance of delivery employees during crises situation. The study develops and tests a…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to examine the association between learning culture and adaptive performance of delivery employees during crises situation. The study develops and tests a model that explains how learning culture, through change-efficacy and meaningful work, influences employees' adaptive performance (including how they handle crisis situations and deal with uncertainty).

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from 298 delivery employees working in e-commerce companies throughout India in a time-lagged manner. Regression analysis and structural equation modeling were performed to assess the influence of learning culture, change-efficacy and meaningful work on adaptive performance using SPSS 24. Further, PROCESS macro was used to test the parallel mediation effects through bootstrapping approach.

Findings

The study establishes a significant direct and indirect relationship between learning culture and adaptive performance for employees. Further, underpinning the transformative learning theory (Mezirow, 1997), and job characteristics theory (1976), this study came across two pathways for organizations to transform their learning efforts into improved adaptive performance for employees.

Practical implications

Organizations, particularly in crisis situations, can leverage employees' change-efficacy and meaningful work to connect learning efforts with employees' adaptive performance.

Originality/value

The study contributes significantly to existing theory on transformative learning and job characteristics theory while strengthening the literature on antecedents of employees' adaptive performance, particularly in crises situation.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Deanna M. Kennedy and M. Travis Maynard

On the path to accomplishing task work, teams may face disruptive events like budget issues, equipment failures, and membership change that trigger adaptation. While…

Abstract

Purpose

On the path to accomplishing task work, teams may face disruptive events like budget issues, equipment failures, and membership change that trigger adaptation. While recently researchers have clarified the team adaptation nomological network, our objective is to extend theory by providing a roadmap about various ways in which temporal considerations may complicate the impact of adaptation triggers on team adaptation and in turn adaptive outcomes.

Methodology/approach

We present three adaptation temporal considerations (i.e., timing, duration, and frequency) that may change the way team adaptation unfolds in response to a given adaptation trigger. We further explore and offer propositions about how the impact of adaptation timing, adaptation duration, and adaptation frequency differ by the type of adaptation trigger (i.e., task-based or team-based) experienced by the team.

Research implications

By examining adaptation to task-based or team-based triggers from a temporal perspective researchers may better explain why the timing of when the team adapts across its lifecycle (adaptation timing), how long the team takes to adapt (adaptation duration), and the recurrent need to adapt (adaptation frequency) is more or less likely to lead to positive adaptive performance outcomes.

Practical implications

Organizations may benefit from setting up teams for success by helping members understand that there are inherent differences in the adaptation triggers they face including temporal expectations. Organizations may see value in providing initial and on-going support to teams so they are better able to adapt when needed and mitigate negative effects due to adaptation timing, adaptation duration, and adaption frequency.

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Jihong Zhou and Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol

This study aims to draw on the categorization theory to explore the mediating role of customer qualification skills in explaining how social media use in sales contributes…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to draw on the categorization theory to explore the mediating role of customer qualification skills in explaining how social media use in sales contributes to salespeople’s adaptive selling behaviors to achieve high sales performance in export selling. The study also integrates network effect theory and social linguistics theory to identify the specific social media platform (Facebook versus non-Facebook) and the characteristics of salespeople in terms of English language proficiency, which play a facilitating role in promoting the effectiveness of social media use in export sales.

Design/methodology/approach

The sampling frame of the research is a list of Chinese export salespersons obtained on the FOB Business Forum website. Survey data were obtained from 873 Chinese export salespeople. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data.

Findings

Social media use in sales is associated positively with customer qualification skills and adaptive selling behaviors. Moreover, the results revealed a partial mediating effect of customer qualification skills on the positive impact of social media use in sales on adaptive selling behaviors. The moderating effect analysis found that the positive association between social media use in sales and customer qualification skills was stronger in export salespeople who used Facebook and had mastered a high level of English language proficiency.

Originality/value

This study provides new findings, based on data collected from salespeople in Mainland China, that support the effectiveness of social media use in an export sales context. Moreover, the study advances prior research by showing that the effectiveness of social media use still depends on the type of social media used and the English language proficiency of the salespeople.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Ceyda Maden-Eyiusta, Zeynep Yesim Yalabik and Mehmet Ali Burak Nakiboglu

Drawing on the social exchange theory, this study focuses on the impact of perceived organizational support (POS) and perceived supervisor support (PSS) on employees'…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the social exchange theory, this study focuses on the impact of perceived organizational support (POS) and perceived supervisor support (PSS) on employees' adaptive (selling) behavior in a personal selling context. As part of the support-adaptive behavior relationship, the authors also explore the mediating role of psychological empowerment and the moderating role of customer orientation (CO).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 200 salespeople from the financial and pharmaceutical sectors in Turkey. Hypotheses were tested with hierarchical multiple regressions and hierarchical moderated regressions.

Findings

Supported salespeople feel more empowered in their jobs and show adaptive (selling) behavior. Our results also show that the impact of support on adaptive selling behavior through empowerment is stronger for salespeople with low CO.

Research limitations/implications

This study has two limitations: the generalizability of its findings and cross-sectional design. Still, it significantly contributes to support, empowerment and adaptive behavior literature.

Practical implications

By creating a supportive work environment and by training their managers to improve their support skills, organizations boost their employees' adaptability. Both of these support practices motivate employees to use their discretion in sales situations. Organizations should also evaluate and manage their employees' level of CO by conducting company surveys and by increasing top management communication.

Originality/value

This study tests the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relationship between POS, PSS and adaptive behavior in the understudied personal selling context. The authors also test the moderating role of CO in the proposed model.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Jennifer L. Sparr, Daan van Knippenberg and Eric Kearney

Paradoxical leadership (PL) is an emerging perspective to understand how leaders help followers deal with paradoxical demands. Recently, the positive relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

Paradoxical leadership (PL) is an emerging perspective to understand how leaders help followers deal with paradoxical demands. Recently, the positive relationship between PL and follower performance was established. This paper builds on and extends this research by interpreting PL as sensegiving and developing theory about mediation in the relationship between PL and adaptive and proactive performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops a new measure for PL as sensegiving and provides a test of the mediation model with data from two different sources and two measurement times in a German company.

Findings

Multilevel mediation analysis (N = 154) supports the mediation model.

Originality/value

The paper presents sensegiving about paradox as a core element of PL, which informs the choice of change-readiness as mediator. This study also develops and validates a scale to measure PL in future research.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Zikai Zhou and Pilar Pazos

The purpose of this study is to synthesize the previous empirical studies on transactive memory systems (TMS) through a meta-analytical approach and test the proposed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to synthesize the previous empirical studies on transactive memory systems (TMS) through a meta-analytical approach and test the proposed model for the relationships between TMS and different types of team outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

TMS refers to shared memory systems developed among a group of people for encoding, storage and retrieval of their different knowledge domains. They have been widely used in group or organization settings to describe the cumulative knowledge in a group of multi-disciplinary experts. Previous literature suggests TMS as a critical concept for explaining group performance, but few studies were conducted to integrate the literature findings to identify the relationships between TMS and team outcomes.

Findings

The findings suggest that TMS is more strongly linked to affective outcomes than behavioral or performance outcomes. In addition, the authors find that the specific operationalization of TMS does not affect the relationship between TMS and team outcomes. There was not enough support for significant effects of group size and research setting on the relationships between TMS and team outcomes, which indicates that both laboratory and field studies have similar potential to generate valuable results for the research of TMS.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the body of knowledge on team effectiveness by investigating the links between TMS and team effectiveness through a broad definition of outcomes that include tangible constructs, such as performance, as well as behavioral and affective outcomes. By exploring the relationships through this broad conceptualization of team effectiveness, the authors can better understand the particular effects of TMS on different key aspects used to determine success in teams.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Patrick J. Murphy, Robert A. Cooke and Yvette Lopez

The aim of this paper is to clarify distinct aspects of firm culture, delineate its effects on performance outcomes, and to examine culture intensity on theoretic grounds…

2957

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to clarify distinct aspects of firm culture, delineate its effects on performance outcomes, and to examine culture intensity on theoretic grounds with attention to its effects and limits.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analyzes a data set of 2,657 individual cases that are empirically aggregated into 302 organizational units. Its operationalization of culture intensity derives from distinct culture theory. Hypothesized relations are examined via structural equation modeling and hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

Structural equation modeling results show culture relates positively to cooperation, coordination, and performance. Hierarchical regression analysis results show intensity influences cooperation and coordination directly and does not moderate culture's relations with those outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The large scale empirical study of a broad diversity of firms has advantages over smaller and more targeted studies of lesser generalizability.

Practical implications

Firms with cultures of higher intensity can enhance performance indirectly by driving cooperation and coordination directly.

Social implications

Culture entails shared values and touches the human side of a firm. Managers can promote a firm's culture to enhance cooperation and coordination outcomes within that firm which, in turn, influence firm performance.

Originality/value

This study distinguishes culture from climate on conceptual grounds. Climate strength, an analog of culture intensity, is known to moderate climate's relations with outcomes. By contrast, this study shows that culture intensity has a main effect on outcomes, in line with culture's distinct theoretic bases.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 51 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Abstract

Details

Team Dynamics Over Time
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-403-7

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Christopher N. Searchfield

This paper explores the effects of the adaptation of the learning organisation (LO) concept to teaching in a university setting. The literature in accounting education…

Abstract

This paper explores the effects of the adaptation of the learning organisation (LO) concept to teaching in a university setting. The literature in accounting education calls for a change in traditional teaching methods in order to produce accounting graduates whose skills are more appropriate for the contemporary business and professional environment. To address this deficiency accounting educators have started to explore and use teaching innovations. In this study, the LO concept has been adapted to a teaching environment, in contrast to most research which has focused on LO in business settings. The paper, through the examination of empirical evidence arising from a natural experiment, was able to determine some of the impacts arising from the adaptation of the LO concept to teaching in a university setting. The results of the paper suggest that the adaptation of the LO concept not only resulted in improved student learning outcomes, but also influenced life‐long learning. Further research could widen the scope of the operationalisation of the LO concept and explore its use in other undergraduate and postgraduate units.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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