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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2022

Shrabani Sahu and Sasmita Behera

The wind turbine (WT) is a complex system subjected to wind disturbances. Because the aerodynamics is nonlinear, the control is thus challenging. For the variation of wind…

Abstract

Purpose

The wind turbine (WT) is a complex system subjected to wind disturbances. Because the aerodynamics is nonlinear, the control is thus challenging. For the variation of wind speed when rated power is delivered at rated wind speed, the power is limited to the rate by the pitching of the blades of the turbine. This paper aims to address pitch control with the WT benchmark model. The possible use of appropriate adaptive controller design that modifies the control action automatically identifying any change in system parameters is explored.

Design/methodology/approach

To deal with pitch control problem when wind speed exceeds the rated wind speed of the WT, six digital self-tuning controller (STC) with different structures such as proportional integral (PI), proportional derivative (PD), Dahlin’s, pole placement, deadbeat and Takahashi has been taken herein. The system model is identified as a second-order autoregressive exogenous (ARX) model by three techniques for comparison: recursive least square method (RLS), RLS with exponential forgetting and RLS with adaptive directional forgetting identification methods. A comparative study of three identification methods, six adaptive controllers with the conventional PI controller and sliding mode controller (SMC), are shown.

Findings

As per the results, the best improvement in control of the output power by pitching in full load region of benchmark model is achieved by self-tuning PD controller based on RLS with adaptive directional forgetting method. The adaptive control design has a future in WT control applications.

Originality/value

A comparative study of identification methods, six adaptive controllers with the conventional PI controller and SMC, are shown here. As per the results, the best improvement in control of the output power by pitching in the full load region of the benchmark model has been achieved by self-tuning PD controller. The best identification method or the system is RLS with an adaptive directional forgetting method. Instead of a step input response design for the controllers, the controller design has been carried out for the stochastic wind and the performance is adjudged by the normalized sum of square tracking error (NSSE) index. The validation of the proposed self-tuning PD controller has been shown in comparison to the conventional controller with Monte-Carlo analysis to handle model parameter alteration and erroneous measurement issues.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Nigar Ahmed, Abid Raza and Rameez Khan

The aim of this paper is to design a nonlinear disturbance observer-based control (DOBC) method obtained by patching a control method developed using a robust adaptive

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to design a nonlinear disturbance observer-based control (DOBC) method obtained by patching a control method developed using a robust adaptive technique and a DO.

Design/methodology/approach

For designing a DOBC, initially a class of nonlinear system is considered with an external disturbance. First, a DO is designed to estimate the external disturbances. This estimate is combined with the controller to reject the disturbances and obtain the desired control objective. For designing a controller, the robust sliding mode control theory is used. Furthermore, instead of using a constant switching gain, an adaptive gain tuning criterion is designed using Lyapunov candidate function. To investigate the stability and effectiveness of the developed DOBC, stability analysis and simulation study are presented.

Findings

The major findings of this paper include the criteria of designing the robust adaptive control parameters and investigating the disturbance rejection when robust adaptive control based DOBC is developed.

Practical implications

In practice, the flight of quadrotor is affected by different kind of external disturbances, thus leading to the change in dynamics. Hence, it is necessary to design DOBCs based on robust adaptive controllers such that the quadrotor model adapts to the change in dynamics, as well as nullify the effect of disturbances.

Originality/value

Designing DOBCs based on robust control method is a common practice; however, the robust adaptive control method is rarely developed. This paper contributes in the domain of DOBC based on robust adaptive control methods such that the behavior of controller varies with the change in dynamics occurring due to external disturbances.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Nigar Ahmed and Mou Chen

The aim of this research paper is to design a disturbance observer (DO)-based robust adaptive tracking control of uncertain nonlinear system subject to unknown nonlinear…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research paper is to design a disturbance observer (DO)-based robust adaptive tracking control of uncertain nonlinear system subject to unknown nonlinear disturbance.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve desired control objectives, i.e. nonlinear trajectory tracking and disturbance attenuation, firstly, a control scheme is designed based on the adaptive criteria integrated in sliding mode control (SMC). In the second step, the disturbance estimation criterion is designed followed by patching with the controller obtained in the first step. Following the control development, using the Lyapunov candidate function, the stability criterion is ensured by designing appropriate adaptive gains.

Findings

In this paper, a robust adaptive nonlinear tracking method is presented. The findings includes the design of adaptive gains for the control parameters involved in the robust SMC technique, i.e. adaptive criterion is designed for the switching gain as well as for the gain used in sliding mode surface. Furthermore, a disturbance estimation criterion is developed to attenuate nonlinear disturbances with variable frequency and magnitude. Finally, the disturbance estimation scheme is combined with the control technique to obtain DO-based control (DOBC) algorithm.

Practical implications

Sliding mode control is a powerful robust control method. And, combining it with the DO achieves the control objectives of plants subject to disturbances and uncertainties. However, usually the uncertainties and disturbances are unknown and time varying. Thus, during practical implementation, designing the standard SMC is a challenging task due to the constant gains involved in the control design. Hence, it is important to have a criterion which adapts to the varying dynamics of plants due to the uncertainties and disturbances for achieving practical implementation of the control system.

Originality/value

Sliding mode control has been widely used for achieving the desired control objectives and robustness in the close-loop nonlinear systems. Besides, the SMC technique has been combined with the DOs as well. However, mostly the ideal conditions were considered during these developments, which required the control gains to be designed simply by manual tuning appropriately. However, by considering the real-time dynamics, uncertainties and disturbances, the constant control gain criteria can fail. Furthermore, due to external and internal disturbances, the model plant can vary with time. Thus, it is important to design the adaptive criteria for the control gains in DOBC schemes.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

G.R. Arab Markadeh and J. Soltani

To propose and adaptive nonlinear controller for adjustable speed sensorless induction motor drive, using a novel adaptive rotor flux observer. The adaptive flux observer…

Abstract

Purpose

To propose and adaptive nonlinear controller for adjustable speed sensorless induction motor drive, using a novel adaptive rotor flux observer. The adaptive flux observer scheme in this paper provides the simultaneous estimation of the rotor speed, rotor resistance and stator resistance.

Design/methodology/approach

The IM rotor speed and rotor flux controllers are designed based on combination of input‐output feedback linearizing, linear optimal feedback control and sliding‐mode (SM) control methods. In addition a novel adaptive rotor flux observer is designed based on Lyapunov theory. The proposed control method is tested by simulation and experimental results.

Findings

The composite rotor speed and rotor flux observer in combination with adaptive rotor flux scheme guarantees a perfect speed, torque and flux tracking control for the IM sensorless drive.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed control method has a drawback in the IM low speed operating region. Additional research may be able to solve this problem as well as should analyze the sensitivity of the IM drive system performance with respect to variation of the system controller and adaptive flux observer gains. In addition, this research should also analyze the influence of sampling rate, truncation errors, measurement noise, simplifying model assumption and magnetic saturation.

Practical implications

The proposed control method can be used for adaptive and robust control of the IM drive where an optimal efficiency is desired subject to the variable load torque demand.

Originality/value

Based on Lyapunov theory, a novel adaptive rotor flux observer is introduced in which the rotor speed, rotor resistance and stator resistance are treated as the unknown constant parameters.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Yan‐Kwang Chen, Hung‐Chang Liao and Fei‐Rung Chiu

The purpose of this paper is to re‐evaluate the performance of the adaptive control charts which allow some of their design parameters to change during production…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to re‐evaluate the performance of the adaptive control charts which allow some of their design parameters to change during production depending on the collected information from samples over time. Instead of employing a single performance measure (average time to signal process changes), a set of measures, associated with the inspection efficiency and effort, is taken into account in the evaluation process.

Design/methodology/approach

A multivariate analysis of variation (MANOVA) approach along with the post hoc analysis are applied to investigate the performance of different adaptive control charts based on different measures.

Findings

The findings indicate that different adaptive control charts may have different performance, depending on the measure regarded and the value of shift in process mean. In general, the VSSC, VSSI, and VSI control charts would be recommended for a process with a small, moderate, and large shift, respectively. The SS chart is still the best choice for a process with an extremely large shift.

Research limitations/implications

Up to now, the proposed procedure has been developed for the comparative analyses of adaptive charts, but it could be adjusted for other adaptive charts as well.

Originality/value

This paper provides a review of the performance of adaptive control charts from a novel perspective.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Dan Xu, James Ferris Whidborne and Alastair Cooke

The growing use of small unmanned rotorcraft in civilian applications means that safe operation is increasingly important. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the…

1536

Abstract

Purpose

The growing use of small unmanned rotorcraft in civilian applications means that safe operation is increasingly important. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the fault tolerant properties to faults in the actuators of an C 1 adaptive controller for a quadrotor vehicle.

Design/methodology/approach

C 1 adaptive control provides fast adaptation along with decoupling between adaptation and robustness. This makes the approach a suitable candidate for fault tolerant control of quadrotor and other multirotor vehicles. In the paper, the design of an C 1 adaptive controller is presented. The controller is compared to a fixed-gain LQR controller.

Findings

The C 1 adaptive controller is shown to have improved performance when subject to actuator faults, and a higher range of actuator fault tolerance.

Research limitations/implications

The control scheme is tested in simulation of a simple model that ignores aerodynamic and gyroscopic effects. Hence for further work, testing with a more complete model is recommended followed by implementation on an actual platform and flight test. The effect of sensor noise should also be considered along with investigation into the influence of wind disturbances and tolerance to sensor failures. Furthermore, quadrotors cannot tolerate total failure of a rotor without loss of control of one of the degrees of freedom, this aspect requires further investigation.

Practical implications

Applying the C 1 adaptive controller to a hexrotor or octorotor would increase the reliability of such vehicles without recourse to methods that require fault detection schemes and control reallocation as well as providing tolerance to a total loss of a rotor.

Social implications

In order for quadrotors and other similar unmanned air vehicles to undertake many proposed roles, a high level of safety is required. Hence the controllers should be fault tolerant.

Originality/value

Fault tolerance to partial actuator/effector faults is demonstrated using an C 1 adaptive controller.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Yu Lu, Pengpeng Ye, Ming-Zhe Dai, Jin Wu and Chengxi Zhang

This paper aims to address the spacecraft attitude regulation problem in the presence of extrinsic disturbances and actuator faults.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the spacecraft attitude regulation problem in the presence of extrinsic disturbances and actuator faults.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on adaptive backstepping design technique, a new concise adaptive dual-mode control scheme is proposed, which can either use the fault information detected by fault diagnosis mechanisms or switch to the fault-unknown mode when the fault diagnosis information is non-existent for control signal generation. These two modes share an adaptive mechanism that reduces the complexity of the algorithm.

Findings

The new fault-tolerant attitude control algorithm can accommodate both modes with and without fault diagnosis mechanisms.

Originality/value

The proposed algorithm in this paper can be applied to both cases when the attitude control system is equipped with or without fault diagnosis capability. This also enhances the robustness of attitude control algorithm. This study performs numerical simulations and verifies that the algorithm could effectively adapt to both modes.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 94 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Nigar Ahmed and Mou Chen

The purpose of this research paper is to design a disturbance observer-based control based on the robust model reference adaptive backstepping sliding-mode control for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to design a disturbance observer-based control based on the robust model reference adaptive backstepping sliding-mode control for attitude quadrotor model subject to uncertainties and disturbances.

Design/methodology/approach

To estimate and reject the disturbance, a disturbance observer is designed for the exogenous disturbances with perturbation while a control criterion is developed for the tracking of desired output. To achieve the control performance, backstepping and sliding-mode control techniques are patched together to obtain robust chattering-free controller. Furthermore, a model reference adaptive control criterion is also combined with the design of robust control for the estimation and rejection of uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics of the attitude quadrotor.

Findings

The findings of this research work includes the design of a disturbance observer-based control for uncertain attitude quadrotor system with the ability of achieving tracking control objective in the presence of nonlinear exogenous disturbance with and without perturbation.

Practical implications

In practice, the quadrotor flight is opposed by different kinds of the disturbances. In addition, being an underactuated system, it is difficult to obtain an accurate mathematical model of quadrotor for the control design. Thus, a quadrotor model with uncertainties and disturbances is inevitable. Hence, it is necessary to design a control system with the ability to achieve the control objectives in the presence of uncertainties and disturbances.

Originality/value

Designing the control methods for quadrotor control without uncertainties and disturbances is a common practice. However, investigating the uncertain quadrotor plant in the presence of nonlinear disturbances is rarely taken into consideration for the control design. Hence, this paper presents a control algorithm to address the issues of the uncertainties and disturbances as well as investigate a control algorithm to achieve tracking performance.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2013

mohammad mehdi fateh and Mohaddeseh Amerian

A hydraulic elevator including the hydraulic actuator and cabin is highly nonlinear with many parameters and variables. Its state-space model is in non-companion form and…

Abstract

Purpose

A hydraulic elevator including the hydraulic actuator and cabin is highly nonlinear with many parameters and variables. Its state-space model is in non-companion form and uncertain due to the parametric errors, flexibility of the ropes, friction and external load disturbances. A model-based control cannot perform well while a precise model is not available and all state variables cannot be measured. To overcome the problems, this paper aims to develop a direct adaptive fuzzy control (DAFC) for the hydraulic elevator.

Design/methodology/approach

The controller is an adaptive PD-like Mamdani type fuzzy controller using position error and velocity error as inputs. The design is based on the stability analysis.

Findings

The proposed control can overcome uncertainties, guarantee stability, provide a good tracking performance and operate as active vibration suppression by tracking a smooth trajectory. The controller is not involved in the nonlinearity, uncertainty and vibration of the system due to being free from model. Its performance is superior to a PD-like fuzzy controller due to being adaptive as illustrated by simulations.

Originality/value

The proposed DAFC is applied for the first time on the hydraulic elevator. Compared to classic adaptive fuzzy, it does not require all system states. In addition, it is not limited to the systems, which have the state-space model in companion form and constant input gain, thus is much less computational and easier to implement.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Li Pan, Guanjun Bao, Fang Xu and Libin Zhang

This paper aims to present an adaptive robust sliding mode tracking controller for a 6 degree-of-freedom industrial assembly robot with parametric uncertainties and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an adaptive robust sliding mode tracking controller for a 6 degree-of-freedom industrial assembly robot with parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. The controller is used to achieve both stringent trajectory tracking, accurate parameter estimations and robustness against external disturbances.

Design/methodology/approach

The controller is designed based on the combination of sliding mode control, adaptive and robust controls and hence has good adaptation and robustness abilities to parametric variations and uncertainties. The unknown parameter estimates are updated online based on a discontinuous projection adaptation law. The robotic dynamics is first formulated in both joint spaces and workspace of the robot’s end-effector. Then, the design procedure of the adaptive robust sliding mode tracking controller and the parameter update law is detailed.

Findings

Comparative tests are also conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller, which show that the proposed controller achieves significantly better dynamic trajectory tracking performances as compared with conventional proportional derivative controller and sliding mode controller under the same conditions.

Originality/value

This is a new innovation for industrial assembly robot to improve assembly automation.

1 – 10 of over 25000