Search results

1 – 10 of over 13000
Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Deanna M. Kennedy and M. Travis Maynard

On the path to accomplishing task work, teams may face disruptive events like budget issues, equipment failures, and membership change that trigger adaptation. While…

Abstract

Purpose

On the path to accomplishing task work, teams may face disruptive events like budget issues, equipment failures, and membership change that trigger adaptation. While recently researchers have clarified the team adaptation nomological network, our objective is to extend theory by providing a roadmap about various ways in which temporal considerations may complicate the impact of adaptation triggers on team adaptation and in turn adaptive outcomes.

Methodology/approach

We present three adaptation temporal considerations (i.e., timing, duration, and frequency) that may change the way team adaptation unfolds in response to a given adaptation trigger. We further explore and offer propositions about how the impact of adaptation timing, adaptation duration, and adaptation frequency differ by the type of adaptation trigger (i.e., task-based or team-based) experienced by the team.

Research implications

By examining adaptation to task-based or team-based triggers from a temporal perspective researchers may better explain why the timing of when the team adapts across its lifecycle (adaptation timing), how long the team takes to adapt (adaptation duration), and the recurrent need to adapt (adaptation frequency) is more or less likely to lead to positive adaptive performance outcomes.

Practical implications

Organizations may benefit from setting up teams for success by helping members understand that there are inherent differences in the adaptation triggers they face including temporal expectations. Organizations may see value in providing initial and on-going support to teams so they are better able to adapt when needed and mitigate negative effects due to adaptation timing, adaptation duration, and adaption frequency.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 21 February 2022

Edris Alam and Bishawjit Mallick

The small-scale artisanal fishers in coastal Bangladesh are comparatively more vulnerable to climate risks than any other communities in Bangladesh. Based on practicality…

1300

Abstract

Purpose

The small-scale artisanal fishers in coastal Bangladesh are comparatively more vulnerable to climate risks than any other communities in Bangladesh. Based on practicality, this paper aims to explain the local level climate change perception, its impact and adaptation strategies of the fisher in southeast coastal villages in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the above objective, this study used structural, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussion in two coastal communities, namely, at Salimpur in the Sitakund coast and Sarikait Sandwip Island, Bangladesh. It reviews and applies secondary data sources to compare and contrast the findings presented in this study.

Findings

Results show that the fishers perceived an increase in temperature, frequency of tropical cyclones and an increase in sea level. They also perceived a decrease in monsoon rainfall. Such changes impact the decreasing amount of fish in the Bay of Bengal and the fishers’ livelihood options. Analysing seasonal calendar of fishing, findings suggest that fishers’ well-being is highly associated with the amount of fish yield, rather than climatic stress, certain non-climatic factors (such as the governmental rules, less profit, bank erosion and commercial fishing) also affected their livelihood. The major adaptation strategies undertaken include, but are not limited to, installation of tube well or rainwater harvesting plant for safe drinking water, raising plinth of the house to cope with inundation and use of solar panel/biogas for electricity.

Originality/value

Despite experiencing social stress and extreme climatic events and disasters, the majority of the fishing community expressed that they would not change their profession in future. The research suggests implementing risk reduction strategies in the coastal region of Bangladesh that supports the small-scale fishers to sustain their livelihood despite climate change consequences.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Abstract

Details

Team Dynamics Over Time
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-403-7

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Etienne Muller, Dominique Pelletier and André Garon

This paper aims to focus on characterization of interactions between hp-adaptive time-integrators based on backward differentiation formulas (BDF) and adaptive meshing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on characterization of interactions between hp-adaptive time-integrators based on backward differentiation formulas (BDF) and adaptive meshing based on Zhu and Zienkiewicz error estimation approach. If mesh adaptation only occurs at user-supplied times and results in a completely new mesh, it is necessary to stop the time-integration at these same times. In these conditions, one challenge is to find an efficient and reliable way to restart the time-integration. The authors investigate what impact grid-to-grid interpolation errors have on the relaunch of the computation.

Design/methodology/approach

Two restart strategies of the time-integrator were used: one based on resetting the time-step size h and time-integrator order p to default values (used in the initial startup phase), and another designed to restart with the time-step size h and order p used by the solver prior to remeshing. The authors also investigate the benefits of quadratically interpolate the solution on the new mesh. Both restart strategies were used to solve laminar incompressible Navier–Stokes and the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Naviers-Stokes (URANS) equations.

Findings

The adaptive features of our time-integrators are excellent tools to quantify errors arising from the data transfer between two grids. The second restart strategy proved to be advantageous only if a quadratic grid-to-grid interpolation is used. Results for turbulent flows also proved that some precautions must be taken to ensure grid convergence at any time of the simulation. Mesh adaptation, if poorly performed, can indeed lead to losing grid convergence in critical regions of the flow.

Originality/value

This study exhibits the benefits and difficulty of assessing both spatial error estimates and local error estimates to enhance the efficiency of unsteady computations.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

William B. Hansen, Melinda M. Pankratz, Linda Dusenbury, Steven M. Giles, Dana C. Bishop, Jordan Albritton, Lauren P. Albritton and Joann Strack

To be effective, evidence‐based programs should be delivered as prescribed. This suggests that adaptations that deviate from intervention goals may limit a program's…

1102

Abstract

Purpose

To be effective, evidence‐based programs should be delivered as prescribed. This suggests that adaptations that deviate from intervention goals may limit a program's effectiveness. This study aims to examine the impact that number and quality of adaptations have on substance use outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examined 306 video recordings of teachers delivering “All Stars”, a middle school drug prevention program. Multiple observers coded each recording, noting the number and type of adaptation each teacher made. Each adaptation was given a valence rating. Adaptations that were deleterious to program goals received negative valence ratings; positive ratings were given for adaptations that were likely to facilitate achievement of program goals; neutral ratings were given to adaptations that were expected to have neither a positive nor negative impact on program goals.

Findings

All teachers made adaptations. Teachers were consistent across time in the types of adaptations they made, suggesting each teacher has a personalized style of adapting. Those who made few adaptations, and whose average adaptation was rated as being positive had a higher percentage of students who remained non‐drug users. In contrast, teachers who made many adaptations, whether their average valence rating was positive, neutral or negative, failed to have as many students remain non‐drug users. Measures of fidelity, including quality of delivery and teacher understanding, were related to valence of adaptations, with better performance related to making positive adaptations.

Practical implications

Through training and supervision, teachers should be guided and encouraged to follow programs directions, making few adaptations and ensuring that adaptations that are made advance the goals of intervention. Programs should define acceptable and unacceptable ways they may be adapted.

Originality/value

This study provides significant evidence about the challenges that face disseminated evidence‐based programs.

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Aleksandar B. Menićanin, Mirjana S. Damnjanović and Ljiljana D. Živanov

The appropriate selection of a testing method largely determines the accuracy of a measurement. Parasitic effects associated with test fixture demand a significant…

Abstract

Purpose

The appropriate selection of a testing method largely determines the accuracy of a measurement. Parasitic effects associated with test fixture demand a significant consideration in a measurement. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a measurement procedure which can be used for the characterization of surface mount devices (SMD) components, especially devoted to SMD inductors.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes measurement technique, characterization, and extracting parameters of SMD components for printed circuit board (PCB) applications. The commercially available components (multi‐layer chip SMD inductors in the ceramic body) are measured and characterized using a vector network analyzer E5071B and adaptation test fixture on PCB board. Measurement results strongly depend on the choice of the PCB; the behaviour of the component depends on the environment where the component is placed.

Findings

The equivalent circuit parameters are extracted in closed form, from an accurate measurement of the board‐mounted SMD inductor S‐parameters, without the necessity for cumbersome optimization procedures, which normally follow the radio frequency circuit synthesis.

Originality/value

It this paper, a new adaptation test fixture in PCB technology is realized. It is modeled and it has provided the extraction of parameters (intrinsic and extrinsic) of SMD inductor with great accuracy.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Michael V. Vartanov, Leonarda V. Bojkova and Inna N. Zinina

The purpose of this paper is to define the conditions for a failsafe coupling of parts when using adaptation and low-frequency vibrations. A model enables us to determine…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to define the conditions for a failsafe coupling of parts when using adaptation and low-frequency vibrations. A model enables us to determine the reaction at the contact points of parts and time-based contact conditions changes. Therefore, the conditions of jamming parts can be defined in the process of conjugation.

Design/methodology/approach

A mathematical model describing the trajectory of the part mass center in robotic assembly is created. An experimental equipment is also presented in the paper. Convergence of theoretical and experimental results that characterize the reliability of processes is estimated.

Findings

The mathematical model of the connection process dynamics is found in the form of Lagrange’s equations of the second kind.

Originality/value

Applying low-frequency vibration and the adaptive gripper is proposed to extend technological capabilities of robotic assembly.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Michelle Miller‐Day, Jonathan Pettigrew, Michael L. Hecht, YoungJu Shin, John Graham and Janice Krieger

As interventions are disseminated widely, issues of fidelity and adaptation become increasingly critical to understand. This study aims to describe the types of adaptations

Abstract

Purpose

As interventions are disseminated widely, issues of fidelity and adaptation become increasingly critical to understand. This study aims to describe the types of adaptations made by teachers delivering a school‐based substance use prevention curriculum and their reasons for adapting program content.

Design/methodology/approach

To determine the degree to which implementers adhere to a prevention curriculum, naturally adapt the curriculum, and the reasons implementers give for making adaptations, the study examined lesson adaptations made by the 31 teachers who implemented the keepin’ it REAL drug prevention curriculum in 7th grade classrooms (n=25 schools). Data were collected from teacher self‐reports after each lesson and observer coding of videotaped lessons. From the total sample, 276 lesson videos were randomly selected for observational analysis.

Findings

Teachers self‐reported adapting more than 68 percent of prevention lessons, while independent observers reported more than 97 percent of the observed lessons were adapted in some way. Types of adaptations included: altering the delivery of the lesson by revising the delivery timetable or delivery context; changing content of the lesson by removing, partially covering, revising, or adding content; and altering the designated format of the lesson (such as assigning small group activities to students as individual work). Reasons for adaptation included responding to constraints (time, institutional, personal, and technical), and responding to student needs (students’ abilities to process curriculum content, to enhance student engagement with material).

Research limitations/implications

The study sample was limited to rural schools in the US mid‐Atlantic; however, the results suggest that if programs are to be effectively implemented, program developers need a better understanding of the types of adaptations and reasons implementers provide for adapting curricula.

Practical implications

These descriptive data suggest that prevention curricula be developed in shorter teaching modules, developers reconsider the usefulness of homework, and implementer training and ongoing support might benefit from more attention to different implementation styles.

Originality/value

With nearly half of US public schools implementing some form of evidence‐based substance use prevention program, issues of implementation fidelity and adaptation have become paramount in the field of prevention. The findings from this study reveal the complexity of the types of adaptations teachers make naturally in the classroom to evidence‐based curricula and provide reasons for these adaptations. This information should prove useful for prevention researchers, program developers, and health educators alike.

Details

Health Education, vol. 113 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Sara J. Wilkinson, Kimberley James and Richard Reed

This paper seeks to establish the rationale for existing office building adaptation within Melbourne, Australia, as the city strives to become carbon neutral by 2020. The…

4370

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to establish the rationale for existing office building adaptation within Melbourne, Australia, as the city strives to become carbon neutral by 2020. The problems faced by policy makers to determine which buildings have the optimum adaptation potential are to be identified and discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopts the approach of creating a database of all the buildings in the Melbourne CBD including details of physical, social, economic and technological attributes. This approach will determine whether relationships exist between attributes and the frequency of building adaptation or whether triggers to adaptation can be determined.

Findings

This research provided evidence that a much faster rate of office building adaptation is necessary to meet the targets already set for carbon neutrality. The findings demonstrate that a retrospective comprehensive examination of previous adaptation in the CBD is a unique and original approach to determining the building characteristics associated with adaptation and whether triggers can be identified based on previous practices. The implication is that a decision‐making tool should be developed to allow policy makers to target sectors of the office building stock to deliver carbon neutrality within the 2020 timeframe.

Practical implications

Drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are required to mitigate global warming and climate change and all stakeholders should be looking at ways of reducing emissions from existing stock.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the existing body of knowledge by raising awareness of the way in which the adaptation of large amounts of existing stock can be fast tracked to mitigate the impact of climate change and warming associated with the built environment, and in addition it establishes a framework for a decision‐making tool for policy makers.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 April 2014

Sara Jane Wilkinson

This paper aims to study the adaptation of low grade commercial buildings for sustainability in Melbourne. Informed adaptation of existing stock is imperative because the…

1025

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the adaptation of low grade commercial buildings for sustainability in Melbourne. Informed adaptation of existing stock is imperative because the challenge of attaining sustainable development in the 21st century will be won or lost in urban areas. Local authorities promote adaptation to reduce building related energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The City of Melbourne aims to retrofit 1,200 central business district (CBD) properties before 2020 as part of their carbon-neutral city strategy. Australian cities date from the early 1800s to the present day and the concepts of adaptation and evolution of buildings and suburbs is not as well-developed or entrenched as in other continents. As such, there is a pressing need for greater knowledge and awareness of what happens to buildings over time.

Design/methodology/approach

This research examines all building adaptation from 1998 to 2008 within the Melbourne CBD. This paper concentrates on the question: what is the pattern of adaptation within low grade office buildings over time? Using the Melbourne CBD as a case study, the research analysed all commercial building adaptations in Melbourne. Here a range of office building types are selected and profiled to discover what happened to them during the period and to ascertain what may be learned as a result to inform future adaptation strategies and policies.

Findings

Adaptation of existing buildings is vital to deliver the emission reductions required to transition to carbon-neutral urban settlements. In the short-term, it is opportune to capitalise on existing behaviour patterns in respect of adaptation and to “learn how buildings learn”, rather than seek to instigate major changes in behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

The researcher acknowledges that the depth of analysis for each individual case does not attain levels achieved through a purely qualitative approach to data collection and that this is a limitation of this method of data collection.

Practical implications

Examination of adaptation patterns showed that the events were similar regardless of age or location and typically involved multiple adaptations to separate areas within buildings such as office floors, lobbies and foyers. Such a pattern misses the opportunity to benefit from economies of scale or to incorporate more extensive adaptations to reduce environmental impact of the building as a whole.

Social implications

The patterns of ownership and relatively short-term multiple tenancies compound the piecemeal approach to adaptations in this sector of the market. Moving forward, a more holistic approach is required to optimise adaptation and sustainability benefits and to minimise unnecessary waste.

Originality/value

A real danger is that numerous adaptations over time which may seem “sustainable” within the context of the one adaptation may not be sustainable in the context of the entire building over the whole lifecycle or the city over the long–term, and this is a challenge we must attend to.

Details

Facilities, vol. 32 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 13000