Search results

1 – 4 of 4
Article
Publication date: 18 August 2021

Gowtham Venkatraman, Adam Hehr, Leon M. Headings and Marcelo J. Dapino

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state joining technology used for three-dimensional printing of metal foilstock. The electrical power input to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state joining technology used for three-dimensional printing of metal foilstock. The electrical power input to the ultrasonic welder is a key driver of part quality in UAM, but under the same process parameters, it can vary widely for different build geometries and material combinations because of mechanical compliance in the system. This study aims to model the relationship between UAM weld power and system compliance considering the workpiece (geometry and materials) and the fixture on which the build is fabricated.

Design/methodology/approach

Linear elastic finite element modeling and experimental modal analysis are used to characterize the system’s mechanical compliance, and linear system dynamics theory is used to understand the relationship between weld power and compliance. In-situ measurements of the weld power are presented for various build stiffnesses to compare model predictions with experiments.

Findings

Weld power in UAM is found to be largely determined by the mechanical compliance of the build and insensitive to foil material strength.

Originality/value

This is the first research paper to develop a predictive model relating UAM weld power and the mechanical compliance of the build over a range of foil combinations. This model is used to develop a tool to determine the process settings required to achieve a consistent weld power in builds with different stiffnesses.

Article
Publication date: 3 December 2019

Adam Hehr and Mark Norfolk

This paper aims to comprehensively review ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) process history, technology advancements, application areas and research areas. UAM, a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to comprehensively review ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) process history, technology advancements, application areas and research areas. UAM, a hybrid 3D metal printing technology, uses ultrasonic energy to produce metallurgical bonds between layers of metal foils near room temperature. No melting occurs in the process – it is a solid-state 3D metal printing technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is formatted chronologically to help readers better distinguish advancements and changes in the UAM process through the years. Contributions and advancements are summarized by academic or research institution following this chronological format.

Findings

This paper summarizes key physics of the process, characterization methods, mechanical properties, past and active research areas, process limitations and application areas.

Originality/value

This paper reviews the UAM process for the first time.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Adam Hehr, Paul J. Wolcott and Marcelo J. Dapino

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a fabrication technology based on ultrasonic metal welding. As a solid-state process, temperatures during UAM fabrication reach…

Abstract

Purpose

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a fabrication technology based on ultrasonic metal welding. As a solid-state process, temperatures during UAM fabrication reach a fraction of the melting temperatures of the participating metals. UAM parts can become mechanically compliant during fabrication, which negatively influences the ability of the welder to produce consistent welds. This study aims to evaluate the effect of weld power on weld quality throughout a UAM build, and develop a new power-compensation approach to achieve homogeneous weld quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes mechanical push-pin testing as a metric of delamination resistance, as well as focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the interface microstructure of UAM parts.

Findings

Weld power was found to negatively affect mechanical properties and microstructure. By keeping weld power constant, the delamination energy of UAM coupons was increased 22 per cent along with a consistent grain structure. As a result, to ensure constant properties throughout UAM component construction, maintaining weld power is preferable over the conventional strategy based on amplitude control.

Research limitations/implications

Further characterization could be conducted to evaluate the power control strategy on other material combinations, though this study strongly suggests that the proposed approach should work regardless of the metals being welded.

Practical implications

The proposed power control strategy can be implemented by monitoring and controlling the electrical power supplied to the welder. As such, no additional hardware is required, making the approach both useful and straightforward to implement.

Originality/value

This research paper is the first to recognize and address the negative effect of build compliance on weld power input in UAM. This is also the first paper to correlate measured weld power with the microstructure and mechanical properties of UAM parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 March 2014

Mark Schulz, Yi Song, Adam Hehr and Vesselin Shanov

Carbon nanotube (CNT) thread ' s piezoresisitive strain sensing properties of gauge factor, linearity, hysteresis, consistency, temperature stability, and bandwidth…

Abstract

Purpose

Carbon nanotube (CNT) thread ' s piezoresisitive strain sensing properties of gauge factor, linearity, hysteresis, consistency, temperature stability, and bandwidth were evaluated. This evaluation was motivated by little information in literature combined with the need to understand these properties for commercial use. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The study here analyzes as-spun CNT thread built into unidirectional glass fiber composites and mounted onto aluminium beams with epoxy to evaluate strain sensing properties. The analyses utilize known sensor parameter definitions to quantify sensor performance.

Findings

CNT thread can provide reliable and robust strain measurements for composite and metallic structures. The strain sensor performance meets or exceeds other strain sensors in performance.

Research limitations/implications

CNT thread ' s piezoresistive effect is not well understood in terms of Poisson ' s ratio and nanotube contact. More research needs to be carried out to better understand this relationship and optimize the sensor thread.

Practical implications

CNT thread can be utilized as a robust strain sensor for composite and metallic structures. It can also be built into composite materials for embedded strain and damage monitoring. By monitoring composite materials with the sensor thread, reliability will significantly increase. In turn, this will lower safety factors and revolutionize inspection methods for composite materials.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to comprehensively evaluate key strain sensing properties of CNT thread. With all this strain sensor information in one spot, this should help expedite the use of this technology in other research and industry.

1 – 4 of 4