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Book part

Clóvis Reis

This research analyzes how ad formats are incorporated into the structure of radio programming and provides a scheme for classifying advertisements in light of the overall…

Abstract

This research analyzes how ad formats are incorporated into the structure of radio programming and provides a scheme for classifying advertisements in light of the overall organization of the radio programming schedule.

This chapter consists of three parts. The first part presents the main ad formats aired on the radio. The second discusses the challenges for classifying ad formats based on the characteristics usually employed in most studies. Finally, the third part of the chapter proposes a new taxonomic basis for the classification of radio advertising. Scholars from Spain and the United States provide the theoretical framework that serves as a main foundation for this work. However, Brazilian data forms the empirical basis for the classification of the ad formats in this research.

The approach moves the description of ad formats from an individual definition of each type of announcement – the ad formats – toward a broad analysis of radio advertisements, which groups the set of compositions in ad meta formats. The meta formats are distinguishable by the distribution mode or insertion mode of the ads in the radio programming.

The chapter presents an original taxonomy, which allows the development of a general framework regarding the advertising typology aired on the radio.

Future research could use this taxonomy to attend to the new landscape created by the changing electronic media and its influence on the analog radio programming.

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Article

Nilesh Bhutada, Aparna Deshpande, Ajit Menon and Matthew Perri

The paper's aim is to measure the effect of various brief summary formats on consumers' drug‐related knowledge, evaluations of ad information, ad believability, attitudes…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to measure the effect of various brief summary formats on consumers' drug‐related knowledge, evaluations of ad information, ad believability, attitudes towards the ad and brand, perceived product risk and intention to use ad information in making healthcare decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Using mall‐intercept surveys, 307 US women, age 18‐50 years, were randomly assigned to one of the six different versions of brief summary formats for a birth control medicine. The six brief summary formats included: no brief summary, traditional (continuous prose) brief summary, risk information window, bulleted list, nutrition facts panel, and question‐answer format. The participants completed a closed‐ended questionnaire after reviewing the print ad.

Findings

MANOVA indicated presence of a multivariate main effect. However, univariate ANOVAs, performed to evaluate the effect of individual formats, revealed that the eight outcome variables did not vary significantly across the six brief summary formats. Nevertheless, respondents exhibited more positive evaluation of the newer brief summary formats compared to the traditional brief summary format, albeit there was no statistically significant difference among the newer formats.

Practical implications

Consumers clearly prefer newer brief summary formats to the traditional brief summary format.

Originality/value

This research provides additional insights about risk communication in direct‐to‐consumer ads and may assist the FDA in the development of a standardized regulatory structure for the future. Providing brief summary in a clearer, understandable, and consumer‐friendly manner can help consumers in deciding whether the drug is appropriate for their condition.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article

Arti D. Kalro, Bharadhwaj Sivakumaran and Rahul R. Marathe

Extant research on comparative advertising has focused only on “market leader” comparisons (a brand targeting the market leader), whereas in the marketplace, “multi-brand”…

Abstract

Purpose

Extant research on comparative advertising has focused only on “market leader” comparisons (a brand targeting the market leader), whereas in the marketplace, “multi-brand” comparisons are more prevalent (Kalro et al., 2010). Moreover, most research focuses on direct comparisons only. Hence, this research aims to investigate the interplay between comparison ad strategy (“market leader”/“multi-brand” comparisons) and comparison ad format (direct/indirect comparisons) on the effectiveness of comparative advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses four 2 × 2 fully crossed factorial designs (comparison ad format: direct vs indirect and comparison ad strategy: market leader vs multi brand) with established and new brands in two categories: powdered detergents and smart phones. All studies were conducted in metropolitan cities of India.

Findings

By and large, the experiments indicated that direct (indirect) comparisons lowered (heightened) perceived manipulative intent and enhanced (reduced) attitude-toward-the-ad for multi-brand (market leader) comparisons.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that when advertisers use comparative advertising, they may use direct ads when using multi-brand comparisons and use indirect ones when using market leader comparisons. It could also be argued that when advertisers use multi-brand comparisons because of fragmentation in the marketplace, they may directly compare against these multiple brands. When advertisers need to compare against a market leader, they may do so indirectly.

Originality/value

This research is among the first to investigate multi-brand comparisons that are widely used in the industry and that too in the context of both direct and indirect comparison formats.

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Article

Daniel Belanche, Carlos Flavián and Alfredo Pérez-Rueda

By integrating the evidence of various audience theories, a comparison is made of viewers’ information processing of new interactive video advertising formats (skippable…

Abstract

Purpose

By integrating the evidence of various audience theories, a comparison is made of viewers’ information processing of new interactive video advertising formats (skippable video ads) with traditional, non-skippable formats. The purpose of this paper is to focus on how exposure to a brand name at different moments during online video advertisements influences viewers’ recall.

Design/methodology/approach

A neuroscientific pre-test supported the selection of an arousing video, and a subsequent pre-test confirmed the scenario validity. Using a broader sample, the main study applied a 3×2 experimental design of different ad designs and formats.

Findings

Distinctions should be made between formats and audiences that lead to different information processing methods. Users exposed to skippable ads (active audiences) exert a higher control over advertising and tend to process the information presented in the initial part of an ad. In turn, users viewing non-skippable ads (passive audiences) should be exposed to the high arousal stimulus before presentation of the key information that the advertiser wants them to remember.

Practical implications

Advertising managers and content creators can use these results to improve the design of their online videos, and to achieve greater effectiveness in terms of information recall.

Originality/value

Skippable online videos have become a commonly used advertising format, but research into their effects is scarce. This study offers the first comparison of viewers’ reactions towards skippable vs non-skippable formats, in terms of brand recall and economic performance. Further research might extend this underdeveloped field of study and enhance the knowledge of video format processing in social media.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article

Daniel Belanche, Isabel Cenjor and Alfredo Pérez-Rueda

This paper aims to investigate advertising effectiveness in Instagram and Facebook, the two most important social media platforms. It helps to understand which should be…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate advertising effectiveness in Instagram and Facebook, the two most important social media platforms. It helps to understand which should be chosen depending on the target audience of the campaign.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines advertising effectiveness in these social media in terms of ad attitude, ad intrusiveness and loyalty intentions. An online survey was conducted with 303 social media users. Age and gender are proposed as moderators.

Findings

The results indicate that Instagram Stories not only enhances consumer attitude toward ads but also increases perceived intrusiveness, compared to Facebook Wall. Millennials are more disturbed by Facebook Wall ads than non-millennial users. A triple interaction effect reveals that non-millennial men are more loyal toward Facebook Wall ads, whereas millennials of both genders and non-millennial women are more loyal to ads on Instagram Stories.

Practical implications

Advertisers should be aware of the differential features and segmentation possibilities in social media to better address their target audiences. More precisely, the research findings suggest that professionals should focus on Instagram Stories when targeting millennials and non-millennial women, and on Facebook Wall when targeting non-millennial men.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to contribute to the literature on Instagram Stories as an advertising platform and compare its differential features with those of more established social media, such as Facebook Wall.

Propósito de la investigación

Esta investigación compara la efectividad publicitaria en Instagram y Facebook en función del público objetivo.

Metodología y diseño

La investigación analiza las diferencias entre cada formato de red social en términos de actitud hacia el anuncio, intrusividad percibida y lealtad hacia el producto o marca anunciado. Mediante una encuesta online a 303 consumidores, se proponen efectos directos y efectos moderación de la edad y el género.

Recomendaciones

Los resultados indican que Instagram Stories mejora la actitud hacía el anuncio, pero aumenta también la intrusividad en comparación con Facebook Wall. La publicidad en Facebook Wall es más intrusiva para los millennials que para los no-millennials. Instagram Stories incrementa la lealtad entre los usuarios millennial de ambos sexos y las mujeres no-millennial; en cambio, los hombres no-millennial son más leales a la publicidad en Facebook Wall.

Implicaciones prácticas

Los anunciantes deben aprovechar los nuevos formatos y las posibilidades de segmentación que les brindan las redes sociales para llegar a su público objetivo de manera más efectiva. Concretamente, los hallazgos de la investigación sugieren que deberían centrarse en Instagram Stories para dirigirse a un público millennial y a mujeres no-millennial; y en Facebook Wall, cuando su público objetivo sean los hombres no-millennial.

Originalidad

Este estudio es uno de los primeros que aborda el uso de Instagram Stories como soporte publicitario y lo compara con formatos publicitarios consolidados como Facebook Wall.

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Book part

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński and Jacek Pogorzelski

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a…

Abstract

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a company’s activity. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the average recipient associates marketing with advertising, competitions and leaflets about new promotions delivered to houses or offices. Advertising, especially Internet advertising, is one of the most effective forms of marketing and one of the fastest developing areas of business. New channels of communication are emerging all the time – the Internet, digital television, mobile telephony; accompanied by new forms, such as the so-called ambient media. Advertising benefits from the achievements of many fields of science, that is, psychology, sociology, statistics, medicine and economics. At the same time, it combines science and the arts – it requires both knowledge and intuition. Contemporary advertising has different forms and areas of activity; yet it is always closely linked with the operations of a company – it is a form of marketing communication.

The indices of marketing communication presented in this chapter are generally known and used not only by advertising agencies but also by the marketing departments of many organisations. Brand awareness, advertising scope and frequency, the penetration index or the response rate belong to the most widely used indices; others, like the conversion rate or the affinity index, will get increasingly more significant along with the process of professionalisation of the environment of marketing specialists in Poland and with increased pressure on measuring marketing activities. Marketing indices are used for not only planning activities, but also their evaluation; some of them, such as telemarketing, mailing and coupons, provide an extensive array of possibilities of performance evaluation.

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Article

Kristin Stewart, Matt Kammer-Kerwick, Allison Auchter, Hyeseung Elizabeth Koh, Mary Elizabeth Dunn and Isabella Cunningham

Marketers are increasing their use of digital strategies and prioritizing digital tactics, although the effectiveness digital video advertising (DVA) has not been examined…

Abstract

Purpose

Marketers are increasing their use of digital strategies and prioritizing digital tactics, although the effectiveness digital video advertising (DVA) has not been examined empirically. The purpose of this research is to suggest that it is useful for advertisers to consider theories of the past to understand the link between product, advertising format and message processing.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine DVA effectiveness, this study utilized a 2-product type (utilitarian vs hedonic) × 2-product involvement (low vs high) x 2-platform (laptop vs mobile) mixed-design. Participants were recruited from a research company, who invited members of their panel to participate in an online experiment.

Findings

DVA for hedonic products resulted in stronger attitudes toward the ad and brand, and intentions to purchase. DVA for low involvement products resulted in stronger purchase intentions and likelihood to opt-in for more information. Moreover, there was an interaction between product category and involvement across all five measures of DVA effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

Like TV commercials, DVA is more effective when used with low involvement, hedonic products than with high involvement, utilitarian products. Additionally, the device on which the advertisement is viewed impacts the effectiveness of DVA.

Practical implications

Companies promoting high-involvement utilitarian products may consider alternative advertising strategies (e.g. MDAs, apps, websites and advergames), as DVA may not be the most effective ad format.

Originality/value

As technology continues to develop and marketers continue to pursue growing numbers of consumers through digital means and on mobile devices, understanding how device type influences advertising effectiveness is important for media strategy, message placement and marketing metrics. This research takes one step in that direction.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article

Guanxiong Huang

In-feed native ads have become a major social media advertising format. The purpose of this paper is to investigate strategies for leveraging native advertising in terms…

Abstract

Purpose

In-feed native ads have become a major social media advertising format. The purpose of this paper is to investigate strategies for leveraging native advertising in terms of content creation and platform selection on social media, proposing that variations in content and platform reduce the intrusiveness of native ads, thereby resulting in enhanced brand attitude and purchase intent.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted with online samples, employing a 2 (content strategy: repeated ads vs varied ads) × 2 (platform strategy: single platform vs multiple platforms) between-subject factorial design. ANCOVA and structural equation modeling were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

When repeated ads were used, the use of multiple platforms reduced ad intrusiveness, resulting in more favorable brand attitude and greater purchase intent as opposed to the use of a single platform. In contrast, when varied ads were used, there were no significant differences in the outcome variables between a single platform and multiple platforms. The results were largely consistent across the two experiments.

Originality/value

This study contributes to theory advancement by unpacking the underlying mechanisms of processing native advertising and shedding light on which content and platform strategies are the most effective on social media.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article

Jeen‐Su Lim and William K. Darley

Investigates the potential of demand artefacts in country‐of‐origin studies using three alternative methodological approaches: hetero‐method replication, non‐experiment…

Abstract

Investigates the potential of demand artefacts in country‐of‐origin studies using three alternative methodological approaches: hetero‐method replication, non‐experiment and post‐experimental inquiry. The results converge in their support of the plausibility of demand artefacts in the single and multi‐cue list format conditions. However, in the multi‐cue ad format condition, demand artefacts are found to be a less plausible alternative explanation for the experimental results. Discusses the implications of these results and future research directions.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article

Nazuk Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how matching an ad’s empty space color specifically to that of the advertised product’s color (instead of leaving it white…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how matching an ad’s empty space color specifically to that of the advertised product’s color (instead of leaving it white) impacts consumers’ product buying impulse. It tests two competing hypotheses, where the salience explanation proposes a positive effect of empty space–product color matching on product buying impulse, while the contrast account predicts an opposite effect.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was gathered from US-based MTurk panelists under three experimentally designed studies. The proposed effects were tested across multiple product categories, colors and online advertising formats. Qualitative responses from experienced marketing executives were also assessed for managerial insights.

Findings

Across all studies, findings reveal that using a product-colored (vs white) empty space in an ad increases consumers’ product buying impulse, favoring the salience rather the contrast explanation. Increased ad salience owing to an enhanced exposure to product color (an important sensory aspect), in turn improving the product’s hedonic appeal work as serial processes explaining this effect.

Originality/value

This research is not only the first to investigate the effects of using colored empty space (where limited prior research has only focused on white empty space), but also the first to study its impact on impulse buying intentions. Counter to prior advertising research which suggests using greater contrast by using white empty space to achieve positive effects, this research empirically tests and finds that using a product-colored empty ad space instead has a positive impact on product buying impulse.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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