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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Erik Mooi, John Rudd and Ad de Jong

Process innovation is a key determinant of performance. While extant literature paints a clear picture of the drivers of process innovation, the effect of process…

Abstract

Purpose

Process innovation is a key determinant of performance. While extant literature paints a clear picture of the drivers of process innovation, the effect of process innovation on performance has received little attention. This paper aims to examine how the divergence of process innovation impacts performance. Divergence concerns the extent to which the observed level of process innovation diverges from the expected level of process innovation. Positive divergence occurs when the observed level of process innovation is higher than expected while for negative divergence the opposite occurs. In turn, the authors consider how divergence acts as a driver of performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use survey and archival data from 5,594 firms across 15 countries. The authors analyze the data using an advanced two-step random-effects estimator that accounts for the multi-level data used.

Findings

The authors find negative divergence to reduce performance under high competitive intensity, whereas positive divergence is detrimental under high environmental uncertainty.

Research limitations/implications

The authors present new and unique insights into the relationship between divergence and performance. The authors argue that each firm has an “ideal” level of process innovation, based on their resources and business environment, relative to which performance diminishes. Specifically, the authors argue that divergence from the firm’s expected level of process innovation is associated with the reduced performance during high environmental uncertainty or high competitive intensity. Furthermore, the authors argue that there can be “too much” process innovation. This nuance of the majority of prior empirical studies in this area suggests that more innovation is always better for firms. The more nuanced approach reveals that the process innovation-performance debate should not focus on more or less innovation per se, but on how innovation is constructed and supported.

Practical implications

Some argue the existence of an academia-practitioner gap, with both living in different worlds (Reibstein et al., 2009). The findings suggest that theory is not only useful to practitioners but also has a crucial and central role regarding decisions relating to efficiency and effectiveness of scarce resources, in the field of process innovation. More specifically, the authors demonstrate that the prior study on process innovation seems to be useful in that relative to a theory-predicted level, divergence diminishes performance in the global sample of companies across a wide range of industries. In addition, the authors suggest that firms should not strive for more innovation per se. The findings suggest that positive divergence or too much innovation is detrimental for performance under environmental uncertainty, while negative divergence or too little innovation is harmful to performance under competitive uncertainty. Moreover, the divergence approach is also useful for comparing performance to that of other firms, typically referred to as benchmarking.

Originality/value

This paper is useful and important for managers and theory development as it provides insight into situations where a firm may have “too little” or “too much” process innovation. Thus, divergence advances understanding as, in contrast with the previous study, the authors do not suggest that more innovation is always better.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Iftakar Hassan Abdulla Haji, Alessandro M. Peluso and Ad de Jong

This study aims to integrate and extend existing approaches from self-identity literature by examining the underexplored aspects of online private self-disclosure. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to integrate and extend existing approaches from self-identity literature by examining the underexplored aspects of online private self-disclosure. The study first explores the experiential value co-created when consumers voluntarily self-disclose on public platforms. Second, it sheds light on what motivates such consumers to disclose private self-images and experiences, thus giving up some degree of privacy on an unrestricted platform.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted 65 laddering interviews and observed the profiles of ten consumers, who actively posted self-images on Instagram, through a netnographic study. Then, this study implemented a means-ends chain analysis on interview data.

Findings

This study found that online private self-disclosure can involve a co-created experiential value that consists of consumers’ self-affirmation, affective belief and emotional connection. These value components derive from three higher-order psychological consequences – empowerment, buffering offline inadequacy of self-worth and engagement – and four functional consequences – opportunity to learn, online control, self-brand authenticity and impression management.

Implications

Operationally, this study proposes that Instagram could be configured and synched with other social networking sites to provide a more complete representation of the online self. Using algorithms that simultaneously pull from other social networking sites can emotionally connect consumers to a more relevant and gratifying personalized experience. Additionally, managers could leverage the findings to tailor supporting tools to transfer consumers’ private self-disclosure skills learned during online communication into their offline settings.

Originality

This research contributes to the extant marketing literature by providing insights into how consumers can use private self-disclosure to co-create experiential value, an emerging concept in modern marketing that is key to attaining satisfied and loyal consumers. This study shows that, even in anonymous online settings, consumers are willing to self-disclose and progress to stable intimate exchanges of disclosure by breaking their inner repression and becoming more comfortable with releasing their desires in an emotional exchange.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Ad de Jong, Martin Wetzels and Ko de Ruyter

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the linkage between self‐managing team (SMT) member perceptions of collective efficacy and customer‐perceived service quality…

2162

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the linkage between self‐managing team (SMT) member perceptions of collective efficacy and customer‐perceived service quality, and the most cost‐efficient way to reliably assess collective efficacy and customer‐perceived service quality, using generalizability theory (G‐theory).

Design/methodology/approach

Longitudinal design; employee and customer survey data from 52 teams of a major financial services institution were collected at two points in time.

Findings

First of all, results of OLS regression analysis show a positive effect of collective efficacy on customer‐perceived service quality. In addition, taking a G‐theory approach, the results indicate that collective efficacy possesses a higher psychometric quality than customer‐perceived service quality and that the costs of reliably comparing SMTs on collective efficacy are considerably lower compared to customer‐perceived service quality. Finally, for both constructs, the results reveal subtle but relevant differences in psychometric quality and costs of data collection across different types of service (routine versus non‐routine) settings.

Practical implications

To begin with, as a linkage construct, collective efficacy provides managers a mechanism for team intervention by means of task‐focused team building, role‐play exercises, and using feedback to increase service employee confidence. Secondly, when deciding to use survey data as one means to compare performance of organizational units, managers should first determine to what extent the distinct measurement design facets (e.g. items, persons, and occasions) account for variance in measures and sample correspondingly to save money on data collection. In doing so, they should explicitly take into account the type of service context and type of respondent.

Originality/value

This study identifies collective efficacy and customer‐perceived service quality as a set of service SMT performance measures that meaningfully connects employee and customer perceptions at the group level. Secondly, a G‐theory approach was used to assess the psychometric quality of these two measures and how data collection costs can be minimized to achieve a desired level of generalizability.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

Ad de Jong, Ko de Ruyter, Sandra Streukens and Hans Ouwersloot

This empirical study examines the impact of context‐team factors and team‐employee factors on perceived uncertainty in self‐managed service teams. The results of our study…

1775

Abstract

This empirical study examines the impact of context‐team factors and team‐employee factors on perceived uncertainty in self‐managed service teams. The results of our study show that context‐team factors rather than team‐employee factors are critical to the extent of uncertainty employees perceive when providing customer service. Furthermore, perceived uncertainty has negative impact on self‐managed team outcomes in terms of job satisfaction and intention to leave the team. Besides this, our findings indicate that team commitment to customer service quality can serve as an effective tool to handle the negative consequences of perceived uncertainty in self‐managed service teams. Finally, in addition to the cross‐sectional analysis, a longitudinal exploration has been carried out, the outcomes of which suggest that the structural relationships are changing over time, underlining the need to take dynamic considerations into account in analyzing the effectiveness of self‐managed work teams.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2022

Jochen Wirtz and Christian Kowalkowski

The business-to-business (B2B) marketing literature is heavily focused on the manufacturing sector. However, it is the B2B service sector that shows the highest growth in…

Abstract

Purpose

The business-to-business (B2B) marketing literature is heavily focused on the manufacturing sector. However, it is the B2B service sector that shows the highest growth in gross domestic product (GDP). Beyond a vibrant stream of literature on servitization, the B2B literature has neglected drawing on the wider service literature. This paper aims to examine recent streams of service research that have promising implications and research opportunities for B2B marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

Together, the author team has decades of research, managerial and executive teaching experience related to B2B marketing and services marketing and management. The observations and reflections in this paper originate from this unique perspective and are supplemented by insights from 16 expert interviews.

Findings

The authors identify and discuss in this paper four broad and related themes from the service literature that can stimulate B2B research and practice. First, the authors highlight the implications for capturing value in economies with their rapidly increasing specialization and related growth in B2B services. Specifically, the authors explain where B2B firms should focus on to gain bargaining power in the value chains of the future. Second, an additional strategy to enhance a B2B firm’s power to capture value is servitization, which allows firms to get closer to their customers, increase their switching costs and build strategic partnerships. The authors explore how firms can use service productization to enhance their chances of successful servitization. Third, servitization is expensive, and productivity and scalability are often a challenge in B2B contexts. These issues are tackled in a recent service research stream on cost-effective service excellence (CESE) where the authors derive implications for B2B firms. Fourth and related to CESE, latest developments in intelligent automation offer exciting opportunities for B2B services to be made more scalable.

Originality/value

This paper is based on the unique perspective of the author team and a panel of experts and connects major streams of service research to the B2B literature.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1306-6

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

288

Abstract

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Hongwei He, Weiyue Wang, Weichun Zhu and Lloyd Harris

This paper aims to advance the literature by testing the boundary of this relationship with reference to a key construct in employee performance in the service domain…

5074

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to advance the literature by testing the boundary of this relationship with reference to a key construct in employee performance in the service domain: employee customer orientation. Organizational identification refers to employees’ perceived oneness and belongingness to their work organization, and has been argued to be associated with higher employee performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected based on a sample of call center service workers. Employees rated their organizational identification, customer orientation and personality traits. Supervisors independently rated their subordinates’ performance. Variables statistic tools were used to analyze the data and test a series of hypotheses.

Findings

It was found that customer orientation strengthens the relationship between organizational identification and service workers’ job performance, and it enhances the mediating effect of organizational identification on the relationship between service workers’ personality trait (i.e. agreeableness) and their performance.

Originality/value

This research advances an argument that employee customer orientation moderates the relationship between employee organizational identification and employee job performance in the call center service provision domain. In addition, this is a pioneering study examining the roles of personality traits on employee organizational identification.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Sarah De Meulenaer, Nathalie Dens and Patrick De Pelsmacker

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the globalization (vs localization) of different cues (advertising copy, brand name, spokesperson, brand logo) influences…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the globalization (vs localization) of different cues (advertising copy, brand name, spokesperson, brand logo) influences consumers’ perceived brand globalness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted conjoint analyses for two products differing in product category involvement (chocolates vs computer) with 200 consumers from the Netherlands. Additionally, based on cluster analysis, the authors divide respondents into two groups: local vs global consumer culture individuals, and the authors compare the results of the conjoint analysis for these two clusters.

Findings

Advertising copy is most important in determining perceived brand globalness. The spokesperson and the brand logo determine perceived brand globalness more strongly for a low-involvement product, whereas the brand name is more important for a high-involvement product. Further, the spokesperson and the brand logo are relatively more important for global consumer culture individuals, while local consumer culture individuals find the brand name and advertising copy relatively more important.

Practical implications

The most important cue to position a brand as global is the advertising copy. Brand managers of a low-involvement product and/or targeting global-minded consumers should concentrate on the spokesperson and the brand logo to position their brand. Managers of a high-involvement product and/or targeting local-minded people should focus on the brand name.

Originality/value

While a number of researchers have emphasized the importance of perceived brand globalness for international consumer behavior, the present study is the first to the authors’ knowledge to investigate the relative importance of different cues in creating perceptions of brand globalness.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Peter Guenther and Miriam Guenther

This paper aims to examine how much importance the financial market attaches to advertising spending’s short-term productivity vis-à-vis its investment component and the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how much importance the financial market attaches to advertising spending’s short-term productivity vis-à-vis its investment component and the impact of important contextual factors (investor mix and analyst coverage) on this trade-off.

Design/methodology/approach

A stochastic frontier estimation (SFE) approach is used to help disentangle advertising spending. Using a panel internal instruments model and 10,017 firm-year observations from publicly listed US companies over a 13-year period, this study relates aggregated advertising spending and disentangled advertising spending, together with important contextual factors, to Tobin’s q.

Findings

The results do not indicate an effect of aggregated advertising spending on Tobin’s q. However, after advertising spending is disentangled, results show the component with an efficient immediate revenue response to have a positive effect on Tobin’s q, whereas the effect of the remaining investment component is negative. Contextual factors moderate investors’ valuation of the components.

Research limitations/implications

Findings are limited to US publicly listed firms, and are based on secondary, non-experimental data. The results imply that investors reward firms only for short-term advertising productivity, casting doubt on investors’ understanding of the long-term value of marketing.

Practical implications

The results confirm managers’ belief that not all money spent on advertising creates shareholder value. Managers should use the outlined SFE to benchmark their firms’ short-term advertising productivity against that of industry peer firms.

Originality/value

This study advances a new perspective, suggesting that advertising spending can be decomposed into two distinct parts by considering how financial market investors evaluate advertising spending. Important contextual effects on this evaluation from firms’ investor mix and analyst coverage are also shown for the first time. The findings help in reconciling conflicting prior results, and shed new light on how the financial market evaluates marketing expenditures.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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