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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Christiane M. Herr

This paper connects the notions of abstract and actual based on a reflection of the Chinese notions of xiangsheng (mutual arising) and xushi (abstract/actual, empty/full)…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper connects the notions of abstract and actual based on a reflection of the Chinese notions of xiangsheng (mutual arising) and xushi (abstract/actual, empty/full). These word pairs enable a conception of abstract and actual that shows an alternative to, and which complements, distinctions of the terms that are based in dualism and rationalism.

Design/methodology/approach

The author sidesteps methodological rigour as practiced in the West as the style of thought introduced here shows a picture of abstract and actual arising from mutual interdependence rather than attempting to describe and formally distinguish abstract and actual through an observer‐independent methodology.

Findings

Discussing the relationship of actual and abstract from the viewpoint of the Chinese cultural tradition, this paper shows how abstract and actual may be thought of as a mutually generating, dynamic and polar relationship. The discussion further provides a basis for understanding how perceptions of abstract and actual can be understood as choices made by observers.

Research limitations/implications

This research is based on the limited personal experience of the author as a teacher of architectural design at one Taiwanese and one Chinese university.

Originality/value

This paper reflects on the relationship of abstract and actual from a non‐dualist viewpoint by introducing traditional Chinese ways of seeing and appreciating, and connecting this perspective to cybernetic and radical constructivist epistemologies. To show the relationship between abstract and actual as polar and mutually arising, the paper focuses particularly on making and experiencing in and through creative processes.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2017

Anne-Marie Lebrun, Che-Jen Su, Jean-Luc Lhéraud, Antoine Marsac and Patrick Bouchet

This chapter compares two protected natural parks as specific experiential contexts providing two different experiences for visitors: extraordinary and memorable versus

Abstract

This chapter compares two protected natural parks as specific experiential contexts providing two different experiences for visitors: extraordinary and memorable versus ordinary and mundane (Carù & Cova, 2006, 2007). Each experiential context enables the distinction of actual visitors’ experiences (Pine & Gilmore, 1999) inside each park. A qualitative study collected information to differentiate each protected natural park based on three dimensions: the geophysical environment, the recreational practices, and product and service offer management. A quantitative study analyzed the effect of a specific experiential context through a comparison of actual visitors’ experiences on four dimensions (esthetics, escapism, education, and entertainment) in both countries (500 in each country). Results of the qualitative study show that the Taiwanese park provides an experiential context with more extraordinary and memorable experiences while the French park provides an experiential context with more ordinary and mundane experiences. The results of the quantitative study show the distinction of actual visitors’ experiences inside each park: more immersion through esthetics and escapism in Taiwan and more absorption through education and entertainment in France. Each park manager has to build one’s own positioning and should offer a unique experiential context based on the three dimensions to provide more extraordinary and memorable or more ordinary and mundane experiences. this study highlights the interest of an analysis framework of experiences adapted from Carù and Cova (2006, 2007) and Pine and Gilmore (1999) underlining the link between experiential context and actual experiences.

Details

Consumer Behavior in Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-690-7

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Sajad Rezaei, Ebrahim Mazaheri and Ramin Azadavar

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of customer perceived relationship marketing (CPRM), service quality and brand experience on tourists’ satisfaction and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of customer perceived relationship marketing (CPRM), service quality and brand experience on tourists’ satisfaction and actual spending behavior in the emerging hospitality industry in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 308 valid questionnaires were collected to empirically evaluate the measurement and structural model using the PLS path modelling approach, a variance-based structural equation modelling (VB-SEM) technique.

Findings

The results support the causal relationships that exist between the exogenous and endogenous constructs. Furthermore, three other factors were found to be second-order constructs: brand experience (reflective-reflective) comprising of sensory, affective, behavioural and intellectual; service quality (reflective-reflective) comprising of tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy; and actual spending behaviour (reflective-reflective) comprising of dining frequency and dining expenditure.

Originality/value

Current literature has commonly investigated the attitude, satisfaction and behaviour of a traveller’s intentions; however, limited research has examined an experienced tourist’s actual spending behaviour in an emerging hospitality industry environment, such as Iran.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1977

John S. Evans

A striking feature of Jaques' work is his “no nonsense” attitude to the “manager‐subordinate” relationship. His blunt account of the origins of this relationship seems at…

Abstract

A striking feature of Jaques' work is his “no nonsense” attitude to the “manager‐subordinate” relationship. His blunt account of the origins of this relationship seems at first sight to place him in the legalistic “principles of management” camp rather than in the ranks of the subtler “people centred” schools. We shall see before long how misleading such first impressions can be, for Jaques is not making simplistic assumptions about the human psyche. But he certainly sees no point in agonising over the mechanism of association which brings organisations and work‐groups into being when the facts of life are perfectly straightforward and there is no need to be squeamish about them.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 15 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Christopher Schlaegel

The current study aims to systematically review the existing literature, identify the main determinants that impact individuals’ perceptions, attitude, intention and…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study aims to systematically review the existing literature, identify the main determinants that impact individuals’ perceptions, attitude, intention and behavior and meta-analytically evaluate their respective strength. Moreover, this study examines the specific mechanism through which more distal factors, such as trust, risk, experience and enjoyment influence individuals’ decision in the context of online auction markets. Finally, the moderating effects of contextual and methodological factors that could potentially influence the relationships are explored. During the past two decades, a large number of empirical studies examined the factors that hinder or foster individuals’ initial and continued acceptance of online auction marketplaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the effect sizes reported, 91 studies, including 95 independent samples (N = 36.788), the current study utilizes bivariate meta-analysis, meta-analytic structural equation modeling and weighted least squares regression moderator analysis to examine the nature of the identified relationships, the mechanisms through which they operate and the boundary conditions under which they do or do not hold.

Findings

The results show that trust and experience explain individuals’ initial usage intention, while risk and experience explain actual usage behavior, indicating that these variables are viable extensions to the technology acceptance model in the context of online auction marketplaces. The results also demonstrate that, once individuals participate in online auction markets, trust and enjoyment are important predictors of satisfaction, which, in turn, is the strongest determinant of loyalty intention. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that cultural context acts as moderator and, to some degree, explains the mixed empirical findings in prior research.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature by identifying the main determinants and their average direct and indirect effect on the individuals’ decisions in online auction marketplaces. The findings provide critical insights into the complex network of relationships which impact individuals’ perceptions, attitude, intention and behavior to initially and continuously use online auction marketplaces. Furthermore, the result contributes to the existing research by examining the effect of contextual and methodological boundary conditions – moderating factors that are difficult to test in primary studies.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1992

Carole F. Miller

Presents results from cross‐section and conditional logit modelsestimating the probability of participation by married women. Oneversion of each specification uses…

Abstract

Presents results from cross‐section and conditional logit models estimating the probability of participation by married women. One version of each specification uses potential experience and the other a measure of the number of years worked in the market since the age of 18. A series of cross‐section logit models, representing a threshold analysis of the decision to work in the market, appears to be inappropriate, when unmeasured characteristics influence the probability of participation. Hence, reports results from a conditional logit model controlling for fixed effects. These results confirm the cross‐section findings regarding the limitation of potential experience. The results suggest that potential experience reflects the negative effects of ageing on the probability of participation rather than the positive impact of training or tastes for market work.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1992

A. Petraki Kottis and S. Dimelis

Labour force participation and earnings functions of married andsingle women graduates of economics and business administration inGreece were fitted using probit and OLS…

Abstract

Labour force participation and earnings functions of married and single women graduates of economics and business administration in Greece were fitted using probit and OLS analysis respectively. The probability to participate in the labour force for married women was found to be affected positively by the magnitude of their work experience and training and negatively by age, husband′s earnings, number of children and their own non‐wage income. In the case of single women, the factors that were found to exercise a significant impact on their participation were their work experience and non‐wage income. Regarding the earnings function, the main factors that were significant for both single and married women were the amount of training, the work experience and the years of residence in the same town. On the basis of the results of the study certain conclusions are drawn regarding policy issues.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 13 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1305-9

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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2017

Burcu Genç and Ayşe Gül Bayraktaroğlu

This study is set out to assess the country of origin effect on Turkish consumption practices in order to provide a richer context for its formation process.

Abstract

Purpose

This study is set out to assess the country of origin effect on Turkish consumption practices in order to provide a richer context for its formation process.

Methodology/approach

The research is exploratory and interpretative in nature. It follows a qualitative design with in-depth analysis of consumption experiences by utilizing semi-structured interviews.

Findings

The research shows that country of origin effect is product specific, and when it exists, it has an essential effect on product evaluations. It reveals that the country of origin effect is intrinsically constituted with the individual perceptions of and attitudes toward brands, countries, and past experiences, and it is extrinsically constituted with socially created perceptions by media, marketplace myths, and popularity.

Originality/value

This research investigated country of origin effect in a specific context of a developing country with a qualitative methodology. Unlike the existing literature, this study analyzes consumers’ actual purchase decisions in different product categories. Country of origin effect is found to be formed by individual and societal factors.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Dan Sarel and Howard Marmorstein

Despite the increased attention being paid to service delivery, lengthy waits for service are still common. This paper provides a conceptual and empirical examination of…

Abstract

Despite the increased attention being paid to service delivery, lengthy waits for service are still common. This paper provides a conceptual and empirical examination of the effects of perceived employee action and customer prior experience, on reactions to service delays. The results of a field study of customers experiencing actual delays in a major retail bank are then discussed. The findings indicate that events and actions taking place prior to, during, and after the delay, affect consumer response. First, customers’ prior experience with that service provider is critical. Contrary to much of the literature on expectations, customers who had frequently experienced delays in the past were even more angered by the current service failure. Second, perceived employee effort during the delay had a tremendous impact on customers’ reactions. Irrespective of the length of the delay, when employees are perceived as not making a real effort, customer anger is high. Third, the impact of an apology is more complex. An apology is not a substitute for genuine employee effort. An insincere apology may even backfire, especially when customers experience frequent delays and believe employees are not making a concerted effort to help. Managerial implications for addressing this problem, before, during and after the delay, are discussed.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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