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Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Kelly Guzman

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Simplifying the Complex
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-972-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Wolfgang F.E. Preiser

Activation is the process of preparing people, equipment and facilities for moving and start‐up. It is little understood, but integral to the success of facility. It…

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715

Abstract

Activation is the process of preparing people, equipment and facilities for moving and start‐up. It is little understood, but integral to the success of facility. It starts well before and extends beyond the phases of commissioning and start‐up. Activation is described in six stages as it interacts with the traditional facility delivery cycle: long‐range planning; prioritization/budgeting; facility planning/design; facility completion; Operation; and criteria update/post‐occupancy evaluation. The outcome was a two‐volume, “user‐friendly” Activation Guide that describes activation for large complex projects in a straightforward way, and which is being used by the 172 major hospitals of the Department of Veterans Affairs in the USA. The process is generic and it could be adapted for use in activations of complex facilities in Europe.

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Facilities, vol. 15 no. 12/13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Simplifying the Complex
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-972-9

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Filip Lievens, Robert P. Tett and Deidra J. Schleicher

Exercises are key components of assessment centers (ACs). However, little is known about the nature and determinants of AC exercise performance. The traditional exercise…

Abstract

Exercises are key components of assessment centers (ACs). However, little is known about the nature and determinants of AC exercise performance. The traditional exercise paradigm primarily emphasizes the need to simulate task, social, and organizational demands in AC exercises. This chapter draws on trait activation theory in proposing a new AC exercise paradigm. First, we develop a theoretical framework that addresses the complexity of situational characteristics of AC exercises as determinants of AC performance. Second, we argue for planting multiple stimuli within exercises as a structured means of eliciting candidate behavior. Third, we show how the new paradigm also has key insights for the rating part of ACs, namely, in selecting dimensions, designing behavioral checklists, screening assessors, and training assessors. Finally, the impact of this new AC exercise paradigm is anticipated on important AC outcomes such as reliability, internal/external construct-related validity, criterion-related validity, assessee perceptions, and feedback effectiveness.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-056-8

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2014

Anna Persson and Ulrika Vikman

Previous literature shows that activation requirements for welfare recipients reduce welfare participation. However, the effect of mandatory activation on welfare entry…

Abstract

Previous literature shows that activation requirements for welfare recipients reduce welfare participation. However, the effect of mandatory activation on welfare entry and exit rates has not been fully examined. In this article, we use a rich set of register data that covers the entire population of Stockholm to study how the introduction of activation programs aimed at unemployed welfare recipients in various city districts affects the probability of individuals entering and exiting social assistance (SA). Our results show that mandatory activation has no overall average effects on SA entry or SA exit. However, we do find a significant negative effect of mandatory activation on the SA entry rate for young individuals and for unmarried individuals without children. For unmarried individuals without children, we find a positive but statistically insignificant effect on the probability to leave SA. Thus, individuals with fewer family responsibilities seem to be more responsive to the reform.

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Safety Nets and Benefit Dependence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-110-7

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Diego Coletto and Simona Guglielmi

The purpose of this paper is to understand the process that occurs within public employment offices (PEOs) and its consequences for unemployed people. Specifically, it…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the process that occurs within public employment offices (PEOs) and its consequences for unemployed people. Specifically, it analysed some practices needed to implement activation programmes developed in some PEO in Lombardy (Italy) and the role of front-line officers, promoting a dialogue between the literature on activation policies on one hand and the literature on street-level bureaucracy on the other.

Design/methodology/approach

The fieldwork has been conducted in Lombardy, which is one of most economically developed areas both in Italy and in Europe. The empirical research integrated quantitative and qualitative research tools; specifically a CATI survey of 994 persons; participant and non-participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and an analysis of documents in four PEOs.

Findings

The paper describes and analyses both practices needed to implement activation programmes and the perceptions of the social actors (unemployed people and front-line officers) who build and address these practices daily. Specifically, the attention is focussed on the different forms of discretion used by PEOs’ front-line officers and a mix of technical, relational and psychological support received in the PEOs. Moreover, the authors noticed that the front-line officers’ discretion seemed to be more limited in those parts of the activation process in which it should be more relevant, that is, the identification of training courses aimed at increasing unemployed workers’ skills. Notwithstanding these limits, many users expressed positive opinions of these courses, which could be explained by secondary functions of training courses.

Research limitations/implications

The qualitative portion of the fieldwork has limited generalisability because it focussed on few PEOs.

Practical implications

The findings are relevant to policy makers who deal with activation policies and to public and private organisations that implement those policies.

Originality/value

Many studies have analysed the implementation of the welfare-to-work model that has oriented the reforms of labour market activation policies in most countries, focussing on the more tangible outcomes (essentially their efficacy in terms of re-employment rates). A growing stream of recent literature has begun to place more attention on the non-economic consequences of activation programmes, focussing mainly on countries with quite a long tradition of activation policies while remaining scant in countries where the implementation of activation programmes is still fragmented and more recent (like Italy). This paper aims to begin filling this gap by improving the knowledge on some non-economic consequences of activation programmes, focussing on user-officer relations and on daily practices in PEOs.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Rik van Berkel, Willibrord de Graaf and Tomáš Sirovátka

The purpose of this introduction to the special issue is to give an overview of the key aspects of the governance of activation policies as discussed in the existing…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this introduction to the special issue is to give an overview of the key aspects of the governance of activation policies as discussed in the existing literature. It explains the focus and contribution of this special issue and provides a brief summary of the main findings in the individual articles.

Design/methodology/approach

In this special issue the comparative analysis of the key aspects of governance of activation policies like centralization/decentralization, new public management, marketization and network governance is covered, accompanied by an assessment of the role of implementation conditions in shaping the real trends of governance reforms of activation policies. Further, the effects of governance reforms and the influence of EU governance on the dynamics of national activation policies are discussed. This comparative analysis leads to a typology of the “worlds of governance” of activation policies in Europe.

Findings

All the countries show certain comparable converging trends in the reforms of governance of activation, although a closer look helps us determine the shape of increasingly different patterns of governance in several respects. In spite of this variety, another general finding is the common discrepancy between aims and effects: the key explanation involves implementation failures. Three governance regimes may be distinguished in the EU countries: committed marketizers, modernizers and slow modernizers.

Originality/value

This paper suggests a new typology of governance regimes.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 32 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

François A. Carrillat, Alain d’Astous and Emilie Morissette Grégoire

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate how firms can use social media such as Facebook to recruit top job prospects.

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8658

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how firms can use social media such as Facebook to recruit top job prospects.

Design/methodology/approach

In the context of a fictitious event presumably sponsored by a potential employer, a sample of university students became members of a new private and secret Facebook user group dedicated to this event for a period of four days. They were exposed to event sponsorship activation messages varying systematically with respect to the mode of processing (i.e. passive or active) and their focus (i.e. the brand or the event).

Findings

The results show that their expectations as regards the salary that they would require to become employees were higher in the active mode of processing. Also, their attitude toward the sponsor as an employer was more favorable when the activation messages focussed on the brand rather than on the event. In addition, further analyses showed that the effects of message focus and mode of processing on the attitudinal responses toward the sponsoring employers were mediated by the degree of elaboration and richness of social interactions of the Facebook group's members as well as their attitude toward the activation messages.

Practical implications

Managers seeking to gain a recruiting edge through their social media presence should use online messages that stimulate more active processing and that have high entertainment value since this leads to more favorable responses toward the employer. These messages should insist more on the brand than on the event that is sponsored.

Originality/value

This study is the first study to foray into the usage of social networking sites for recruitment purposes. It represents one of the few research efforts to monitor the interactions of users in a social media platform by means of a controlled experiment performed in situ through the creation of an ad hoc Facebook group.

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Internet Research, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2007

Rik van Berkel and Vando Borghi

This editorial aims to introduce the first of a set of two special issues on New modes of governance in activation policies.

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1464

Abstract

Purpose

This editorial aims to introduce the first of a set of two special issues on New modes of governance in activation policies.

Design/methodology/approach

The article explores the concept of governance, distinguishing a broad and more narrow use of the concept. Then, it argues that issues of governance should be an integral part of studies of welfare state transformations. Not in the last instance, because governance reforms do have an impact on the content of social policies and social services such as activation. The article continues by discussing three models of the provision of social services.

Findings

The article states that the development of the modes of governance in activation in various countries reveals that a mix of service provision models is being used.

Originality/value

The article introduces the articles of the special issue.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 27 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Tomas Sirovatka

The purpose of this paper is to analyse Czech’s activation reforms enacted since 2006 which culminated in 2010-2012 as radical workfare-like reforms. It also aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse Czech’s activation reforms enacted since 2006 which culminated in 2010-2012 as radical workfare-like reforms. It also aims to explain which factors have influenced their development.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is the case study of activation reforms in one country interpreted within the theoretical framework of the “activation models” and discussion of the factors influencing activation reforms. The design and implementation of the reforms of activation policies are in focus. Institutional analysis is combined with secondary statistical data and survey data.

Findings

The author distinguish three phases of the activation reforms: the initial phase of activation (work first), the radical phase (workfare) and the failure of radical workfare as the final phase. The key argument is that the main factors leading to the radical workfare version of activation were the political factors combined with institutional factors, particularly, the specific model of policy making (the so-called “compost model”). Ironically, this model which has enabled fast and radical workfare-like reforms was also the main reason why the reforms failed.

Originality/value

The paper is innovative since it explains the specific features of the activation reforms in the Czech Republic, distinguishing workfare from other models of activation, and identifying the factors which have played a role in shaping these features. The in-depth case study of one country provides the evidence on the role of the specific factors and helps the author to understand the motives, the design and the implementation of activation reforms in their mutual relationships. The specific role of the institutional legacy in the new circumstances is emphasized.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 36 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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