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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2023

Yuhyung Shin, Won-Moo Hur and Tae Won Moon

This study aims to test the mediating effect of cross-selling behavior (CSB) on the relationship between sales manager feedback (i.e. output and behavioral) and sales…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to test the mediating effect of cross-selling behavior (CSB) on the relationship between sales manager feedback (i.e. output and behavioral) and sales performance, and the moderating effect of emotional labor (i.e. deep and surface acting) on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used two-wave multisource data: survey and objective sales performance (sales revenue) data collected from 300 door-to-door salespeople working at a South Korean cosmetics company.

Findings

The relationship between output feedback and sales performance was mediated by CSB. In addition, the positive relationship between output feedback and CSB was weakened by deep and surface acting, whereas that between behavioral feedback and CSB was strengthened by deep acting. Specifically, behavioral feedback had a positive relationship with CSB when salespeople engaged in a high level of deep acting. This relationship was not significant for low and medium levels of deep acting. The authors’ supplementary analyses indicated no significant three-way interaction effect between output feedback, behavioral feedback and emotional labor on CSB.

Research limitations/implications

Data collection from door-to-door salespeople in a single cosmetics company undermines the generalizability of the present findings.

Practical implications

By exploring the boundary conditions that strengthen or weaken the effectiveness of manager feedback, this study provides insights into how the two types of manager feedback can be effectively used to promote CSB and sales performance.

Originality/value

This study offers a nuanced understanding of the relative roles of output and behavioral feedback in CSB and the differential moderating effects of emotional labor on the two types of manager feedback.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 57 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 December 2022

Yunxia Shi, Rumeng Zhang, Chunhao Ma and Lijie Wang

This paper aims to discuss the effect of frontline employees' emotional labor (surface acting vs. deep acting) on customer satisfaction and the moderating role of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the effect of frontline employees' emotional labor (surface acting vs. deep acting) on customer satisfaction and the moderating role of responsibility attributions in the situation of robot service failure.

Design/methodology/approach

The scenario-based experimental method was designed to perform hypothesis testing and SPSS was used to analyze the data from the 363 questionnaires collected.

Findings

The results indicate that (1) employees' emotional labor recovery has a double-edged sword effect. Deep acting improves customer satisfaction, while surface acting undermines the effectiveness of service recovery and leaves customer satisfaction below previous levels. (2) Customers' responsibility attributions for service failure moderate the effect of service recovery.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the role of frontline employees' emotional labor in robot service failure contexts, which not only enriches and expands the relevant literature in this domain, but also deepens the understanding of how emotional labor and responsibility attribution effect the customer satisfaction.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Melissa L. Cast, Grace Ann Rosile, David M. Boje and Rohny Saylors

The chapter summarizes existing conceptualizations of emotional regulation and extends existing organizational behavior literature that focuses on emotional labor by the…

Abstract

The chapter summarizes existing conceptualizations of emotional regulation and extends existing organizational behavior literature that focuses on emotional labor by the introduction of two processes new to the literature: emotional contagion exchange (ECX) and emotional restorying of labor. More specifically, emotional restorying may allow employees to cope with emotional contagion by converting surface-level acting to deep-level acting, in ways which benefit both employees and organizations. In explaining this process, this chapter constructs a model of multiple interplaying processes.

Details

The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-586-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2011

Robyn E. Goodwin

This chapter addresses how emotional labor relates to effort; an important mediator in the relationship between emotional labor strategies and important outcomes. To…

Abstract

This chapter addresses how emotional labor relates to effort; an important mediator in the relationship between emotional labor strategies and important outcomes. To better understand how effort functions in these relationships, a new way of understanding emotional labor strategies is considered. This new approach accounts for effort profiles associated with different types of emotional labor. Consequently, three distinct categories of emotional labor strategies emerge; cause-focused, symptom-focused, and avoidance actions. These new categories are contrasted with the current dichotomous understanding of emotional labor strategies; surface and deep acting. How these three distinct sets of emotional labor strategies are specifically related to effort – and thus to outcomes of interest – is discussed and propositions are made. The implications of, and avenues for future research afforded by this new categorization of emotional labor are discussed.

Details

What Have We Learned? Ten Years On
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-208-1

Book part
Publication date: 20 January 2023

Ana Célia Araújo Simões, Sonia Maria Guedes Gondim and Katia Elizabeth Puente-Palacios

We test a multilevel exploratory predictive model, examining the relationships between emotional labor (EL) and workers' affectivity traits at a philanthropic hospital…

Abstract

Purpose

We test a multilevel exploratory predictive model, examining the relationships between emotional labor (EL) and workers' affectivity traits at a philanthropic hospital, where EL involves a process of emotional regulation at work involving emotional display rules, regulatory strategies, and emotional performance. Specifically, we test a model of the mediation effects of regulatory strategies and the moderation effects of emotional demands.

Study design and methods

Participants were 306 workers from 45 different units of a hospital institution, whose performance was evaluated by 30 supervisors. Since workers' emotional display rules could not be represented as shared, unit-level beliefs, we chose two critical demands to test our hypotheses: (1) demand to express compassion and (2) demand to conceal anger or disapproval.

Findings

Using multilevel analysis, we found evidence that deep acting mediates between emotional demands to express compassion and emotional performance. We found further that demands to conceal anger toward coworkers increase the strength of the relationship between negative affectivity and surface acting.

Originality/value

Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed.

Details

Emotions During Times of Disruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-838-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 March 2016

Kelly Davis McCauley and William L. Gardner

The purpose of this study is to provide preliminary insights into the relationships between self-monitoring, emotional expressivity, emotional labor, felt leader…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to provide preliminary insights into the relationships between self-monitoring, emotional expressivity, emotional labor, felt leader authenticity, and authentic leadership (AL) within a unique context – West Texas Baptist congregations. Using a sample of 40 Baptist pastors, we employed survey research methods and correlational analyses to explore the focal relationships. Our results revealed that self-monitoring is positively correlated with surface acting, yet negatively associated with AL, within our sample of West Texas Baptist pastors. Emotional expressivity is negatively related to surface acting, but not deep acting, and positively related to genuine emotional displays. We also found that surface acting is negatively associated with genuine emotion displays and felt authenticity, while felt authenticity and AL are positively correlated. However, no relationships between self-monitoring, deep acting, felt authenticity, and AL were revealed. Thus, we identified cases where leader authenticity may be threatened within an organizational context with strong emotional display rules, suggesting a boundary condition for AL. Additionally, we advance propositions gleaned from our research regarding the influence of the omnibus (e.g., community religiosity) and discrete context on leader emotional labor and authenticity. We conclude with practical recommendations for leaders seeking to balance authenticity with emotional display rules associated with unique roles and contexts, as well as recommendations for scholars seeking to conduct research in such settings. We also provide candid insights regarding the challenges we encountered in researching leader authenticity within a highly religious context.

Details

Leadership Lessons from Compelling Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-942-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2011

William J. Becker and Russell Cropanzano

Previous research on emotional labor has typically been conducted at the individual level of analysis, despite the fact that many organizations have incorporated work…

Abstract

Previous research on emotional labor has typically been conducted at the individual level of analysis, despite the fact that many organizations have incorporated work teams into their business model. The use of work teams turns emotional management into a group task on which employees work as a collective. The present chapter proposes a conceptual model that describes the antecedents and consequences of team-level emotional labor. We propose that work groups often impose positive display rules (express integrative emotion) and negative display rules (suppress differentiating emotions) on their members. Positive display rules generally trigger group-level deep acting, whereby teammates seek to change their internal feelings. Negative display rules generally trigger surface acting, whereby teammates retain their actual emotions but do not actually express differentiating feelings. These two dimensions of emotional labor, for their part, impact emotional exhaustion. Deep acting one's positive emotions lowers emotional exhaustion and surface acting increases it. We discuss the consequences of our model for workplace behavior, such as performance. We also discuss how the relationships involving emotional labor change when one considers these constructs at the group-level of analysis.

Details

What Have We Learned? Ten Years On
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-208-1

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2022

Carlene Joy Boucher

Coronavirus (COVID) has had a massive impact on the health systems of many nations including Australia. Nurse leaders have, as part of their leadership and management…

Abstract

Purpose

Coronavirus (COVID) has had a massive impact on the health systems of many nations including Australia. Nurse leaders have, as part of their leadership and management roles, had to manage the emotional responses of the people around nurse leaders . The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurse leaders who have held management roles during the health services crisis that has resulted from the COVID pandemic and to look at the emotional work nurse leaders have engaged in and the impact emotional work has had on nurse leaders' emotional well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a social constructionist approach and employed unstructured interviews to generate data.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that the nurse leaders were experiencing increased emotional exhaustion, which could be construed as a breach of psychological safety, as nurse leaders engaged in more surface acting. This has negatively impacted their lives outside of work. The study recommends that nurse leaders receive support through counselling and reflective practice activities. Consideration also should be given to renumerating nurse leaders appropriately for the emotional work nurse leaders perform.

Research limitations/implications

The structural issues endemic in the industry need to be addressed. Human resource management professionals, senior managers and hospital boards are charged with ensuring that the organisations are safe and healthy workplaces. This includes addressing issues that impact psychological health. If nurse leaders must undertake work that impacts negatively on nurse leaders' mental well-being and personal lives, then appropriate safeguards need to be put in place. The scope of the study was small, as the study is limited by the number of interviewees, the number of study sites and the sites' geographical location. Consequently, limited claims are made about the generalisability of the findings or the findings' transferability to other contexts.

Practical implications

The findings overwhelmingly support the contention that we need to support nurse leaders in the vital role they play through engaging in surface acting in the workplace. The role needs to be recognised and valued as a critical part of the nurse leader role. The contribution the role makes to the welfare of others in the organisation needs to be acknowledged. Given the emotional and personal price that nurse leaders play for surface acting, organisations need to provide genuine support in the form of counselling and the introduction of opportunities for reflective practice.

Social implications

The study suggests that nurse leaders need to be paid for emotional labour (EL) generally and surface acting in particular. The recognition of the value of caring work must go beyond symbols such as the Year of the Nurse and be rewarded financially.

Originality/value

The experience of nurse leaders using surface acting has received little attention and this is the first study to look at this particular phenomenon during COVID.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2014

Esther Gracia and Neal M. Ashkanasy

In this chapter, we develop and present the Multi-Perspective Multilevel Model of emotional labor in organizations. This model is based on three perspectives: (1) a…

Abstract

In this chapter, we develop and present the Multi-Perspective Multilevel Model of emotional labor in organizations. This model is based on three perspectives: (1) a service requirement, (2) an intra-psychic process, and (3) an emotional display, each involving five levels of analysis: within-person, between persons, in interpersonal exchanges, in groups, and across the organization as a whole. Our model is differentiated from earlier characterizations of emotional labor in that we propose that the phenomenon begins with energy generation instead of energy depletion; and is neither a one-way nor a one-by-one service episode. We further proffer that the intra-psychic processes embedded in emotional labor represent a form of social self-regulation that impacts across multiple levels within service organizations. We conclude by discussing the implications and limitations of our model for emotional labor research.

Details

Emotions and the Organizational Fabric
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-939-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Muhammad Ali Asadullah, Usman Abdullah and Ahmad Siddiquei

This diary study tested some propositions to determine the effect of discrete emotions on three dimensions of emotional labor and their consequent effect on leaders and…

Abstract

Purpose

This diary study tested some propositions to determine the effect of discrete emotions on three dimensions of emotional labor and their consequent effect on leaders and follower’s perception about leaders’ authenticity.

Design/Methodology/Approach

The data were collected from a cohort of city traffic police consisting 69 police officials at four different time points between their two shifts using experience sampling method. The data were analyzed using the latest technique known as latent growth curve modeling.

Findings

The statistical results demonstrated that negative emotions were negatively associated with deep-acting and three forms of emotional labor did not significantly affect followers’ perception about leaders’ authenticity. This study also demonstrated that surface-acting is not significantly associated with leaders’ self-perceived authenticity, but genuine-acting and deep-acting were negatively associated with leaders’ self-perceived authenticity.

Research Limitations/Implications

This study also offers certain implications for policing officials for improve authentic behavior through daily emotional displays in policing organizations.

Practical Implications

This study offers some practical implications for policing officials about emotion regulation strategies during policing practices with respect to the authentic sense of the leaders as well as the followers.

Originality/Value

This study offers an insight about how emotional labor affects the perceptions of policing officers about the authenticity of their leaders in the context of traffic police.

Details

Emotions and Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-202-7

Keywords

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