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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Birgit Gassler, Qian Xiao, Sarah Kühl and Achim Spiller

The percentage of dairy cows managed in grazing systems in Northwest Europe is on the decline, even though pasturing is perceived favourably as enhancing the health and…

Abstract

Purpose

The percentage of dairy cows managed in grazing systems in Northwest Europe is on the decline, even though pasturing is perceived favourably as enhancing the health and welfare of dairy cows. With consumers turning away from intensively produced food, developing the pasture-raised milk market could encourage farmers to continue keeping their cows on pastures. To provide insights for expanding this specialty milk market, the purpose of this paper is to, therefore, investigate the roles of personal, product-related, economic and social factors in purchasing pasture-raised milk.

Design/methodology/approach

Drivers of pasture-raised milk purchases are identified and the conceptual model is tested using structural equation modelling with data from a cross-sectional study among 917 German milk consumers.

Findings

Perceived price and availability barriers are the main consumption obstacles for pasture-raised milk. Besides increasing availability and reducing price premiums, processors should cater health and dietary conscious consumers by providing pasture-raised milk with unique and favourable product qualities, i.e. focussing on freshness, a rich taste or naturalness. Raising awareness for extensive husbandry systems may enhance pasture-raised milk purchases, while introducing a unified pasturing claim could help consumers to distinguish pasture-raised milk from conventional barn milk.

Originality/value

This study provides dairies and marketers with valuable insight about the factors driving pasture-raised milk purchases. This information is derived from a large sample with extensive regional coverage and will thus be useful in expanding this specialty milk market and in maintaining extensive dairy production.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Birgit Gassler, Carina Fronzeck and Achim Spiller

The mechanism by which organic labelling affects consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for wine is not yet fully understood. Organic labelling not only transports…

Abstract

Purpose

The mechanism by which organic labelling affects consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for wine is not yet fully understood. Organic labelling not only transports information about environmental benefits, but may also influence consumers’ perceptions of quality and taste. The purpose of this paper is to separate the information effect from the perception effect of an organic label on WTP.

Design/methodology/approach

Taste and quality perceptions of 110 German consumers and their WTP for white and red wines were collected in a second-price auction in conjunction with a blind tasting. Each measure was recorded under two experimental conditions: with and without organic labelling. Serial mediation analysis is used to identify the information and perception effect of an organic label on WTP. A moderating effect of commitment to organic consumption is considered.

Findings

Wines marketed as organic are perceived as tastier and of higher quality and value. The organic labelling effect is stronger for committed organic consumers. Mediation analysis confirms perceived better taste as a key driver for WTP, especially for less committed organic consumers. The findings highlight perceptions of wine quality as the main mediator through which organic labelling affects WTP for red wine and for committed organic consumers.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the literature by decomposing the signalling mechanism of organic labelling and by emphasising the role of individual characteristics in determining its magnitude and pathways. Implications from a marketing and wine industry’s perspective are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Sarah Kühl, Lea Schlüterbusch and Achim Spiller

Agricultural-related food marketing claims are gaining in importance. The challenge for the industry is to claim real production characteristics while being in line with…

Abstract

Purpose

Agricultural-related food marketing claims are gaining in importance. The challenge for the industry is to claim real production characteristics while being in line with consumers’ expectations. Looking at the example of marketing pasture-raised milk year-round and the fact that cows only have access to pasture in summer, the purpose of this paper is to analyse consumer expectations, the potential of deception and the acceptance of more credible marketing strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

An online access panel was used for data collection. The data include 310 German milk buyers, who were grouped using cluster analysis to examine the different target groups for the year-round and seasonal marketing of pasture-raised milk.

Findings

The study distinguished two different consumer groups: one with lower expectations accepting year-round marketing (32.5 per cent) and the other with higher demands, who feel deceived by year-round marketing (46.7 per cent). Furthermore, one part of the last group is also sceptical towards the more precise seasonal marketing due to their general scepticism towards ag-related marketing claims.

Practical implications

To generate consumer trust in ag-related marketing claims, it is beneficial to meet consumers’ expectations. Producers have to decide if they orient their products to more modest or more critical consumer segments. While it is easier to implement lower standards, there is the risk to disappoint (and thereby lose) the most interesting target group of highly involved consumers characterised by some general doubts regarding food marketing claims.

Originality/value

The study is the first to demonstrate the existence of two consumer segments that differ in their expectations towards and acceptance of ag-related marketing claims for food products.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Kristin Jürkenbeck, Achim Spiller and Stephan G.H. Meyerding

Vegetables are an important component of a healthy diet. Given that tomatoes are the most purchased vegetable in Germany, the purpose of this paper is to focus on how…

Abstract

Purpose

Vegetables are an important component of a healthy diet. Given that tomatoes are the most purchased vegetable in Germany, the purpose of this paper is to focus on how consumers evaluate tomatoes during their food choice. Each consumer has different preferences and, in order to target them, it is necessary to identify consumer groups. The study segments tomato consumers into homogenous target groups.

Design/methodology/approach

A choice experiment was used to simulate the buying situation in a supermarket. The data were analysed using latent class analysis, as well as principal component factor analysis to measure food-related lifestyles. The sample consisted of 1,027 consumers and was representative of the characteristics of gender, age, educational level and income for the German population.

Findings

Consumers perceive air transportation and plastic wrapping as most climate damaging in tomato production. Six different tomato consumer groups were identified and named according to the attribute they found most important, i.e. “Balanced consumers”, “Price-conscious consumers”, “Taste enthusiasts”, “Colour-sensitive consumers”, “Price-conscious consumers with a taste preference” and “Colour- and price-sensitive consumers”. In three clusters, colour was the most important attribute. However, green and yellow tomatoes were rejected by all segments, indicating communication problems.

Originality/value

The results of this study provide breeders and marketers with valuable insights into the factors driving tomato choice. The information was based on a large sample and will help breeders to select the types of tomatoes that are in demand by consumers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Sarah Hemmerling, Maurizio Canavari and Achim Spiller

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into European organic consumers’ attitudes towards natural food and in their sensory preference for it. It explores…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into European organic consumers’ attitudes towards natural food and in their sensory preference for it. It explores whether there is any evidence for a latent dimension that represents consumers’ attitudes towards naturalness and which aspects can be assigned to this dimension. However, the main scope is to investigate whether attitudes towards naturalness are able to predict the liking of natural food.

Design/methodology/approach

Sensory tests of strawberry yoghurt are combined with consumer information obtained by means of a standardised questionnaire. About 1,800 organic consumers from France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Switzerland were asked to blindly test two strawberry yoghurt samples that differed only in their absence/presence of an aroma additive.

Findings

On average, the consumers revealed a positive attitude towards natural food, but a negative sensory preference for the more natural yoghurt sample. Correlations between these two variables indicate that for most countries one cannot conclude that more naturalness-oriented consumers actually prefer the taste of more naturally flavoured yoghurts. This finding is interpreted as an attitude-liking gap.

Research limitations/implications

More research is necessary in order to clarify the reasons for the attitude-liking gap, since the authors can only speculate about these. Also, suitable data are needed to confirm the assumption made here that the naturalness of strawberry yoghurt can be determined by the degree of flavour intensity, especially against the background that the sensory skills of consumers are usually weak.

Originality/value

No attempt has been undertaken so far to test the claim that natural food products taste better and whether consumers with a positive attitude towards naturalness actually prefer the taste of a natural product over the taste of a more processed one. The present study attempts to fill this gap by exploring the preference for naturalness in a cross-national context.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2011

Amos Gyau, Achim Spiller and Christian Wocken

The aim of this paper is to determine the relative importance of actual price and behavioural factors for the quality of the business relationship between German dairies…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to determine the relative importance of actual price and behavioural factors for the quality of the business relationship between German dairies and their milk suppliers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports the results of field study involving 209 farmers in Lower Saxony and the northern section of North Rhine‐Westphalia regions in northwest Germany. These regions are the most important milk production centres in Germany.

Findings

The results indicate that, whereas behavioural factors, specifically relationship management practices and price satisfaction, have a positive influence on the quality of the business relationship between the farmers and the dairies, the actual price levels have no influence.

Practical implications

Actual prices paid to the farmers is not the most important factor which influences the quality of their relationship with the dairies but rather behavioural norms such as milk price satisfaction and relational norms. Dairies are advised to enhance price perception through price negotiations and transparency in order to facilitate quality relationship instead of through higher price payment alone.

Originality/value

This study is the first to integrate and compare the actual prices and behavioural variables to determine their relative importance and influence on relationship quality.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Amos Gyau and Achim Spiller

The suppliers of fresh fruit and vegetable complain that their buyers in the retail segment of the market used certain undesirable and questionable business practices…

Abstract

Purpose

The suppliers of fresh fruit and vegetable complain that their buyers in the retail segment of the market used certain undesirable and questionable business practices which are not used by buyers in other segments. These undesirable practices may have negative effects on how the exporters perceive their relationship with the retailers compared with how they will perceive the non‐retail buyers. This paper aims to compare the perceived relationship quality of the retailer group of buyers with the buyers in the other categories of the fresh fruit and vegetable business between Ghana and Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the literature on inter‐firm relationships as a basis, a structured questionnaire was designed and administered to 101 exporters in Ghana. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) procedure and post hoc test were used to determine the differences in the perceived relationship quality of the exporters classified according to their main European buyer type.

Findings

The empirical results from the study support the hypotheses that exporters have a lower perception of the quality of their relationship with retailers compared with the wholesalers and the food service firms. In addition, whereas differences in exporters' experience were observed depending on the type of European importer to whom they mainly sell, the size of the exporters does not differ. The paper concludes that, in the context of the fresh produce business, the level of perceived power exploitation may differ depending on the type of business organisation or the position of the firm in the supply chain.

Originality/value

It is recommended that export firms need to examine the category to which their main buyer belongs before they make relationship‐specific investments. The results also provide a guide for policy makers and antitrust bodies in the various European countries to be able to effectively target their policies to address unfair business practices.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Beate Irene Goetzke and Achim Spiller

The desire for health and well-being is a strong driver in the food market. Scientific publications show that health is an important motive for both functional and organic…

Abstract

Purpose

The desire for health and well-being is a strong driver in the food market. Scientific publications show that health is an important motive for both functional and organic food consumption. The aim of this study is to investigate whether functional and organic food consumers have the same understanding of health, and which health and well-being improving lifestyles are characteristic for them. Based on this, the authors identify dimensions for a wellness-orientated lifestyle model.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to measure the different well-being and health lifestyles, AIO dimensions were adapted to theoretical wellness concepts. The results of the conducted factor and multiple OLS regression analyses are based on the data of an online survey of 500 German consumers.

Findings

Consumers of functional food have a similar concept of health and well-being to organic consumers, but differ in certain aspects in their way of achieving this. The purchase of organic and functional food is driven by different lifestyles. Overall, the results confirm the link between organic food and an active lifestyle, as well as functional food and a passive lifestyle.

Practical implications

The paper contributes to the discussion of health in marketing and especially in the food industry. The results reveal which kinds of lifestyle food marketing should be considered in a target group specific product communication and positioning.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of consumer behaviour, especially in the organic and functional food segment. It highlights the importance of health for both food types and also important differences in the understanding of wellness. Moreover, the results reveal first dimensions for a wellness-orientated lifestyle approach – especially for the food market.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Marie von Meyer-Höfer, Vera von der Wense and Achim Spiller

The purpose of this paper is to identify the distinguishing socio-demographic and psychographic features of convinced sustainable consumers in contrast to convinced…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the distinguishing socio-demographic and psychographic features of convinced sustainable consumers in contrast to convinced conventional consumers. Furthermore, it contributes to the sparse literature about tea consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on data collected via an online consumer survey. First respondents took part in a choice experiment with tea varying in its price (four levels) and quality (conventional/organic/fair trade/organic and fair trade). Then they had to complete a questionnaire about their attitudes towards food consumption. Respondents, who always chose sustainable tea, at no matter what price, were grouped and those that always chose the conventional tea. A bivariate logistic regression is used to analyse the influencing socio-demographic and attitudinal dimensions that characterise the two groups of convinced consumers.

Findings

Convinced sustainable consumers are more often female than male and perceive that their personal purchase decision has an impact on overall sustainable development. They show a higher willingness to increase sustainability through their consumption behaviour. They are very much interested in high food quality and are not as much influenced by advertisements and offers in their purchase decision making as convinced conventional consumers.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study is to provide practical information for actors in the field of sustainable food marketing about how to target their most relevant segment, the convinced sustainable consumer with special regard to sustainable tea consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Carlos Antonio Padilla Bravo, Adriana Soto Rubio and Achim Spiller

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the combined effect of sensory variables, information and attitudinal constructs in the prediction of consumer behaviour towards…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the combined effect of sensory variables, information and attitudinal constructs in the prediction of consumer behaviour towards homemade food.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative survey-based study was carried out in Lima, Peru, with subjects involved in making household food purchasing decisions. A sensory test was performed and respondents were asked about their degree of liking (DOL) and intention to buy (ITB) a specific homemade food product. Ordinary least squares was used to identify predictors of DOL and ITB.

Findings

Information about homemade characteristics affects neither the sensory evaluation of a homemade food product nor the dependent variables. The sensory attributes were the most important predictors of overall DOL, whereas buying intention was strongly influenced by the overall liking of the product. Attitude towards homemade food significantly predicted both dependent variables as well. While the importance given to extrinsic cues had a negative effect on overall DOL, food enjoyment positively affected ITB.

Research limitations/implications

Bias in some socio-demographic aspects and the fact that only one homemade product category was assessed in a specific location do not allow for generalisations. The use of negative-to-positive response scales might also have biased the results of this study.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first research paper that analyse the combined effect of information, socio-demographic, psychographic and sensory variables in the prediction of consumer behaviour towards homemade food.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

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