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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2018

Lacey M. Johnson, Kelly J. Elsegood and Charlotte Lennox

The purpose of this paper is to understand service users’ experience of a new acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based substance misuse programme. The programme is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand service users’ experience of a new acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based substance misuse programme. The programme is designed for people in secure mental health services, presenting with complex mental health difficulties and co-occurring substance misuse problems.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach informed an exploratory pilot of this novel intervention. Service users completing a 16-week ACT programme were invited to participate in the current study. Out of the nine individuals enroled on the programme, six opted to take part in the exploratory pilot and completed semi-structured interviews following part 1 of the programme (eight weeks). Four of these participants proceeded into part 2 of the programme (eight weeks) and completed a further semi-structured interview.

Findings

The thematic analysis identified five main themes: “Increased awareness of personal values and the impact of substance use on values”, “Taking committed action towards values”, “Coping skills and the application of skills to manage difficult thoughts and feelings”, “Personal development” and “Use of metaphors/analogies”.

Research limitations/implications

A quantitative evaluation of clinical outcomes is recommended to gauge further programme effectiveness.

Practical implications

The findings provide preliminary support for the use of an ACT-based substance misuse programme in a secure mental health setting.

Originality/value

This study evaluates the use of a novel ACT-based substance misuse intervention with people in secure mental health care with co-occurring mental health and substance misuse difficulties. This paper provides an in-depth understanding of service users’ experience of participating in this new treatment programme.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Mauro Leoni, Serafino Corti, Roberto Cavagnola, Olive Healy and Stephen J. Noone

The purpose of this paper is to present a review on evidence-based intervention concerning the reduction of stress/burnout and the improvement of wellbeing for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a review on evidence-based intervention concerning the reduction of stress/burnout and the improvement of wellbeing for professionals working with people with intellectual disabilities (IDs).

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretical models and literature related to stress reduction are reviewed from a classical cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) approach up to the novel contribution of the third generation of cognitive-behavioural therapies, with a specific focus on contextual behavioural sciences and acceptance and commitment Therapy (ACT).

Findings

Despite the improvement of CBT-based interventions in reducing risk factors for stress and burnout, the limitations of a problem-solving approach when applied to challenging environments like those of direct support to persons with ID, are still large. Interventions based on the core processes and the related techniques of ACT appear to be promising in promoting the well being of paid carers reducing the risk of burnout, and increasing psychological flexibility. Such factors can increase the ability to clarify personal and professional values, as well as the opportunities to act consistently with such values and achieve greater social reinforcement in the work environment.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the existing research are presented and discussed. There are several aspects that future research should address in order to promote staff training protocols that could be extensively applied with preventive aims. Organisations could take the available procedures and methodologies and implement these evidence-based practices within existing training.

Originality/value

The research on the application of ACT and third generation of behavioural approaches to the wellbeing and behaviour of staff supporting persons with IDs remains limited. The present paper is the first narrative review on this topic.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Mauro Leoni, Serafino Corti and Roberto Cavagnola

The purpose of this paper is mainly to present a general review of third generation cognitive-behavioural therapies (CBTs), and to debate whether these approaches are…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is mainly to present a general review of third generation cognitive-behavioural therapies (CBTs), and to debate whether these approaches are applicable to persons with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD).

Design/methodology/approach

Despite the lack of consistent literature focused on this population, the authors have considered the available general literature on the third generation of CBTs and analysed core issues of the processes within the context of intellectual disabilities and Autism spectrum disorder.

Findings

The evidence from typical developing population studies and the emerging literature specific to people with NDD is convincing, but there is a need for studies exploring how and when these therapeutic approaches can be applicable. Two behavioural approaches of third generation therapies – acceptance and commitment therapy and mindfulness-based CBT – appear to have the most potential to be adapted for robust intervention for the broad spectrum of persons with NDD.

Research limitations/implications

The number of studies and methodologies applied are a clear limitation and the present paper is only exploratory.

Originality/value

The paper supports clinicians to use the emerging protocols, and to replicate and implement procedures and techniques.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

Manfred Auer and Heike Welte

The purpose of this paper is to explore the capacities of different groups of actors, who initiate, support, and control (known as equal opportunity actors) equal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the capacities of different groups of actors, who initiate, support, and control (known as equal opportunity actors) equal opportunities and equal treatment in organizations in Austria.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the concept of social positioning and a qualitative empirical approach, the paper provides an analysis of data deriving from 32 interviews with equal opportunity actors.

Findings

The main findings show that, depending on individual commitment, knowledge and abilities, equal opportunity actors have the capacity to influence official equal opportunity policies and to prohibit individual cases of discrimination. However, there are strong restrictions concerning a limited understanding of gender, an ignorance of more subtle forms of the practising of gender and acceptance of the gendered understructure of organizations.

Research limitations/implications

The study relates to the Austrian labour relations system which is rather similar to the German system, but can hardly be transferred to other countries.

Practical implications

The analysis of capacities and restrictions of single actors within organizations may be of general interest.

Originality/value

The paper explores a nearly fully ignored aspect of equal opportunity policies which is crucial for their success or failure.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Kerry Lynn Sheldon, Simon P. Clarke and Nima Moghaddam

Data gathered from routine clinical settings is complementary to evidence garnered from controlled efficacy trials. The purpose of this paper is to present…

Abstract

Purpose

Data gathered from routine clinical settings is complementary to evidence garnered from controlled efficacy trials. The purpose of this paper is to present individual-level analysis of changes in a group of patients discharged from psychological therapy within an outpatient pain service. The service had recently shifted from a traditional cognitive-behavioural approach to one underpinned by Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

Design/methodology/approach

Reliable and clinically significant change methodology was applied to CORE-10 outcomes for 27 patients discharged during 2013-2014. Outcomes were compared to 2012-2013. A patient satisfaction questionnaire was administered and functional outcomes were collated.

Findings

Outcomes were not adversely affected by the shift in service focus as clients demonstrating reliable improvement increased from 2012-2013; 81 per cent reliably improved, 44 per cent made a clinically significant improvement. Increases in returning to work/unpaid activities at post-treatment were noted. The service met a number of NICE quality standards concerning the “relational” aspects of care.

Research limitations/implications

Clinical effectiveness is evaluated through one outcome measure thereby limiting conclusions. The longer term effectiveness of the service remains unclear. Narrow demographic information limits an assessment of any systematic biases in findings. Little is known about treatment drop-outs.

Practical implications

A number of recommendations concerning data collection and future service evaluations are made.

Social implications

Returning to paid or unpaid activities has a high public health impact.

Originality/value

This paper contributes towards the evidence base for using psychological therapies with clients experiencing chronic pain and related distress. Importantly, the paper complements evidence for general efficacy (from large-scale controlled studies) through an evaluation of real-world effectiveness (i.e. practice-based evidence).

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2014

John Duffy and Daniela Puzzello

We study a microfounded search model of exchange in the laboratory. Using a within-subjects design, we consider exchange behavior with and without an intrinsically…

Abstract

We study a microfounded search model of exchange in the laboratory. Using a within-subjects design, we consider exchange behavior with and without an intrinsically worthless token object. While these tokens have no redemption value, like fiat money they may foster greater exchange and welfare via the coordinating role of having prices of goods in terms of tokens. We find that welfare is indeed improved by the presence of tokens provided that the economy starts out with a supply of such tokens. In economies that operate for some time without tokens, the later surprise introduction of tokens does not serve to improve welfare. We also explore the impact of announced changes in the economy-wide stock of tokens (fiat money) on prices. Consistent with the quantity theory of money, we find that increases in the stock of money (tokens) have no real effects and mainly result in proportionate changes to prices. However, the same finding does not hold for decreases in the stock of money.

Details

Experiments in Macroeconomics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-195-4

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2018

Andy Reeve, Anna Tickle and Nima Moghaddam

Work-related stress amongst staff working in direct care roles in mental health and intellectual disability settings is associated with a range of problematic outcomes…

Abstract

Purpose

Work-related stress amongst staff working in direct care roles in mental health and intellectual disability settings is associated with a range of problematic outcomes. There has been a proliferation of research into the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based interventions in this staff population. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant literature.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic search of the literature was conducted, and seven studies identified which met the criteria for inclusion in the review, of which four were eligible for meta-analysis.

Findings

Results of the meta-analysis were most convincing for the effectiveness of ACT-interventions to reduce psychological distress within a subgroup of those with higher distress at baseline. There was no statistically significant effect for the amelioration of burnout, nor for an increase in psychological flexibility (a key ACT construct).

Research limitations/implications

Conceptual issues are considered including the purpose and treatment targets of ACT interventions, such as supporting valued living rather than diminishing stress per se. Methodological issues are discussed around the measurement of psychological flexibility.

Originality/value

This review makes recommendations for future research and for the implementation of ACT-interventions for work-related stress in these settings.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Leam Craig, Kevin Browne, Ian Stringer and Anthony Beech

The assessment of risk of recidivism in sexual offenders is fundamental to clinical practice. It is widely accepted that, compared with actuarial measures of risk, unaided…

Abstract

The assessment of risk of recidivism in sexual offenders is fundamental to clinical practice. It is widely accepted that, compared with actuarial measures of risk, unaided clinical judgment has generally been found to be of low reliability. Consequently, the literature has shown a surge in actuarial measures. However, a major difficulty in assessing risk in sex offenders is the low base rate, leading to an increased likelihood of making a false positive predictive error. To overcome this, risk assessment studies are increasingly using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), which displays the relationship between level of risk and decision choice. This note summarises the methodological issues in measuring predictive accuracy in assessing risk of re‐offending in sexual offenders, and identifies from the literature both static and dynamic risk factors associated with sexual offence recidivism.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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