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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Jeffrey A. Miles and Stefanie E. Naumann

The study's purpose is to present and empirically test a model that identifies academic self-concept as a mediator of the relationship between gender, sexual orientation…

Abstract

Purpose

The study's purpose is to present and empirically test a model that identifies academic self-concept as a mediator of the relationship between gender, sexual orientation and self-perceptions of leadership ability.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys were administered to 964 first-year undergraduate students.

Findings

Academic self-concept mediated the relationship between gender and leadership for all subjects and for self-reported heterosexual subjects but not for self-reported nonheterosexual subjects.

Research limitations/implications

Gender differences in leadership perceptions still exist and appear as early as the college years. The fact that academic self-concept did not mediate the relationship between gender and self-perceptions of leadership for nonheterosexual students might be explained by considering research that has identified different levels of gender conformity between straight and gay individuals.

Practical implications

Student self-perceptions of leadership could be improved if opportunities were provided for students showing that people other than White, male, heterosexuals can also be effective leaders. When women and underrepresented groups attain leadership positions in the workplace, it attracts others because it sends a message that this organization welcomes women and underrepresented groups in positions of leadership.

Originality/value

This study addresses a gap in the field by using the social identity theory of leadership to integrate conflicting research streams in the existing literature and by proposing that academic self-concept underlies the relationship between gender, sexual orientation and self-perceptions of leadership. The study responds to Bark et al.'s (2016) call for future research to consider how highly prototypical individuals have a key advantage in people's perceptions of their leadership.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2011

Lamont A. Flowers, James L. Moore, Lawrence O. Flowers and Morris J. Clarke

Academic self-concept refers to an individual's view of themselves in relation to school and their academic performance. For several years, researchers have examined the…

Abstract

Academic self-concept refers to an individual's view of themselves in relation to school and their academic performance. For several years, researchers have examined the structure and components of academic self-concept (K. Cokley, 2002a; Guay, Larose, & Boivin, 2004; Marsh, Byrne, & Shavelson, 1988; McCoach, 2002). A considerable segment of this research has shown that academic self-concept is related to students' educational outcomes (Byrne, 1984; House, 2000). For example, House (2000) reported correlation coefficients demonstrating the relationship between academic self-concept and college students' participation in academic activities. Also, Komarraju, Musulkin, and Bhattacharya (2010) examined the influence of student–faculty experiences on students' academic self-concepts and found a positive relationship indicating that meaningful interactions with faculty may encourage the development of academic self-concept.

Details

Beyond Stock Stories and Folktales: African Americans' Paths to STEM Fields
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-168-8

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Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2013

Dennis M. McInerney and Ronnel B. King

The aims of this study were (1) to examine the relationships among achievement goals, self-concept, learning strategies and self-regulation for post-secondary Indigenous…

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this study were (1) to examine the relationships among achievement goals, self-concept, learning strategies and self-regulation for post-secondary Indigenous Australian and Native American students and (2) to investigate whether the relationships among these key variables were similar or different for the two groups.

Methodology

Students from the two Indigenous groups answered questionnaires assessing the relevant variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. Structure-oriented analysis was used to compare the two groups in terms of the strengths of the pathways, while level-oriented analysis was used to compare mean level differences.

Findings

Self-concept was found to positively predict deep learning and self-regulated learning, and these effects were mediated by achievement goals. Students who pursued mastery and social goals had more positive educational outcomes. Both structure and level-oriented differences were found.

Research implications

Drawing on two distinct research traditions – self-concept and achievement goals – this study explored the synergies between these two perspectives and showed how the key constructs drawn from each framework were associated with successful learning.

Practical implications

To improve learning outcomes, interventions may need to target students’ self-concept, mastery-oriented and socially oriented motivations.

Social implications

Supporting Indigenous students in their post-secondary education is an imperative. Psychologists have important insights to offer that can help achieve this noble aim.

Originality/value of the chapter

Research on Indigenous students has mostly adopted a deficiency model. In contrast, this study takes an explicitly positive perspective on Indigenous student success by focusing on the active psychological ingredients that facilitate successful learning.

Details

Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-686-6

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

John Garger, Michael Thomas and Paul H. Jacques

The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses.

Design/methodology/approach

A non‐experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the constructs researched.

Findings

Students' internal locus of control predicted student perceptions of social integration, academic self concept and grade point average (GPA) and social integration significantly predicted academic self concept. Moreover, academic self concept significantly predicted early perceptions of expected grade beyond the student's current level of performance as measured by his/her current GPA.

Research limitations/implications

Subjects were from one academic program in one university. Also, expected performance was measured with one item, which focused on expected grade, only one aspect of performance. Other aspects of performance and outcomes such as perceived learning or satisfaction with the course could shed more light on the relationships among the constructs under study

Practical implications

Students with an internal locus of control orientation can better leverage self‐confidence to social and academic ends in the classroom and more readily exhibit the sustained goal‐related behaviors requisite for success during transitions to college and subsequent professional placements. Also, students who are encouraged to take personal responsibility for relationships with peers and adjust behaviors are likely to maintain and enhance the quality of these relationships.

Originality/value

The paper's results suggest that instructors who foster/reinforce students' concept of connections between choices and outcomes may be rewarded with enhanced student motivation to perform well in the course.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2013

Alexander Seeshing Yeung, Rhonda G. Craven, Ian Wilson, Jinnat Ali and Bingyi Li

Rural Australian patients continue to receive inadequate medical attention. One potential solution to this is to train Indigenous Australians to become medical doctors and…

Abstract

Purpose

Rural Australian patients continue to receive inadequate medical attention. One potential solution to this is to train Indigenous Australians to become medical doctors and return to their community to serve their people. The study aims to examine whether Indigenous medical students have a stronger intention to practice in underserved communities.

Methodology

A sample of Indigenous (N = 17) and non-Indigenous students (N = 188) from a medical program in Sydney was surveyed about their medical self-concept and motivation. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted, group differences were tested, and correlation patterns were examined.

Findings

CFA found seven distinct factors – three medical self-concepts (affective, cognitive, and cultural competence), one motivation factor, and three work-related variables – intention to serve underserved communities (intention), understanding of Indigenous health (understanding), and work-related anxiety (anxiety). Indigenous medical students were higher in cultural competence, intention, and understanding. Both the affective and cognitive components of medical self-concept were more highly correlated with intention and understanding for Indigenous students than for non-Indigenous students.

Research implications

It is important to examine medical students’ self-concepts as well as their cultural characteristics and strengths that seed success in promoting service to underserved Indigenous communities.

Practical implications

The findings show that Indigenous medical students tended to understand Indigenous health issues better and to be more willing to serve underserved Indigenous communities. By enhancing both the affective and cognitive components of medical self-concepts, the “home-grown” medical education program is more likely to produce medical doctors to serve underserved communities with a good understanding of Indigenous health.

Details

Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-686-6

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Claudia C. Sutter-Brandenberger, Gerda Hagenauer and Tina Hascher

Empirical findings have repeatedly demonstrated that students’ motivation decreases over the course of secondary education. This decline in learning motivation is one of…

Abstract

Empirical findings have repeatedly demonstrated that students’ motivation decreases over the course of secondary education. This decline in learning motivation is one of the top challenges nowadays and is relevant for policy, as well as research and practice. Taking this educational challenge into account, the chapter targets the following questions: (1) Is a multicomponent, two-year intervention (combined student/teacher versus student-only intervention group) effective regarding the self-determined motivation and academic self-concept in mathematics of at-risk students? (2) How effective is the intervention for students with and without a migration background? And more generally: (3) Does the motivation (including students’ academic self-concept as a motivational self-belief) differ between students with and without a migration background at three different time points (beginning of Grade 7, end of Grades 7 and 8)? The results indicate that the intrinsic motivation of the combined intervention group could be fostered in the first intervention year. No significant treatment effect could be detected for the student-only group. In line with prior research, students with a migration background demonstrated higher levels of autonomous and controlled forms of motivation. However, students with and without a migration background did not develop differently across the two years. Implications for intervention research addressing adolescents’ self-determined motivation are discussed.

Details

Motivation in Education at a Time of Global Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-613-4

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Janka Goldan, Lisa Hoffmann and Susanne Schwab

According to the literature, a lack of resources is seen as a major barrier of implementing inclusive education. Previous studies, which have mostly been limited to the…

Abstract

According to the literature, a lack of resources is seen as a major barrier of implementing inclusive education. Previous studies, which have mostly been limited to the perspective of teachers, show that the perception of resources has a considerable influence on teachers' self-efficacy and in particular on their attitude towards inclusive education. The 'Perception of Resources Questionnaire' (PRQ) by Goldan and Schwab (2018) is the first instrument to assess the perspective of students. The PRQ was applied in the present study comprising N = 701 students from lower-secondary level in Germany. It is aimed to explore whether the perception of resources has an effect on relevant dimensions on the side of the students. Results of multilevel regression analyses show that students' perception of resources is a significant predictor of their well-being in school, academic self-concept and social inclusion. Finally, the results are discussed with regard to practical implications.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Roger Bennett

A total of 284 first‐year undergraduate business studies students in a post‐1992 university in Greater London completed a questionnaire regarding their motives for…

Abstract

A total of 284 first‐year undergraduate business studies students in a post‐1992 university in Greater London completed a questionnaire regarding their motives for deciding to participate in higher education. The questionnaire also queried whether the decision to enrol had been “marginal”, or was something about which they had never had any doubts or reservations. An amended version of the questionnaire was filled in by 139 second‐year BTEC and GNVQ students in two further education colleges in the catchment area of the university hosting the main investigation. This modified questionnaire asked the respondents whether they did or did not intend going to university, and examined their motives for wanting or not wanting to become undergraduates. It emerged that “goal orientation”, “learning orientation”, financial pressures and parental encouragement to enter university represented major motivational factors among both groups of students. Certain personality traits that previous research has found to influence HE enrolment decisions did not appear to explain the behaviour of the undergraduates; although academic self‐concept and self‐esteem did affect the decisions of the FE college students in the anticipated manner. In the case of the university students, self‐esteem and academic self‐concept significantly moderated the impact of a “financial pressure” variable on the decision to go to university. Other findings were generally in accord with the conclusions of prior empirical literature in the field.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Maureen T B Drysdale, Margaret L McBeath, Kristina Johansson, Sheri Dressler and Elena Zaitseva

The purpose of this paper is to explore – on an international level – the relationship between work-integrated learning (WIL) and several psychological attributes (i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore – on an international level – the relationship between work-integrated learning (WIL) and several psychological attributes (i.e. hope, procrastination, self-concept, self-efficacy, motivation, and study skills) believed to be important for a successful transition to the labor market.

Design/methodology/approach

A between-subjects design was used with participants in one of two groups: WIL and non-WIL. The design provided data on the effects of the independent variable (WIL) on a number of dependent variables (attributes) across four countries. Data were collected via an online survey and analyzed using a series of ANOVAs and MANOVAs.

Findings

WIL and non-WIL students in the four countries shared several attributes – however – significant differences also emerged. WIL compared to non-WIL students compared reported stronger math and problem solving self-concepts, yet weaker effort regulation and perceived critical thinking skills. WIL students were more extrinsically motivated than their non-WIL peers in three of the four countries. Female students in WIL reported being the most anxious compared to other students.

Research limitations/implications

Self-reports to measure psychological attributes and the small sample sizes at some of the institutions are limitations.

Originality/value

The positive relationship between participation in WIL and several aspects of positive self-concept are provided. In addition, data are provided indicating that overall there are more similarities than differences between WIL and non-WIL students on a number of psychological outcomes. Data also suggests that females who participate in WIL may be at risk for anxiety problems.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2010

Jack Martin

Almost all historical accounts of psychological work related to the self-concept begin with the pioneering work of William James (e.g., Harter, 1996; Pajares & Schunk…

Abstract

Almost all historical accounts of psychological work related to the self-concept begin with the pioneering work of William James (e.g., Harter, 1996; Pajares & Schunk, 2002, 2005; Roeser et al., 2006). James' distinction between the self as knower and agent (the I-self) and the self as known and object (the Me-self), in the famous Chap. 10, on self-consciousness, in his Principles of Psychology (1890), undoubtedly informs much subsequent work on the self-concept (a term that James never used himself). In particular, the general idea that the self is made up of different constituents (e.g., the Me-self contains material, social, and spiritual selves) arranged hierarchically is still very much a basic structural assumption in many contemporary theories of the self-concept, just as James' assumption that the I-self can create and monitor a variety of Me-selves anchors much self-concept methodology and process theorizing. With respect to the general aims of self-concept research, James' framing of self-esteem (a term he did use) also has been extremely influential on subsequent generations of both self-esteem and self-concept researchers. For James, self-esteem is a feeling that “depends entirely on what we back ourselves to be and do” (James, 1981, p. 310), a feeling that depends on the success with which we achieve those things we set out to achieve.2

Details

The Decade Ahead: Theoretical Perspectives on Motivation and Achievement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-111-5

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