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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2018

Syed Shafqat Mukarram, Tahira Ajmal and Abubakr Saeed

This study aims to investigate the impact of the presence of women directors on firm’s risk-taking behavior in industries where innovation is pivotal and how this impact…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of the presence of women directors on firm’s risk-taking behavior in industries where innovation is pivotal and how this impact varies across ownership structure.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 71 listed technology firms on the National Stock Exchange of India for the period of 2008 to 2013 was used. Generalized method of moment estimation technique was used for data analysis.

Findings

Results reveal a positive impact of the presence of women directors on technology firms’ risk-taking behavior measured in terms of R&D spending, which is in contrast to the traditional notion that women are risk-averse. Further, results also reveal that family ownership negatively affects the impact of the presence of women directors on risk taking in technology firms.

Practical implications

The findings of the study suggest that females are risk takers in the context of R&D-intensive technology firms, thus providing new insight for policymakers to formulate more effective board gender diversity policies.

Originality/value

Based on the integration of agency and behavioral theories, it is suggested that female executives may be risk-averse or risk-takers depending on contextual factors such as innovation and ownership, which drive the impact of the presence of women directors on firms’ risk-taking behavior.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2019

Muhammad Saqib Chaudhry, Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Abubakr Saeed, Aymen Sajjad and Felipe Mendes Borini

The purpose of this paper is to examine the management styles adopted by project managers in the software industry in Oman.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the management styles adopted by project managers in the software industry in Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 208 project management professionals is drawn from the Omani software industry. Data analysis is based on factor analysis and analysis of variance techniques.

Findings

The results suggest that project managers in the Omani software industry mainly adopt three management styles: people oriented, task oriented and organization oriented. Furthermore, the management styles of project managers are affected by their experience and age, and the organizational structure.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by examining management styles adopted by managers in a temporary organization environment from an under-researched context, Oman.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Abubakr Saeed, Amna Yousaf and Jaithen Alharbi

In times of vivid debates on the inclusion of women on boards, the purpose of this paper is to shed a new light on the composition of boardrooms in emerging market firms…

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Abstract

Purpose

In times of vivid debates on the inclusion of women on boards, the purpose of this paper is to shed a new light on the composition of boardrooms in emerging market firms by investigating how family and state ownership affect board-gender diversity in the emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses Tobit regression to examine the effect of firm ownership on board-gender diversity. A panel data set of Chinese and Indian firms for the period 2004-2013 is used to conduct this study.

Findings

The results show a negative and significant impact of family and state ownership on the proportion of women directors. However, this relationship is seen to be reverse if the firm is operating in international markets. Notably, a negative relationship was seen to persist between ownership structure and board-gender diversity for both female executive and independent board members, whereas a positive impact of internationalization was observed only for independent female directors.

Originality/value

This research addresses the board-gender diversity issue in emerging economies by focusing on firm characteristics which are unique to their business context. Further, this study identifies the conditions under which emerging market firms assimilate or proscribe women on their boards by recognizing the salient features of firms from emerging markets. Hence, in doing so, new evidence is added to the studies on the determinants of board-gender diversity. Lastly, it advances the earlier literature based on resource dependency and agency views and demonstrates the importance of internationalization for the inclusion of women on corporate boards.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Khurram Iftikhar Bhatti, Muhammad Iftikhar Ul Husnain, Abubakr Saeed, Iram Naz and Syed Danial Hashmi

This study examines the role of the observable and unobservable characteristics of top management on earning management and firm risk in China.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the role of the observable and unobservable characteristics of top management on earning management and firm risk in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used manager-firm matched panel for 104 non-financial firms listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange between 2010 and 2018. The authors also trace the persistence of managerial financial styles and their active role across two different firms between which managers switched during the sample period.

Findings

The results show that managers' financial styles indeed influence earning management and firm risk and that this influence differs across different managers. These findings are robust when tested for the persistence and active role of managers. Furthermore, individual characteristics such as age, gender, qualification and experience influence managers' financial styles.

Practical implications

Given their findings, the authors propose that financial analysts and potential investors should not only depend on quantitative data but also consider the individual characteristics of managers when evaluating firms.

Social implications

The findings of this study carry serious implications for managers, policymakers and potential investors. The findings assist the external auditors in measuring the risk of material misstatement, the various regulatory bodies to assess the quality of financial reporting and the users of financial statements to evaluate the earnings and make further investment decisions considering not only the quantitative data but also the individual characteristics of top managers.

Originality/value

The current study examines the observable and unobservable characteristics of top management on firm risk and earnings management in Chinese context.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Farah Zamir, Greg Shailer and Abubakr Saeed

Corporate investment efficiency ultimately influences economic development but is largely at the discretion of managers. Information asymmetries are problematic in…

Abstract

Purpose

Corporate investment efficiency ultimately influences economic development but is largely at the discretion of managers. Information asymmetries are problematic in emerging markets, but it is widely believed that corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures can reduce information asymmetries. This paper examines whether CSR disclosures influence corporate capital investment efficiency in emerging Asian markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Investment inefficiency is measured as the residuals from an investment model that is constructed by combining variables from prior studies to obtain a more detailed specification. A CSR disclosure index (CSRDI) is constructed from manually collected CSR disclosures for the largest corporations in each of the nine Asian emerging markets, as categorised by the MSCI Emerging Market Index, during 2015–2017. Underinvestments and overinvestments are regressed against the CSRDI, using a two-stage model to address the potential self-selection of CSR report issuers.

Findings

The results indicate that CSR disclosures reduce underinvestment for large firms but do not constrain overinvestment. These results are consistent with the propositions that, by increasing transparency or reducing information asymmetry, CSR disclosures can improve firm access to external finance needed to invest in profitable projects but cannot constrain entrenched managers who are not reliant on external finance.

Originality/value

This study extends the literature by analysing the impact of CSR disclosures on both underinvestments and overinvestments and by examining the CSR-investment efficiency across the nine emerging Asian markets. This enhances generalisability compared to single market studies. More generally, this study enhances the understanding of the role of non-financial disclosures in the Asian emerging markets, where corporate investment efficiency is important for economic development but where severe information asymmetry and agency conflicts between insiders and external investors are prevalent. Both the investment community and policymakers should benefit from enhanced understanding of factors that influence investment efficiency in those markets.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Jaithen Alharbi, Hamid Gelaidan, Abdullah Al-Swidi and Abubakr Saeed

This study aims to investigated the control mechanisms of headquarters exercised over their subsidiaries and is conducted with the help of primary data.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigated the control mechanisms of headquarters exercised over their subsidiaries and is conducted with the help of primary data.

Design/methodology/approach

The headquarters–subsidiary model used in this study has four components of control in it: personal centralised control (PCC), bureaucratic formalised control (BFC), output control (OUT) and informal control (INFO). These controls (as an agency mechanism) provide a solid platform on which other mechanisms can be built. Using a data collected from 147 multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the influence of each of these factors on this selection is empirically tested with the help of primary data.

Findings

The study found that Anglo-Saxon countries heavily use impersonal types of control mechanisms, specifically bureaucratic formalised control and output control. Compared to the USA, the level of control in Oriental subsidiaries is less; or, put differently, the latter enjoy a greater degree of autonomy than US subsidiaries. The complementarities of these control mechanisms may be linked to earlier studies that show that successful organisations combine tight control with more open, informal and flexible information and communication exchanges. A focus that bends too much towards formal control or too much towards informal control may threaten a company’s existence. This research provides an empirical explanation on this premise.

Research limitations/implications

The methodology adopted for this study can be extended for similar studies in the Middle East or in Gulf Council Cooperation countries.

Practical implications

The study show that MNEs from different countries often have different dominant control mechanisms and organisational models. This is partly due to different industry distributions, but it is also related to cultural/societal differences between countries. These differences should be considered when searching for a partner in cross-national mergers and acquisitions. Failure to do so could hinder the successful operation of a merger that seems to be perfect from a financial and competitive point of view.

Originality/value

The study explored variations in the extent of control mechanisms, according to country of origin and organisational characteristics, in a challenging country of domicile. This empirical work not only replicates earlier studies, retesting propositions encountered in the existing literature, but also sheds new light on the challenges of doing business in the Gulf region, and the consequences of the large scale usage of expatriates.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Cristina Doritta Rodrigues, Felipe Mendes Borini, Omer Farooq Malik and Abubakr Saeed

Multinational enterprises (MNEs) encourage their subsidiaries to develop and transfer their unique knowledge and expertise back to the MNE as it is critical for the…

Abstract

Purpose

Multinational enterprises (MNEs) encourage their subsidiaries to develop and transfer their unique knowledge and expertise back to the MNE as it is critical for the development of the MNE as a whole. However, what underlies the subsidiary ability to create such specialized knowledge that can be transferred to the MNE is less clear. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of MNE entrepreneurial strategy, subsidiary initiatives and expatriation on reverse knowledge transfers in a cross-country comparative context.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are gathered through surveys from 429 foreign subsidiaries operating in New Zealand and 164 subsidiaries in Brazil, and these are analyzed using variance-based structural equation modeling.

Findings

Subsidiary initiatives partially mediate the relationship between MNE entrepreneurial strategy and reverse knowledge transfers in case of subsidiaries operating in Brazil, but they fully mediate in case of New Zealand. Furthermore, expatriation, in case of the latter, has a negative interaction in the relationship between subsidiary initiative and reverse knowledge transfers, but, in case of the former, it has no moderating role. Overall, the results suggest that the influence of MNE entrepreneurial strategy and expatriation on reverse knowledge transfers can be explained by contingencies such as the subsidiary host economy and the heterogenous HQ–subsidiary relationships.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to literature by identifying some contingencies with regard to the occurrence of reverse knowledge transfers. It addresses some research calls with regard to examining reverse knowledge transfers and the role of expatriation across different empirical contexts.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Saeed Abubakr and Franco Esposito

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of bank concentration on firm financial constraints to perform investment across two types of financial constraints firms.

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1258

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of bank concentration on firm financial constraints to perform investment across two types of financial constraints firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyse this relationship by estimating the investment‐cash flow sensitivity across groups of firms classified according to debt maturity structure model. The firms were classified as short‐term and long‐term debt dependent firms. Empirically the authors analyze a sample that consists of the most recent dataset (over 2001‐2009) of UK firms that engage in foreign direct investment by using fixed‐effects and GMM‐IV estimation techniques.

Findings

Bank concentration was found to relax financial constraints on firm level investment. Results indicate that higher level financial constraints are associated with short‐term debt dependent firms that exhibit high level of investment‐cash flow sensitivity. Further, it was found that bank concentration is associated with reduction in financial constraints on firm investment and this effect is stronger for short‐term debt dependent firms.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, the paper investigates the bank concentration effects on UK foreign direct investing firms that are uniquely classified; based on distinctive dimension of financial frictions in capital market. Estimated results ascertain that information‐based hypothesis is pertinent to the UK capital market.

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Abubakr Saeed and Muhammad Sameer

– This paper aims to empirically investigate the impact of bank market concentration of financial constraints on firm investment.

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1503

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to empirically investigate the impact of bank market concentration of financial constraints on firm investment.

Design/methodology/approach

This analysis is based on cross-industries panel of 368 listed Pakistani non-financial firms over the period of 2001-2009. Further, the Generalized Method of Moments estimation technique has been used to estimate the dynamic panel data model.

Findings

By applying a dynamic panel analysis, it was found that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are financially constrained in the credit market. The main finding indicates that reduction in bank concentration eases financing constraints, and this effect is more pronounced for SMEs. In addition, while testing the firm opacity in this context, results reveal that opaque firms are more financially constrained, and bank market competition is less favourable to the firms with greater opacity.

Originality/value

The results, first, assess the efficacy of ongoing financial reforms in Pakistan and, second, offer implications for other economies that exhibit financial development similar to that of Pakistan.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Razia Sultana, Amna Yousaf, Iram Khan and Abubakr Saeed

The purpose of this paper is to find out the moderating role of emotional intelligence (EI) in the relationship between career commitment and career success of the bank…

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2059

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find out the moderating role of emotional intelligence (EI) in the relationship between career commitment and career success of the bank employees working in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used ex post facto method where 200 middle-level managerial bank employees were surveyed by means of a close-ended questionnaire. Moderated multiple regression was run to test the hypotheses.

Findings

As expected, the research findings confirmed the expectation of significant relationship between career commitment and objective/subjective career success. Further, the research findings bolstered one of the research postulates that EI will moderate career commitment-objective career success relationship. However the argument of EI’s moderation between career commitment-subjective career success relationship was not supported by the findings.

Originality/value

This paper adds value to the existing body of knowledge by augmenting the need of understanding the distinctiveness of objective and subjective career success. The study unveils the importance of devising separate mechanisms to cater both the objective and subjective career success needs of the employees and enhances the scope of career literature in South Asian settings.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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