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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Habib Zaman Khan, Sudipta Bose, Abu Taher Mollik and Harun Harun

This study explores the quality of sustainability reporting (QSR) and the impact of regulatory guidelines, social performance and a standardised reporting framework (using…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the quality of sustainability reporting (QSR) and the impact of regulatory guidelines, social performance and a standardised reporting framework (using the Global Reporting Initiative [GRI] guidelines) on QSR in the context of banks in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 315 banking firm-year observations over 13 years (2002–2014), a content analysis technique is used to develop the 11-item QSR index. Regression analysis is used to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

Initially, QSR evolved symbolically in Bangladesh's banks but, over our investigation period, with QSR indicators gradually improving, the trends became substantive. The influences on QSR were sustainable banking practice regulatory guidelines, social performance and use of the GRI guidelines. However, until banks improve reporting information, such as external verification and trends over time, QSR cannot be regarded as fully substantive.

Research limitations/implications

This study advances QSR research and debate among academic researchers. With regulatory agencies and stakeholders increasingly using sustainability reporting information for decision making, the information's quality is vital.

Originality/value

This study is the first on QSR in the banking industry context, with previous research mostly investigating the quantity of sustainability reporting. The current study also synthesises QSR with sustainability regulation and social performance factors which have rarely been used in the sustainability literature. To gain a holistic understanding of QSR, existing QSR measures are advanced by combining external reporting efforts with banks' internalisation initiatives.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2018

Mehdi Hussain, Abu Taher Mollik, Rechel Johns and Muhammad Sabbir Rahman

The purpose of this paper is to examine m-payment adoption for the bottom of pyramid (BoP) segment in a developing country context.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine m-payment adoption for the bottom of pyramid (BoP) segment in a developing country context.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was distributed to 247 BoP customers in Bangladesh. Data were analysed by employing confirmatory factor analysis and Structural Equations Modelling.

Findings

The results show that performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), facilitating conditions (FC), habit and social influence (SI) significantly influence the BoP segment’s behavioural intention (BI). It is revealed that PE, lifestyle compatibility (LC), SI and habit have relatively stronger effects being higher predictor of intentions. Again EE and FC have relatively lower effects on m-payment BI. On the other hand, hedonic motivation (HM) and price value (PV) are two non-significant predictors of m-payment adoption.

Practical implications

The study recommends that financial institutions, such as banks and other non-banking service firms, need to know the antecedents affecting BI suggested by the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) theory along with “LC”. This will increase m-payment adoption for the BoP segment in developing countries.

Originality/value

To the extent of researcher’s knowledge, none of the previous studies using the UTAUT2 theory to examine m-payment adoption for BoP segment. This study contributes empirical data to the predominantly theoretical literature by offering a deeper understanding of the inclusion of LC, which is one of the significant antecedents in explaining BoP segment’s m-payment adoption.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2020

Harun Harun, David Carter, Abu Taher Mollik and Yi An

This paper aims to critically explore the forces and critical features relating to the adoption of a new reporting and budgeting system (RBS) in Indonesian local governments.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to critically explore the forces and critical features relating to the adoption of a new reporting and budgeting system (RBS) in Indonesian local governments.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on an intensive analysis of document sources and interview scripts around the institutionalization of RBS by the Indonesian government and uses the adaption of Dillard et al. (2004) institutional model in informing its findings.

Findings

The authors find that at the national level, the key drivers in RBS adoption were a combination of exogenous economic and coercive pressures and the wish to mimic accounting reforms in developed nations. At the local government level, the internalization of RBS is a response to a legal obligation imposed by the central government. Despite the RBS adoption has strengthened the transparency of local authorities reports – it limits the roles of other members of citizens in determining how local government budgets are allocated.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study should be understood in the historical and institutional contexts of organizations observed.

Practical implications

The authors reinforce the notion that accounting as a business language dominates narratives and conversations surrounding the nature of government reporting and budgeting systems and how resource allocation is formulated and practiced. This should remind policymakers in other developing nations that any implementation of a new accounting technology should consider institutional capacities of public sector organizations and how the new technology benefits the public.

Social implications

The authors argue that the dominant role of international financial authorities in the policymaking and implementation of RBS challenges the aim of autonomy policies, which grant greater roles for local authorities and citizens in determining the nature of the budgets and operation of local authorities.

Originality/value

This study extends institutional theory by adapting the Dillard et al. (2004) model in explaining the forces, actors and critical features of a new accounting system adoption by local governments.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Md Khokan Bepari and Abu Taher Mollik

This study aims to examine the impact of the recent regime change in accounting for goodwill, from the systematic periodic amortisation to the impairment testing, on the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of the recent regime change in accounting for goodwill, from the systematic periodic amortisation to the impairment testing, on the frequency and the extent of goodwill write-offs in the context of Australia. It also examines the impact of the change from the amortisation approach to the impairment approach on the value relevance of older goodwill.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors approach the first research question by comparing the actual amount of goodwill impairment charge by the sample firms with the minimum “as if” amortisation charge that would have been required under the amortisation regime. The authors approach the second question using a modified Ohlson model (1995), similar to Bugeja and Gallery (2006). The sample consists of 911 firm-year observations with the number of observations in the particular year being 238, 242, 220 and 211 in 2009, 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively.

Findings

The findings suggest that the adoption of the impairment approach has decreased the frequency and the amount of goodwill write-off. The goodwill impairment amount is substantially less than the “as if” amortisation amount that would have been required under the amortisation regime. The results also suggest that older goodwill is now value-relevant, whereas goodwill purchased during the current year is not value-relevant. One reason for this may be that AASB 3: Business Combination allows for the provisional allocation of the purchase price to goodwill to be allocated to other identifiable intangible assets latter on. Hence, during the year of business combination, investors do not form a firm view of the amount of goodwill arising out of the business combination.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses data for the first four years since the inception of the impairment approach.

Practical implications

The findings of this study have important implications for the fair value accounting debate. The discretions allowed the managers under the impairment approach to improve the information content of goodwill. The relatively low levels of goodwill impairment even during the 2008-2009 global financial crisis contradict to the apprehensions found in the literature that managers will use the goodwill write-off as a tool for downward earnings management. The findings also imply that if managers are allowed with adequate flexibility through accounting standards rather than stipulating some systematic and mechanistic rules, the information value of the accounting measurement may improve.

Social implications

The findings feed into the debate of “rule-based” versus “principle-based” accounting standards and favours the “principle-based” accounting standards. The findings also contribute to the accounting measurement literature by concluding that if allowed with discretionary choices, managers may not always opt for the conservative accounting measurements (such as, recording goodwill write-offs).

Originality/value

Adopting an alternative approach, this study shows that the fair value accounting for goodwill has resulted in an optimistic approach to goodwill write-offs. It has also improved the information content of reported goodwill. This is the first known study addressing the research questions in consideration after the adoption of the goodwill impairment approach.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Md Khokan Bepari and Abu Taher Mollik

This paper aims to critically analyse the content of the assurance statements of corporate sustainability reports to examine the degree to which assurance statements…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to critically analyse the content of the assurance statements of corporate sustainability reports to examine the degree to which assurance statements enhance and uphold organisational transparency and accountability to stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

This framework of content analysis draws on a research instrument developed by O’Dwyer and Owen (2005), as well as the most recent assurance guidelines (Global Reporting Initiative) and standards AA1000AS, 2008 and ISAE 3000.

Findings

Due to the lack of stakeholders’ engagement in the assurance process, due to the scope limitation placed on the assurance engagement and due to the reluctance of the assuror to address the assurance statements to the stakeholders groups, sustainability assurance practice cannot be considered as the accountability enabler. With persistent focus on internal systems, process, data generation and data capture, assurance practice is serving more as an internal control tool than as a social accounting/auditing instrument.

Research limitations/implications

A single country context is studied. However, to the extent that assurances are conducted using common sets of assurance standards and guidelines, there is external validity of the findings.

Practical implications

Despite the institutional initiatives by the global and local institutions regarding social and environmental sustainability reporting and assurance, the assurance practice has not yet emerged as a tool of social accountability.

Originality/value

This study provides a comprehensive and up-to-date empirical assessment of the degree to which the sustainability assurance practice encompasses the issue of stakeholders’ interests and forms the potential basis for policy implications to the assurance practice and to the assurance standard setting process.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 31 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2010

Abu Taher Mollik and M. Khokan Bepari

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and extent of instability of capital asset pricing model (CAPM) beta in a small emerging capital market.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and extent of instability of capital asset pricing model (CAPM) beta in a small emerging capital market.

Design/methodology/approach

Inter‐period as well as intra beta instability are examined. Inter‐period instability is examined by Mann‐Whitney z‐scores and Blume's regressions. Intra‐period beta instability is examined using Bruesch‐Pagan LM test and Chow break point test. Robustness tests are performed applying time‐varying parameter models.

Findings

Beta instability increases with increase in holding (sample) periods. There is evidence of inter‐period as well as intra‐period beta instability. Analysis of the full eight‐year interval reveals a very high incidence of beta instability, namely, about 26 per cent of the individual stocks tested and about 31 per cent of individual stocks have structural break. The extent of beta instability does not significantly decline when corrected for non‐synchronous trading and thin trading as represented by Dimson beta. However, the extent of beta instability is similar to that of developed market. Time‐varying parameter model under Kalman filter approach using AR(1) specification performs better than any other models in terms of in‐sample forecast errors. Dominance of AR(1) approach suggests that stock betas in DSE are time varying, and shocks to the conditional beta have some degree of persistence which ultimately reverts to a mean. This result is in contrast to the findings of Faff et al. revealing the dominance of Random Walk specification in Australian market, suggesting that shocks to stock beta in Australian market persist indefinitely into the future. These contrasting findings may indicate that beta instability in different markets and for different stocks in the same market are of different nature and different models may be suitable for different markets and different stocks in the same market in capturing the time‐varying nature of beta coefficients.

Research limitations/implications

This study covers only 110 stocks of Dhaka Stock Exchange. It can be extended to include more stocks. The study can also be done in other developing markets.

Originality/value

While the issues of beta instability have been extensively explored for developed markets, evidence for emerging markets is less readily available. The present study contributes to the emerging market literature on beta instability by investigating the extent of beta instability and its time‐varying properties in Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE), Bangladesh. Understanding the systematic risk behaviour of individual stocks in DSE is important for both local and international investors. With the saturation of investment opportunities in developed markets due to their high integration, and with the enhanced deregulation and liberalization of emerging economies, emerging financial markets like DSE provide suitable and a relatively safe investment environment for international investors and fund managers seeking global diversification for better risk‐return trade‐offs. When most of the world markets declined during the recent global financial crisis, stock prices in DSE experienced a continuous rise. This makes it more interesting as an emerging market to study beta instability.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 36 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Md Khokan Bepari, Sheikh F. Rahman and Abu Taher Mollik

This study aims to examine the impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis (GFC) on Australian firms' compliance with IFRS 36/AASB 136 for goodwill impairment testing…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis (GFC) on Australian firms' compliance with IFRS 36/AASB 136 for goodwill impairment testing. It also examines the factors associated with the cross-sectional variations in the compliance levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a survey of disclosure notes in companies' annual reports, firm-level compliance scores were developed and further analysed applying quantitative statistical methods.

Findings

The findings suggest that firms' compliance has increased during the GFC compared to the PCP. There was no significant intra-period change in the compliance levels during the PCP. Firms belonging to goodwill intensive industries show greater compliance levels than firms in other industries. Audit quality is also a significant determinant of firms' compliance with IFRS for goodwill impairment testing. Goodwill intensity is a significant determinant of firms' compliance level during the GFC but not during the PCP. Firm size is associated with the compliance levels when the industry effects are not controlled for. When the industry effects are controlled for, the effect of size on firms' compliance levels disappears. Profitability is also associated with firms' compliance with IFRS for goodwill impairment testing. However, firms' leverage ratio is not significantly associated with compliance levels.

Originality/value

This is the first known study to examine the issue of compliance with IFRS for goodwill impairment testing in the context of the GFC and the PCP.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2013

Khokan Bepari, Sheikh F. Rahman and Abu Taher Mollik

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the incremental value relevance of cash flow from operations (CFO) given book value and earnings. It also examines the relative…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the incremental value relevance of cash flow from operations (CFO) given book value and earnings. It also examines the relative value relevance of earnings and CFO and changes therein between the 2008‐2009 global financial crisis (GFC) and the pre‐crisis period (PCP).

Design/methodology/approach

Least square regressions are estimated using modified Ohlson model to examine the research questions. Relative and incremental value relevance is examined by adjusted R2 and Vuong Z statistics.

Findings

The findings suggest that CFO has value relevance incremental to book value and earnings. The findings also suggest that earnings has greater relative and incremental information content than CFO in the Australian market. The value relevance of earnings has increased and that of CFO has decreased during the GFC compared to the PCP.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on a single country. Future studies can conduct cross‐country examination of the impact of the GFC on the value relevance of earnings and CFO.

Practical implications

This study contributes to the debate on the value relevance of CFO incremental to book value and earnings. It also extends the literature, showing that earnings has information content (value relevance) superior to CFO in the Australian market even during an economy‐wide exogenous shock like the one of the 2008‐2009 GFC.

Originality/value

This is the first known study examining the value relevance of fundamental accounting information such as earnings and CFO in the context of the 2008‐2009 GFC. It extends prior research in East Asian countries in the context of 1997 Asian financial crisis and provides evidence on the impact of a world‐wide exogenous shock on the value relevance of earnings and CFO from a relatively mature and developed country with different legal, institutional and enforcement backgrounds.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Md Khokan Bepari and Abu Taher Mollik

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of audit quality on firms’ compliance with IFRS for goodwill impairment testing and disclosure. Differences in the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of audit quality on firms’ compliance with IFRS for goodwill impairment testing and disclosure. Differences in the compliance among the clients of Big-4 auditors and between the clients of Big-4 and non-Big-4 auditors are examined. This study also examines the effect of audit committee (AC) members’ accounting and finance backgrounds on firms’ compliance with IFRS for goodwill impairment testing and disclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

Different univariate tests, multivariate regressions and fixed effect panel regressions have been used to examine the hypotheses. The sample includes 911 firm-year observations for the period of 2006-2009.

Findings

A statistically significant difference in compliance levels has been found between the clients of Big-4 and non-Big-4 auditors. The compliance levels of the clients of Big-4 auditors have also been found to be significantly different. The findings also suggest that AC members’ accounting and finance backgrounds are positively associated with firms’ compliance with IFRS for goodwill impairment testing and disclosure.

Research limitations/implications

The single country context and the single standard context limit the generalizability of the findings.

Practical implications

The findings of this study have important implications for researches in accounting, finance and corporate governance that usually consider Big-4 auditors vs non-Big-4 auditors as a proxy for audit quality. The results also reinforce the importance of developing institutional mechanisms such as high-quality auditing or corporate governance (AC members’ expertise) to encourage firms’ compliance with IFRS.

Originality/value

Firms’ compliance with IFRS for goodwill impairment testing is not essentially the same for the clients of all Big-4 auditors in Australia, suggesting that the quality of services provided by Big-4 auditors significantly differ from one another in enforcing their clients to compliance with IFRS. The lax enforcement on the part of auditors and the regulatory inaction in this regard may point to teething difficulties and systematic deficiencies in the move towards the impairment regime and fair value accounting. The findings also bear an important message for the move towards the harmonization of accounting practices.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2021

Hajam Abid Bashir, Manish Bansal and Dilip Kumar

This study aims to examine the value relevance of earnings in terms of predicting the value variables such as cash flow, capital investment (CI), dividend and stock return…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the value relevance of earnings in terms of predicting the value variables such as cash flow, capital investment (CI), dividend and stock return under the Indian institutional settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used panel Granger causality tests to examine causality relationships among variables and panel data regression models to check the statistical associations between earnings and value variables.

Findings

Based on a data set of 7,280 Bombay Stock Exchange-listed firm-years spanning over ten years from March 2009 to March 2018, the results show higher sensitivity of earnings toward cash flows, CI, divided and stock return and vice-versa. Further, the findings deduced from the empirical results demonstrate that earnings are positively related to value variables. Overall, the results established that earnings are value-relevant and have predictive ability to forecast the value variables that facilitate investors in portfolio valuation. The results are consistent with the predictive view of the value relevance of earnings. Several robustness checks confirm these results.

Originality/value

This study brings new empirical evidence from a distinct capital market, India, and provides a new facet to the value relevance debate in terms of its prediction view. The study is among earlier attempts that jointly measure the ability of earnings in forecasting different value variables by taking a uniform sample of firms at the same period. Hence, the study provides a comprehensive view of the predictive ability of reported earnings.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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