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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Hassan Abu Bakar and Robert M. McCann

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether surface-level actual similarity interacts with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether surface-level actual similarity interacts with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member performance ratings at earlier time periods in a work group’s development. Additionally, this research examines whether deep-level perceived similarity interacts with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member performance ratings at later time periods in a work group’s development. The relationship between shared cultural context and perceived and actual similarity is also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

This research analyzes longitudinal data from the study questionnaires at five occasions in a Malaysian organization.

Findings

Results based on a sample of 28 group projects and 141 matching dyad who completed the study questionnaires at 5 occasions reveal that there is no interaction between workgroup relational ethnicity and workgroup relational gender with leader-member dyadic agreement at early time periods in a workgroup’s development. Therefore, H1 is not supported. H2 posited that deep-level perceived similarity will interact with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member performance ratings at later time periods in a workgroup’s development. H2 is supported. Results reveal that the interaction between leader-member dyadic communication agreement and perceived similarity explains 36 percent of the variance of perceived group members’ performance ratings. This is after accounting for the control variable and the independent variables. From a cultural standpoint, the findings in this study underscore that conversations based on the Malaysian cultural norm of “budi” reflect not only a cultural basis of communication, but also that this shared cultural context leads to perceived similarity between ethnic Malay, Chinese, and Indians, and also both genders in the Malaysian workplace.

Research limitations/implications

Leader-member dyadic communication agreement reflects the social appropriateness and relationship quality between individuals, as well as the context of the leader-member workgroup interactions. The findings of this study underscore the premise that conversations reflect not only a cultural basis of communication, but also that shared cultural context leads to perceived similarity. This study specifically examines the role of ethnicity in Malaysia organizational workgroup (e.g. ethnic Malay, Chinese Malay, and Indian Malay) as well as gender.

Originality/value

This study systematically examines the influence of actual and perceived similarity in leader-member dyadic communication from a longitudinal and multilevel standpoint.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Hassan Abu Bakar and Leah Omillion-Hodges

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying process of a relative leader–member dyadic communication behavior linking association between ethical leadership and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying process of a relative leader–member dyadic communication behavior linking association between ethical leadership and organizational identification in Malaysia’s diverse workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on relational dyadic communication, social comparison and social identity theories, the authors develop a mediation model. The model illustrates the link between the relative leader–member dyadic communication behavior processes, ethical leadership and organizational identification. The model was tested on a sample of 273 group members from 58 groups working in large government link corporations in Malaysia.

Findings

Results of hierarchical regression analysis provide support for the model. The authors found that ethical leadership was positively related to relative leader–member dyadic communication behavior based on the norms and values of budi context. Budi is a social norm in the Malaysian context that helps employees to know how they should interact with others. Budi is manifested through the use of language and should be used or present in the interactions or conversations with others.

Originality/value

The relative shared norms and values of budi mediate the relationship between ethical leadership and organizational identification after controlling for the perception of individual leader–member dyadic communication behavior on norms and values of budi.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2018

Hassan Abu Bakar and Leah M. Omilion-Hodges

Although the importance of group leader and group member dyadic relationships has been increasingly emphasized, only few studies have focused on the dyadic level analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the importance of group leader and group member dyadic relationships has been increasingly emphasized, only few studies have focused on the dyadic level analysis of leader–member relationships. By integrating theories of relational leadership and relational dyadic communication among workgroups, the purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model that links relative leader–member exchange quality (RLMX) and relative leader–member conversation quality (RLMCQ) to group performance, as mediated by group cooperation.

Design/methodology/approach

The model was tested in a field study with multiple sources, including 232 leader–member dyads and 407 workgroup peer dyads among 70 intact workgroups. Data were collected on-site during paid working hours from four training sessions. Group members were surveyed four times (Time 1, Time 2 and Time 3) and group leaders were surveyed once (Time 4) to minimize common method bias. The hierarchical linear modeling and polynomial regression approach were used to determine the mediating effects of the group cooperation.

Findings

In this study, the authors found support for indirect effects of relative RLMX and RLMCQ on group performance through the mediating role of group cooperation.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional design of the current study is to be interpreted with caution, concerning any conclusions about the causal ordering of the variables in the model.

Practical implications

In organizational situations with group leaders and group members already in high-quality relationships and conversation, management should endeavor to facilitate opportunities for cooperation among group members and a means to also enhance team–member exchange.

Originality/value

By introducing LMCQ and group member cooperative behavior in workgroups, this study actively respond to the scholars’ warnings that ignoring the workgroup context may hamper the progress in understanding the factors that will inhibit or enhance workgroup behavior.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2019

Hassan Abu Bakar and Stacey L. Connaughton

The purpose of this paper is to assess statistically the shared cultural values scale that incorporates Malaysia’s multi-ethnic cultural values.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess statistically the shared cultural values scale that incorporates Malaysia’s multi-ethnic cultural values.

Design/methodology/approach

This study involved three phase statistical testing. In the first phase, the authors evaluated the 152 items for the affiliation, community embeddedness, respecting elders, harmony, faith, brotherhood, morality, future orientation, conformity and survival cultural dimensions with a sample of 270 employees from three organizations. In the second phase, 355 employees from two organizations completed a survey test-retest reliability and a factor analysis consisting of community embeddedness, focus on respect, conformity and future orientation as a four-factors solution with 22 items. Confirmatory factor analysis based on data from 310 employees in two organizations verified that the four dimensions correlated with affective commitment.

Findings

The results suggest that shared cultural characteristics is a multidimensional construct and at the individual level makes a unique contribution in explaining employees’ affective commitment. Managers from multinational corporations operating in this emerging market will benefit from this new scale because they can use it to identify specific individual cultural characteristics within their organization and develop a strategy to target employees’ affective commitment.

Originality/value

The new shared cultural characteristics scale for Malaysia’s multi-ethnic society demonstrates adequate reliability, validity and across-organization generalizability for this specific cross-cultural communication setting.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Syed Hassan Raza, Hassan Abu Bakar and Bahtiar Mohamad

This study aims to examine the effects of the advertising appeals (AP) on consumers’ behavioural intention, specifically to use global brands. In addition, the study…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of the advertising appeals (AP) on consumers’ behavioural intention, specifically to use global brands. In addition, the study investigates how attitude operates as a process variable that mediates the relationship between AP and behavioural intention (BI). This paper also explores the congruity of individuals’ norms in advertising appeal–intention relationship. Centred on the theory of planned behaviour, this study proposes a model that encompasses norm congruence, in which the degree of individuals’ uncertainty avoidance (UA) moderates the relationship between advertising appeal (AP) and behavioural intention (BI), and attitude towards advertising appeal (AT) serve as key causal mechanism that mediates advertising appeal–behaviour relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model was tested using a 2 × 2 experimental design with a sample size of 372.

Findings

Results showed that the relationship between AP and BI based on global brands is significantly mediated by attitude towards AP and moderated by uncertainty avoidance. These findings have yielded partial validation of the proposed model and have provided empirical support for the roles of uncertainty avoidance and attitude towards AP.

Practical implications

The authors propose that marketers should reduce the level of consumers’ uncertainty. Uncertainty avoidance effects can be achieved through the dissemination of norm-congruent advertisement appeals and by placing more weight on social compatibility attributes which may gratify consumers’ interest, sebsequently enhance the intention of Muslim consumers to use global brands.

Originality/value

A moderator is a variable that affects the strength of the relation between the predictor and criterion variable. This paper also explores the congruity of individuals’ norms in advertising appeal–intention relationship. Previous studies did not capture any effects of culturally congruent advertising appeals by considering the level of uncertainty avoidance influence on individuals’ intention to use global brands in a Muslim country context. In response to the recent calls for research to re-examine the antecedents of the theory of planned behaviour, this study re-evaluates the roles of attitude towards AP and the interaction of cultural norms.

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2016

Abu Hassan Abu Bakar, Mohamad Nizam Yusof, Muhammad Asim Tufail and Wiwied Virgiyanti

The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between knowledge management and growth performance of construction companies.

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between knowledge management and growth performance of construction companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Six hundred questionnaires were sent to selected individuals in grade G7 construction companies. A total of 110 completed questionnaires were returned and deemed usable. The collected data were processed and analysed by partial least-squares (PLS) path modelling with SmartPLS 2.0 software. This technique was selected because it is appropriate for exploratory studies, such as the current one, where hypothesised relationships between variables have not been tested

Findings

The findings show a positive relationship between knowledge management and growth performance in construction companies. The results of this study are valuable in establishing a valid and reliable survey instrument, especially for construction companies.

Practical implications

The results of this study can be can be utilised as a basis for strategic choices by top management, to enable a company to grow. Right decisions are crucial to enable construction companies to remain competitive, and develop in a challenging business environment.

Originality/value

The paper furthers understanding of how knowledge management influence growth performance in construction industry. This aspect has been little studied both in theoretical and empirical studies.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part
Publication date: 12 June 2020

Marlin Marissa Malek Abdul Malek and Hassan Abu Bakar

This chapter examines how leader–member dyadic communication in the Malaysian workplace operates at the leader–member dyadic level in the context of cultural norms. We…

Abstract

This chapter examines how leader–member dyadic communication in the Malaysian workplace operates at the leader–member dyadic level in the context of cultural norms. We propose a model of leader–member dyadic communication based on the cultural norms of budi bicara, which in turn influences the perception of workplace mentoring in Malaysia. The model is tested by using hierarchical multiple regression with data obtained from a sample of 510 employees in three Malaysian organizations. Results show that leader–member dyadic communication in the workplace is linked with the career mentoring perceptions. These findings partially validate our proposed model and provide empirical support for the central roles of communication exchange processes in mentoring.

Details

Mentorship-driven Talent Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-691-5

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2013

Hassan Abu Bakar and Che Su Mustaffa

Research on organizational communication has shown significant associations with many important outcomes. Although these researches are appealing, there have been…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on organizational communication has shown significant associations with many important outcomes. Although these researches are appealing, there have been criticisms and suggestions for improvement of the organizational communication scales, developed in Western organization settings, to make them applicable to collectivist culture‐based organizations. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to access the organizational communication construct through the development and validation of an organizational communication measure for Malaysian organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Item analysis for Malaysian organizational communication scale involves survey of 250 university employees, followed by construct and criterion‐related validation using 346 employees, representing three organizations in Malaysia, resulting in a Malaysian organizational communication scale.

Findings

Through the validation of a Malaysian organizational communication measure, support was found for the proposition that Malaysian organizations are composed of information flow, communication climate, message characteristics, and communication structure, as well as new dimensions, namely, the group bond and respect.

Research limitations/implications

One of the weaknesses of the study was the size of sample used for the focus group. Another weakness was the organizations involved in the validation segment of the study, which were service‐related organizations. Finally, current investigations limit themselves to job satisfaction. These results have to be handled carefully.

Practical implications

The paper shows that group bond and mutual respect are salient work relationships in Malaysian organizations.

Originality/value

The emergence of group bond and respect dimensions in the Malaysian organizational communication construct is consistent with the examination of organizational behavior.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Amin Akhavan Tabassi, Mahyuddin Ramli, Abu Hassan Abu Bakar and Abd. Hamid Kadir Pakir

A need for effective leadership and adequate managing the personnel is vital for every construction organization. Meanwhile, the dynamic and complex environments of the…

Abstract

Purpose

A need for effective leadership and adequate managing the personnel is vital for every construction organization. Meanwhile, the dynamic and complex environments of the industry may be caused that not much research has been conducted on leadership practices in the industry. The purpose of this paper is to study the leadership style of the construction leaders in Iran and explore the correlation of transformational leadership practices with teamwork improvement in the construction companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The research analysis was completed on a sample population of 107 managers within nominated construction firms in Iran. The analysis methods in this research were mainly descriptive and regression-based analyses and the type of investigation was a co-relational study.

Findings

The research found the level of the leaders’ orientation for people and task in their leadership style, their transformational leadership qualities, and the relationship of transformational leadership with teamwork improvement in the respondents’ companies.

Originality/value

The study is the first to investigate the leadership style of the construction leaders in Iran, and weather transformational leadership practices effects on teamwork improvement in the industry.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 33 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Amin Akhavan Tabassi and Abu Hassan Abu Bakar

Clarifying leadership has been a complicated and difficult task largely because the nature of leadership itself is complicated. Meanwhile, the construction industry stands…

Abstract

Purpose

Clarifying leadership has been a complicated and difficult task largely because the nature of leadership itself is complicated. Meanwhile, the construction industry stands for one of the most dynamic and complex industrial environments although, not much works has been conducted on leadership in the industry. This paper aims to fill this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a combination of literature review and questionnaire surveys, this paper explores the leadership style as well as transformational leadership quality of the leaders of construction companies in Iran. A quantitative research approach was adopted requiring the development and dissemination of a questionnaire survey. The research was conducted by sending 220 sets of questionnaires to the large construction companies. The analysis methods in this research were based on frequency and co‐relational study.

Findings

The research exposes the level of leaders' orientation for people and task in their leadership style as well as their transformational leadership qualities in regards of developing followers into leaders, inspire followers to go beyond their own self‐interest and give employees empowerment.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should try to address how companies and governments adapt to and shape the environmental and organizational settings in such a way that the context optimally stimulates employees' motivation and participation in leadership practices.

Originality/value

The paper offers insight into leadership style and quality of transformational leadership, focusing on construction firms in Iran.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

Keywords

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