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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

M. Balasubramanian and S. Madhu

The purpose of the study is to machine the composites at lower machining time with higher accuracy without causing delamination.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to machine the composites at lower machining time with higher accuracy without causing delamination.

Design/methodology/approach

Abrasive jet machining is the technology appropriate for machining composite materials to obtain good dimensional accuracy without causing de-lamination. The central composite design was followed in deciding the number of experiments to be carried out.

Findings

The influence of abrasive jet machining process parameters on machining time, material removal rate (MRR) and kerf characteristics were investigated. The experimental results proved the newly designed internal threaded nozzle increased MRR, thereby reducing the machining time.

Originality/value

Machining of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) is one of the challenging tasks given its non-linear and in-homogeneous properties. In this investigation, newly developed threaded and unthreaded nozzles in machining were used for making holes on the GFRP composites.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

S. Madhu and M. Balasubramanian

The purpose of this study is for solving many issues in production that includes processing of complex-shaped profile, machining of high-strength materials, good surface…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is for solving many issues in production that includes processing of complex-shaped profile, machining of high-strength materials, good surface finish with high-level precision and minimization of waste. Among the various advanced machining processes, abrasive jet machining (AJM) is one of the non-traditional machining techniques used for various applications such as polishing, deburring and hole making. Hence, an overview of the investigations done on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GRFP) composites becomes important.

Design/methodology/approach

Discussion on various approaches to AJM, the effect of process parameters on the glass fiber and carbon fiber polymeric composites are presented. Kerf characteristics, surface roughness and various nozzle design were also discussed.

Findings

It was observed that abrasive jet pressure, stand-off distance, traverse rate, abrasive size, nozzle diameter, angle of attack are the significant process parameters which affect the machining time, material removal rate, top kerf, bottom kerf and kerf angle. When the particle size is maximum, the increased kinetic energy of the particle improves the penetration depth on the CFRP surface. As the abrasive jet pressure is increased, the cutting process is enabled without severe jet deflection which in turn minimizes the waviness pattern, resulting in a decrease of the surface roughness.

Research limitations/implications

The review is limited to glass fiber and carbon fiber polymeric composites.

Practical implications

In many applications, the use of composite has gained wide acceptance. Hence, machining of the composite need for the study also has gained wide acceptance.

Social implications

The usage of composites reduces the usage of very costly materials of high density. The cost of the material also comes down.

Originality/value

This paper is a comprehensive review of machining composite with abrasive jet. The paper covers in detail about machining of only GFRP and CFRP composites with various nozzle designs, unlike many studies which has focused widely on general AJM of various materials.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

M. Balasubramanian and S. Madhu

The purpose of this study is to bring out the machining characteristics of abrasive jet machining on carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites utilized in aerospace…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to bring out the machining characteristics of abrasive jet machining on carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites utilized in aerospace and biomedical applications. Biocompatibility materials such as carbon fibres and polyether thermoplastics, like polyether ether ketone (PEEK) are widely used in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. Due to the heterogeneity, layered construction of reinforcing phase bonds with a resin matrix and abrasiveness of the reinforcing fibre, traditional drilling of carbon fibre-reinforced composites (CFRPs) are always challenging task.

Design/methodology/approach

An investigation is carried out using abrasive jet machine for drilling PEEK filled with 30 Wt.% carbon fibre (CF 30) using threaded and unthreaded nozzle to study the effect of abrasive jet process variables on surface roughness (Ra) and delamination factor (DF). Pressure (P) and stand-off distance (SOD) as important technological abrasive jet factors were evaluated. It is found that higher abrasive jet pressure and minimum SOD maybe selected to achieve minimum delamination.

Findings

The study further reported that the threaded nozzle minimized the surface roughness by 43% and delamination factor up to 12%.

Originality/value

This study of experimenting and observing the machining characteristics of CF30 by using a threaded nozzle is being tried for the first time and the results are deliberated.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2019

S. Rajendra Prasad, K. Ravindranath K. Ravindranath and M.L.S. Devakumar M.L.S. Devakumar

The choice of best machining parameters is an extremely basic factor in handling of any machined parts. The purpose of this paper is to exhibit a multi-objective…

Abstract

Purpose

The choice of best machining parameters is an extremely basic factor in handling of any machined parts. The purpose of this paper is to exhibit a multi-objective optimization technique; in view of weighted aggregate sum product assessment (WASPAS) technique toward upgrade the machining parameters in modified air abrasive jet machining (MAAJM) process: injecting pressure, stand-off distance (SOD), and abrasive mesh size measure with 100 rpm rotatable worktable on Nickel 233 alloy material. Three conflicting destinations, material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR) and taper angles (Ta), respectively, are considered at the same time. The proposed procedure uses WASPAS, which is the examination of parametric optimization of the abrasive jet machining (AJM) process. The results was used any scopes of reactions in MAAJM process is the ideal setting of parameters are resolved through investigations represented. There is wide utilization of Nickel 233 in aviation enterprises; machining information on producing a hole utilizing MAAJM for the first time is given in this work, which will be helpful different industries.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper exhibits a multi-objective optimization technique; in view of WASPAS technique toward upgrade the machining parameters in MAAJM process: injecting pressure, SOD, and abrasive mesh size measure with 100 rpm rotatable worktable on Nickel 233 alloy material.

Findings

As an outcome of using the tool in any ranges of responses in the AJM process, the optimal setting of parameters is determined through experiments illustrated. The machining data of generating a hole using AJM are studied for the first time in this work, which will be useful for aerospace industries, where Nickel 233 is used broadly.

Originality/value

A new material in unconventional machining process and also a multi-objective optimization technique are adopted.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Feng Che Tsai, Yann Long Lee and Ju Chun Yeh

This paper aims to develop an electrochemical abrasive jet machining (ECAJM) technology to investigate the surface machining effect of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop an electrochemical abrasive jet machining (ECAJM) technology to investigate the surface machining effect of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the ECAJM equipment was set up, and a series of experiments for the surface machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was performed.

Findings

The experimental results show that the flowing abrasives of 0.05 Wt.% can effectively remove the TiO2 oxide film of Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface. In addition, the flowing abrasives produce cutting machining effect on the surface of titanium aluminum alloy, and the oxide film can be removed effectively. For the case of machining pressure of 0.4 Mpa and machining gap of 0.4 mm, the processing efficiency can be achieved up to 20 µm/s.

Originality/value

Under different machining pressure, the flowing abrasive with high kinetic energy impacting the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface and the oxide film produced from the electrolytic reaction process can be removed effectively, thereby enhancing the efficiency of electrochemical machining process.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Nitin Dixit, Varun Sharma and Pradeep Kumar

The surface roughness of additively manufactured parts is usually found to be high. This limits their use in industrial and biomedical applications. Therefore, these parts…

Abstract

Purpose

The surface roughness of additively manufactured parts is usually found to be high. This limits their use in industrial and biomedical applications. Therefore, these parts required post-processing to improve their surface quality. The purpose of this study is to finish three-dimensional (3D) printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) parts using abrasive flow machining (AFM).

Design/methodology/approach

A hydrogel-based abrasive media has been developed to finish 3D printed parts. The developed abrasive media has been characterized for its rheology and thermal stability using sweep tests, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The ABS and PLA cylindrical parts have been prepared using fused deposition modeling (FDM) and finished using AFM. The experiments were designed using Taguchi (L9 OA) method. The effect of process parameters such as extrusion pressure (EP), layer thickness (LT) and abrasive concentration (AC) was investigated on the amount of material removed (MR) and percentage improvement in surface roughness (%ΔRa).

Findings

The developed abrasive media was found to be effective for finishing FDM printed parts using AFM. The microscope images of unfinished and finished showed a significant improvement in surface topography of additively manufactures parts after AFM. The results reveal that AC is the most significant parameter during the finishing of ABS parts. However, EP and AC are the most significant parameters for MR and %ΔRa, respectively, during the finishing of PLA parts.

Practical implications

The FDM technology has applications in the biomedical, electronics, aeronautics and defense sectors. PLA has good biodegradable and biocompatible properties, so widely used in biomedical applications. The ventilator splitters fabricated using FDM have a profile similar to the shape used in the present study.

Research limitations/implications

The present study is focused on finishing FDM printed cylindrical parts using AFM. Future research may be done on the AFM of complex shapes and freeform surfaces printed using different additive manufacturing (AM) techniques.

Originality/value

An abrasive media consists of xanthan gum, locust bean gum and fumed silica has been developed and characterized. An experimental study has been performed by combining printing parameters of FDM and finishing parameters of AFM. A comparative analysis in MR and %ΔRa has been reported between 3D printed ABS and PLA parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of centrifugal disk finishing (CDF) technique on the surface and subsurface characteristics of the fused deposited modeling (FDM) parts in both theoretical and experimental aspects. From theoretical aspect, a novel theoretical model is developed as a function of layer deposition orientation, layer thickness, finishing working time, density ratio and hardness ratio to estimate the surface roughness profile of FDM part at different finishing conditions and finishing time intervals. Meanwhile, from the experimental aspect, an experimental campaign was performed under different mechanical and mechanical-chemical finishing conditions to verify the theoretical model and also assess the surface and subsurface characteristics of the polished parts.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical model commences with an approximation of surface profile of the FDM part through a sequence of parabola arcs, continues with the calculation of reference line and machined surface profile and leads to a formulation of surface roughness of as-printed and polished surface. In the experimental section, the FDM parts are polished under dry, pure water, 25% and 50% volumetric aqueous acetone solutions finishing conditions through CDF technique.

Findings

The comparison between experimental and theoretical results reveals 9% mean absolute error between theoretical and experimental results. Meanwhile, Rq reduction percentage of polished parts under dry, pure water, 25% and 50% aqueous acetone solutions are 66.1%, 54.5%, 56.9% and 67.2%, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy results reveal severe layer damage in dry finishing condition, while the application of 50% aqueous acetone as a polishing solution completely eliminates layer damage. Another promising finding was sticky material phenomenon on the surface of polished part under 25% finishing condition. The Shore hardness test illustrates that the surface hardness improvement of the polished parts under dry, pure water, 25% and 50% aqueous acetone solutions finishing conditions are 8.4%, 2.25%, 4.36% and 10.8%, respectively. The results also revealed that the dimension variation of polished parts under dry, pure water, 25% and 50% aqueous acetone solutions are 0.634%, 0.525%, 0.545% and 0.608%, respectively. The edge profile radius of the as-printed part is 134 µm, while the edge profiles radius of the polished parts under dry, pure water, 25% aqueous acetone solution and 50% aqueous acetone solution are 785.5 µm, 545.5 µm, 623.5 µm and 721.5 µm, respectively, at the polishing time of 720 min.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study the benefits of the mechanical-chemical polishing technique in comparison to mechanical and chemical polishing strategy of the FDM parts for the first time. Beside the experimental campaign, the novel analytical formulation of surface roughness as a function of mechanical properties of abrasive media and FDM part and finishing specifications provides a valuable insight in the case of material-removal processes.

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2022

Abdul Wahab Hashmi, Harlal Singh Mali and Anoj Meena

The purpose of this paper is to study the functionality of additively manufactured (AM) parts, mainly depending on their dimensional accuracy and surface finish. However…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the functionality of additively manufactured (AM) parts, mainly depending on their dimensional accuracy and surface finish. However, the products manufactured using AM usually suffer from defects like roughness or uneven surfaces. This paper discusses the various surface quality improvement techniques, including how to reduce surface defects, surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of AM parts.

Design/methodology/approach

There are many different types of popular AM methods. Unfortunately, these AM methods are susceptible to different kinds of surface defects in the product. As a result, pre- and postprocessing efforts and control of various AM process parameters are needed to improve the surface quality and reduce surface roughness.

Findings

In this paper, the various surface quality improvement methods are categorized based on the type of materials, working principles of AM and types of finishing processes. They have been divided into chemical, thermal, mechanical and hybrid-based categories.

Research limitations/implications

The review has evaluated the possibility of various surface finishing methods for enhancing the surface quality of AM parts. It has also discussed the research perspective of these methods for surface finishing of AM parts at micro- to nanolevel surface roughness and better dimensional accuracy.

Originality/value

This paper represents a comprehensive review of surface quality improvement methods for both metals and polymer-based AM parts.

Graphical abstract of surface quality improvement methods

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Sıtkı Akıncıoğlu

The purpose of this study was to optimize the surface roughness (Ra), delamination damage at the hole entrance (FdT) and at the hole exit (FdB) and kerf angle (K) in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to optimize the surface roughness (Ra), delamination damage at the hole entrance (FdT) and at the hole exit (FdB) and kerf angle (K) in the drilling of aramid fiber-reinforced polymer (AFRP) composite material using abrasive water jet (AWJ) machining.

Design/methodology/approach

The AFRP composite was produced by the vacuum infusion method. The drilling experiments were performed on an AWJ machine using a three-axis computerized numerical control system. Machine processing parameters were determined as water pressure (2,000, 3,000 and 4,000 bar), stand-off distance (2, 4 and 6 mm) and traverse feed rate (150, 250 and 350 mm/min). Optimization of processing parameters in the drilling experiments was carried out according to the Taguchi L27 (33) orthogonal array. In addition, gray relational analysis (GRA) was used to analyze the complex uncertainty affecting the results.

Findings

Results of the drilling operations demonstrated that water pressure (P) was the most effective parameter, with 65.3%, 65.2%, 49.8% and 52.1% contribution rates for Ra, FdT, FdB and K, respectively.

Practical implications

Reliable results have been obtained with Taguchi-based GRA while drilling AFRP composite material using AWJ. Significant results have been achieved to increase the hole quality in the drilling of AFRP composite material.

Originality/value

The new approach is to present more detailed analysis by using Taguchi method and multi-decision Taguchi-based gray relation analysis in AFRP composite material drilling using AWJ. Thus, time and experiment costs are saved.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2019

Dharmendra B.V., Shyam Prasad Kodali and Nageswara Rao Boggarapu

The purpose of this paper is to adopt the multi-objective optimization technique for identifying a set of optimum abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) parameters to achieve…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adopt the multi-objective optimization technique for identifying a set of optimum abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) parameters to achieve maximum material removal rate (MRR) and minimum surface roughness.

Design/methodology/approach

Data of a few experiments as per the Taguchi’s orthogonal array are considered for achieving maximum MRR and minimum surface roughness (Ra) of the Inconel718. Analysis of variance is performed to understand the statistical significance of AWJM input process parameters.

Findings

Empirical relations are developed for MRR and Ra in terms of the AWJM process parameters and demonstrated their adequacy through comparison of test results.

Research limitations/implications

The signal-to-noise ratio transformation should be applied to take in to account the scatter in the repetition of tests in each test run. But, many researchers have adopted this transformation on a single output response of each test run, which has no added advantage other than additional computational task. This paper explains the impact of insignificant process parameter in selection of optimal process parameters. This paper demands drawbacks and complexity in existing theories prior to use new algorithms.

Practical implications

Taguchi approach is quite simple and easy to handle optimization problems, which has no practical implications (if it handles properly). There is no necessity to hunt for new algorithms for obtaining solution for multi-objective optimization AWJM process.

Originality/value

This paper deals with a case study, which demonstrates the simplicity of the Taguchi approach in solving multi-objective optimization problems with a few number of experiments.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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