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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2009

Nilgün Özdıˆl, Arzu Marmarali and Nida Oğlakcioğlu

The purpose of this paper is to explain the yarn parameters and some finishing process that can affect the abrasion resistance of socks in detail.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the yarn parameters and some finishing process that can affect the abrasion resistance of socks in detail.

Design/methodology/approach

The abrasion tests were made on socks produced from the most popular fibers (cotton, wool, PAC, PES, PA, and blends of these) by the Modificated Martindale method. The effects of fiber type, yarn count (for single and ply yarn), combing process, softness process with silicone and mercerization process to the abrasion resistance were investigated.

Findings

It was found that the use of coarse yarns, addition of polyester, polyamide fibers or elastane filaments to the structure and application of the mercerization process increase the abrasion resistance of the socks. However, the silicone softeners decrease this value. The resistance of wool socks is higher than acrylics.

Originality/value

Socks, which are a necessary item of clothing, need to be comfortable, affordable and retain their quality throughout their life. The most significant problem is abrasion which can greatly reduce the material's life. To determine the parameters affecting the sock abrasion will be useful both for producer and for consumer.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2007

Rui Miguel, José Lucas, Lurdes Carvalho, Manuel Santos Silva and Albert Manich

The breaking strength compromises fabric wearing out during wear of garments and is a determining parameter in their useful life. Thus, it is intended to compare the…

Abstract

Purpose

The breaking strength compromises fabric wearing out during wear of garments and is a determining parameter in their useful life. Thus, it is intended to compare the efficacy of each method concerning the understanding of results, which is, the explanation of the phenomenon, namely through statistical models which characterize abrasion strength, measured by each method, as a function of fabric assurance by simple testing (FAST) parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

The simulation of abrasion mechanism was done on Martindale wear and abrasion tester, following two ways: the weight loss and two yarns breakage methods. The average weight loss of a fabric was determined among four specimens (in mg/5,000 cy). Fabric abrasion was done against a standard wool fabric under a 12 KPa pressure. In the two yarns breakage method, the number of abrasion cycles required to break two yarns is determined according to Woolmark Company TM 112 test standard.

Findings

In general, no better models to explain abrasion strength by the breakage of two yarns method are achieved when FAST variables are considered respecting those based on classical ones. However, for woollen fabrics, there is an interesting model, which gathers classical and FAST variables with higher explanation: shear rigidity and polyamide composition. This allows one to conclude that this FAST parameter performs an important role in the abrasion behaviour of fabrics.

Originality/value

As the abrasion consequences cause fabric degradation, a better understanding is obtained of the different abrasion stage mechanisms, which explain both evaluation methods: breakage of two yarns and weight loss. It is intended to gather conditions for a future definition of a single and comprehensive evaluation methodology of abrasion.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 19 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Ayanna Card, Mary Ann Moore and Mary Ankeny

This paper reports on the effects of laundering on physical properties (pilling and edge abrasion) of washed denim fabrics.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reports on the effects of laundering on physical properties (pilling and edge abrasion) of washed denim fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Garment washed denim blue jeans were subjected to repeated launderings; the effects of the cycles on pilling and edge abrasion were determined. Data were collected by means of a laboratory experimental factorial design. Analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences in the three garment washed treatments; pre‐washed, stone washed and enzyme treated blue jeans. Duncan's test of multiple range determined the source of significance.

Findings

The pre‐washed jeans were more prone to pilling than the enzyme and stone washed jeans. On the other hand, the pre‐washed jeans experienced the least amount of edge abrasion while the stone washed experienced the most.

Practical implications

The results can be used by the denim garment manufacturers to design and engineer their products to suit the customer demands.

Originality/value

Jeans are an important part of a consumer's wardrobe and a large portion of denim garments are manufactured with some type of garment wash treatment. Results of this study will provide denim garment manufacturers with pilling and abrasion information regarding garment washing treatments to allow them to utilize the garment treatment that best meets their needs.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Arunangshu Mukhopadhyay, Vinay Kumar Midha and Nemai Chandra Ray

This study aims to optimize the parametric combination of injected slub yarn to achieve least abrasive damage on fabrics produced from it.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to optimize the parametric combination of injected slub yarn to achieve least abrasive damage on fabrics produced from it.

Design/methodology/approach

Single base injected slub yarn structural parameters, vis-à-vis slub length, slub thickness and slub frequency, were varied during preparation of yarn samples under this research work. A total of 17 yarn samples were produced according to the Box and Bhenken design of the experiment. Subsequently knitted and woven (using injected slub yarns in the weft only) fabric samples were prepared from these yarns. Yarn and fabric samples were abraded with standard instruments to see the impact of yarn structural parameters on abrasive damage of fabric in terms of fabric mass loss and appearance deterioration. From the test results, empirical models relating to slub parameters and fabric abrasion behavior were developed through a backward elimination regression approach. Subsequently, a set of optimal parametric combinations was derived with multi-objective evolutionary algorithms by using MATLAB software. This was followed by ranking all optimal solutions through technique for order preference by similarity to idle solution (TOPSIS) score analysis.

Findings

The injected slub yarn’s structural parameters have a strong influence on the abrasive damage of knitted and woven fabric. It is seen that the best suitable parametric combination of slub parameters for achieving the least abrasive damage is not the same for knitted and woven fabric.

Practical implications

The spinner can explore this concept to find out the best suitable parametric combination during pattern making of injected slub yarn through MATLAB solution followed by TOPSIS score analysis based on their priority of criteria level to ensure better abrasion behavior of fabric produced.

Originality/value

Optimization of parametric combination of injected slub yarns will help to ensure production of fabric with most resistance to abrasion for specific applications. The studies showed that the optimal solution for woven and knitted fabrics is different. The result indicates that in the case of knitted fabric, comparatively lesser slub thickness is found to be suitable for getting better fabric abrasion resistance, whereas in the case of woven fabric, comparatively higher slub thickness is found suitable for the same.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2014

D. Semnani

Previously, to evaluate the abrasion of spun yarns, ASTM standard D1379-64 (1970) was applied and valid until 1975. After that, much research work has been carried out to…

Abstract

Previously, to evaluate the abrasion of spun yarns, ASTM standard D1379-64 (1970) was applied and valid until 1975. After that, much research work has been carried out to study the abrasion resistance of yarns by using different methods. Recently, new methods based on image processing techniques have been developed. In this research, first, to calculate the abrasion indexes for an image of yarns that are wrapped side by side, the inputs for a back propagation neural network are provided and abrasion destruction indexes are the output. The training of the net is done with data from model images. Moreover, the network has been tested with those model images. To design the model images, attempts are made to simulate various types of defects which are made by abrasion on the body of yarn. After that, groups of spun and filament yarns are tested with both a standard and the new intelligent method and the results are compared. The results prove that trained neural nets have the ability to evaluate the images of yarns trained to the net before; in addition, they can evaluate the images which are inserted into the net for the first time.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

David M. Hall and Roy M. Broughton

Describes a study in which three fabric samples containing 50 per cent to 100 per cent cotton were treated with various wettable latex dispersions of Polythylene Acrylic…

Abstract

Describes a study in which three fabric samples containing 50 per cent to 100 per cent cotton were treated with various wettable latex dispersions of Polythylene Acrylic Acid (PEAA) copolymer having 20 per cent acrylic acid content. Additionally, 100 per cent cotton yarn (25's cc) were sized with the dispersions at add‐ons of 2 per cent to about 14 per cent. Some of the alkali PEAA was subsequently converted to aluminium and aluminium/magnesium (1:3) ionomers. In both the yarn and fabrics the abrasion resistance could be significantly improved. The abrasion resistance of the ionomer forms was not as good as the alkali form. Yarn tensile strengths were improved but gave lower elongation at break. The fabric tensile properties were lowered by the treatments. Concludes that the treatments offer potential improvements in the wear life of fabrics which are laundered infrequently, such as outerwear for apparel, shoe canvas and upholstery.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2020

Gülçin Baysal, Gizem Keleş, Berdan Kalav, F. Seniha Güner and Burçak Karagüzel Kayaoğlu

In this study, it is aimed to synthesize ultraviolet (UV)-curable water-borne polyurethane acrylate (WPUA) binders using different types of polyols (poly (propylene…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, it is aimed to synthesize ultraviolet (UV)-curable water-borne polyurethane acrylate (WPUA) binders using different types of polyols (poly (propylene glycol), PPG1000 and PPG2000 and poly (ethylene glycol), PEG1000 and PEG2000) at different molecular weights, DMPA (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) propionic acid) at different amounts and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and use for pigment printing on synthetic leather.

Design/methodology/approach

UV-cured films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The effect of binder structure on printing performance was determined with hardness, crock fastness, abrasion resistance and color measurements.

Findings

The highest abrasion resistance (60,000 cycles) and crock fastness values (dry crock and wet crock: 3/4) were obtained with binder PEG-C synthesized with PEG2000 and lower DMPA amount of 4.89 wt%; however, PEG-C binder showed lower hardness values. Due to lower urethane groups in PEG-C binder, more flexible films were obtained which imparted good adhesion property to printing film. Synthesized binders provided lower crock fastness and abrasion resistance properties than commercial WPUA binder.

Originality/value

Pigmented formulations including UV-curable water-borne synthesized PUA binder were developed and for the first time applied onto synthetic leather using screen printing method. Within this context, a new environmentally friendly printing method was proposed in this study including binder synthesis in the preparation of printing formulations.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2020

Yamid Núñez, Marcio Mafra, Rigoberto E. Morales, Paulo César Borges and Giuseppe Pintaude

This study aims to assess the performance of SAF 2205 duplex stainless steel against pure wear, tribo-corrosion, corrosion and the synergism between wear and corrosion…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the performance of SAF 2205 duplex stainless steel against pure wear, tribo-corrosion, corrosion and the synergism between wear and corrosion. The effect of plasma nitriding conducted at low temperature (380°C) on SAF 2205 steel was analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Three systems were used for assessing the synergism between wear and corrosion: tribo-corrosion – wear tests conducted using the micro-scale abrasion test, performed under a slurry of alumina particles containing 3.5% NaCl; pure wear – tests conducted using the previous system but isolated in a glovebox with a 99% N2 atmosphere; and cyclic polarization under 3.5% NaCl solution. A hard nitrided layer of 3 µm thickness was characterized using X-ray diffraction, presenting expanded austenite.

Findings

The wear mode after micro-scale abrasion tests changed in the absence of an oxygen atmosphere. During pure wear, a mixed mode was identified (rolling + grooving), with the grooving mode more intense for the untreated steel. For tribo-corrosion tests, only rolling wear was identified. For all cases, the nitrided samples presented less wear. The corrosion results indicated a higher repassivation potential for the nitrided condition.

Practical implications

The synergism was more positive for the nitrided sample than for the untreated one, which can be considered for surface treatments of duplex stainless steels in practical applications.

Originality/value

A detailed description of wear mechanisms showed a significant change in the presence of oxygen atmosphere, a new approach for isolating pure wear.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1971

P.L. HURRICKS

WEAR is one of the major ways by which a material part ceases to be useful, others are corrosion, obsolescence and breakage. It is the consequence of relative motion and…

Abstract

WEAR is one of the major ways by which a material part ceases to be useful, others are corrosion, obsolescence and breakage. It is the consequence of relative motion and in industrial plant and equipment it has always been accepted as inevitable that it should lead to heavy expenditure for maintenance and replacement. Historically, wear is a well established fact, yet our knowledge of the technology is extremely limited. It has become a way of life that we compensate for wear when it no longer can be tolerated, yet need this be so? This article examines the problem, and primarily from the unlubricated point of view, describes the various types of wear and the way material selection or modification can be used to limit wear.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 23 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Yasemin Bulut and Vildan Sülar

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of coating process parameters (base fabric, coating material, coating technique and production parameters) on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of coating process parameters (base fabric, coating material, coating technique and production parameters) on mechanical properties of coated fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, 24 coated fabrics were produced under controlled production conditions by using two cotton base fabrics and two coating materials as polyurethane (PU), PU/silicone in order to study how coating affects some of the base fabric's mechanical properties such as breaking strength, breaking elongation, tear strength, bursting strength, bending rigidity and abrasion resistance. The measured data were evaluated with variance analysis to determine the effects of the coating parameters at 95 per cent confidence level.

Findings

Breaking strength shows increments for almost all fabrics, whereas breaking elongation values decreased by coating application. Coating has a very clear influence on tear strength of coated fabrics due to the penetration of coating material into the fabric structure. Changes in bursting strength are not similar for two base fabrics with systematically changed production parameters. Coating improves all measured parameters of bending rigidity. Coating application enhances abrasion resistance though some broken fibers are observed on the fabric surface in scanning electron microscopy investigation.

Originality/value

In the past few years, the researches on this area focused on investigating the effects of coating materials and layers on tensile properties. This study comprehensively examines the effects of several coating parameters on mechanical properties such as breaking strength, breaking elongation, tear strength, bursting strength, bending rigidity and abrasion resistance.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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