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Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2013

Gawaian Bodkin-Andrews and Bronwyn Carlson

Emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia’s First Peoples (when compared to their…

Abstract

Purpose

Emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia’s First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism. In addition, it may be argued that the very construction of Western perspectives of Indigenous identity (as opposed to identities) may be deeply entwined within the undertones of the interplay between epistemological racism, and the emergence of new racism today.

Methodology

This chapter shall review a substantial portion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander educational research, with a particular emphasis on the acknowledgment of the impact of racism on the educational outcomes (and other life outcomes) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with a focus on higher education.

Findings

This review has found that while there is evidence emerging toward the engagement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in all forms of education, there is also considerable resistance to targeted efforts to reduce the inequities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students and all Australians (especially within the university sector). It is argued this resistance, both at the student and curriculum level, is clear evidence of preexisting epistemological mentalities and racism.

Implications

The implications of this review suggest that greater effort needs to be placed in recognizing unique Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander experiences and perspectives, not only at the student level, but such perspectives need to be imbedded throughout the whole university environment.

Details

Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-686-6

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Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2017

Susan Main and Deslea Konza

This chapter explores inclusive approaches to reading instruction for Australian Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children. Drawing from the literature on…

Abstract

This chapter explores inclusive approaches to reading instruction for Australian Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children. Drawing from the literature on effective reading instruction, culturally appropriate instructional practices, and the authors’ research on reading interventions in remote communities in Australia we assert that to be inclusive you must provide a learning environment that supports all students to learn. Further, that the approaches used in this learning environment should be evidence-based.

Details

Inclusive Principles and Practices in Literacy Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-590-0

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Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2013

Gawaian Bodkin-Andrews, Valerie Harwood, Samantha McMahon and Amy Priestly

Generally, theory and research investigating the effectiveness of mentoring has offered little resounding evidence to attest to mentoring programmes being a strategic…

Abstract

Purpose

Generally, theory and research investigating the effectiveness of mentoring has offered little resounding evidence to attest to mentoring programmes being a strategic initiative that make a real difference in reducing the educational inequities many minority students endure. In contrast to this existing research base, the Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience (AIME) has often been cited as one of the most successful mentoring initiatives within Australia. It is the purpose of this chapter to examine how AIME may impact on the educational aspirations and school self-concept of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students.

Methodology

A series of multi-group analyses were centred around Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling techniques that sought not only to explore the psychometric validity of the measures utilized within this study, but also to identify how the measures may be related after accounting for background variables (e.g. gender, parental education).

Findings

The results found that the measures utilized held strong psychometric properties allowing an increased level of confidence in the measures used and the conclusion that may be drawn from their use in analyses. Overall, the results suggested that AIME is an effective tool for increasing not only the educational aspirations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students but also their levels (and utility) of School Self-concept and School Enjoyment.

Implications

The implications suggest that not only is AIME an essential tool for closing the educational gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal students, but also our understanding of mentoring must be extended well beyond simplistic notions of role-modelling.

Details

Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-686-6

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Bella L. Galperin, Meena Chavan and Salahudin Muhidin

In the last decade, Indigenous enterprises and entrepreneurs have played an increasingly important role in Australia. This has not always been the case. Historically…

Abstract

In the last decade, Indigenous enterprises and entrepreneurs have played an increasingly important role in Australia. This has not always been the case. Historically, Indigenous Australians have been excluded from the broader economy. However, more recently, the number of Indigenous businesses has significantly increased despite the limited access to capital and lower level of education. This chapter provides a historical perspective of Indigenous entrepreneurs in Australia and argues that entrepreneurial leadership development can play a critical role in developing Indigenous entrepreneurship. The historical context of Indigenous Australians is first discussed, and the current status of Indigenous entrepreneurs in Australia is then examined. In particular, we focus on entrepreneurship among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Finally, the importance of entrepreneurial leadership development in the future landscape of Indigenous entrepreneurship in Australia is highlighted.

Details

Clan and Tribal Perspectives on Social, Economic and Environmental Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-366-2

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Gretchen Stolte, Noel Zaro and Kaylynn Zaro

This chapter focuses on creating a Torres Strait Island perspective on the research ethics and cultural protocols of Islander dance. Previous research into Torres Strait

Abstract

This chapter focuses on creating a Torres Strait Island perspective on the research ethics and cultural protocols of Islander dance. Previous research into Torres Strait Islander cultural dance has traditionally focussed on the music and songs and rarely on the movements themselves or the cultural protocols of dance. Specifically, we explore how Islander dance from the Island of Mer (Meriam Kab) is not only created and practised but also how that information is communicated. This chapter asks the questions – how should Meriam Kab be researched? What are the protocols and processes that need to be followed? What is the role of Elders and how important is their place in the practice of dance? These questions will be explored through the cultural dances performed by the Gerib Sik Torres Strait Islander Corporation as an inroad into the significance of Meriam Kab as expressions of Meriam identity. Gerib Sik has a long tradition of cultural consultation in the development of their dances, and this chapter is co-authored by the directors. Through this writing, we hope to shine a spotlight on Meriam Kab research by illustrating the importance of the specificity of Islander identity.

Details

Indigenous Research Ethics: Claiming Research Sovereignty Beyond Deficit and the Colonial Legacy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-390-6

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Kerry Bodle, Mark Brimble, Scott Weaven, Lorelle Frazer and Levon Blue

The purpose of this paper is to investigate success factors pertinent to the management of Indigenous businesses through the identification of points of intervention at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate success factors pertinent to the management of Indigenous businesses through the identification of points of intervention at the systemic and structural levels. Through this approach, the economic and social values that First Nations communities attach to intangible Indigenous cultural heritage (ICH) and Indigenous cultural intellectual property (ICIP) may be both recognised and realised as assets.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a multidisciplinary approach to address a global issue of economic and social significance to First Nation peoples, their businesses and the Australian Aboriginal communities. The authors adopt a First Nation epistemological standpoint that incorporates theoretical perspectives drawn from a diverse range of fields and theories (Preston, 2013), as well as advocate the use of Indigenist methodology for research with First Nation peoples as it is underpinned by critical race theory.

Findings

The authors argue conceptually that accounting, accountability and auditing consideration are required to fully identify what is impacting the successful management of Indigenous enterprises. Specifically, in relation to accounting, Elders should be included to assist in valuing the intangible ICH and ICIP assets. Furthermore, the authors emphasise the need to improve the financial and commercial literacy levels of Indigenous entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

The authors prescribe the use of tools for the accounting treatment of ICH and ICIP as intangible assets within an Australian regulatory environment and define an auditing process and accountability model incorporating cultural, social and environmental measures. A central tenet of this model relates to improving levels of personal and commercial financial literacy in the First Nation participants. Collectively, these factors promote informed participation and decision-making, and may promulgate more sustainable outcomes.

Social implications

Integrated thinking requires all these factors to be considered in a holistic manner, such that a First Nation enterprise and the wider Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people can understand, and make decisions based on, the overall impact it has on all their stakeholders and generally on the society, the environment and the economy.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to Australia’s strategic research priorities of maximising social and economic participation in society and improving the health and well-being of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The authors address the inability of current Western accounting standards, practices and models to suitably account for communally held and protocol-bound intangible Indigenous cultural heritage and Indigenous cultural intellectual property assets.

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Pat Dudgeon, Angela Ryder, Carolyn Mascall and Maddie Boe

In partnership with the University of Western Australia (UWA), the strengths-based National Empowerment Project (NEP) brought together researchers from across Australia and

Abstract

In partnership with the University of Western Australia (UWA), the strengths-based National Empowerment Project (NEP) brought together researchers from across Australia and began to address issues surrounding Aboriginal wellbeing and, in particular, the high rates of Aboriginal deaths by suicide. The NEP utilised participatory action research (PAR) and was concerned with promoting positive cultural, social, and emotional wellbeing (CSEWB) and building capacity and resilience within Aboriginal communities. Throughout the NEP, consultations with 11 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities led to the development of a CSEWB program. The program seeks to increase self-determination and empowerment, developing participants’ awareness of a variety of issues relevant to wellbeing. This enables participants to gain a greater understanding of the holistic nature of CSEWB and the complex influences on Aboriginal wellbeing at individual, family, and community levels. This chapter is concerned with the development and delivery of the CSEWB program within three community sites in Perth, Western Australia. Shared philosophical approaches of the CSEWB program, between UWA and Aboriginal communities were human rights and social justice, community ownership, community capacity building, a strong focus on resilience, empowerment and partnerships, respect for local knowledge, and the delivery of community consultations. Investigation into the impacts of the program are based in an anti-colonial space, employing Indigenous Standpoint Theory and PAR approaches. This chapter demonstrates the success of the CSEWB program, links this success to the vital importance of Indigenous research ethics, and positions the research within an empowering and capacity-building context.

Details

Indigenous Research Ethics: Claiming Research Sovereignty Beyond Deficit and the Colonial Legacy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-390-6

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2013

Gawaian Bodkin-Andrews and Rhonda G. Craven

Recent research into the nature and impact of racial discrimination directed at Aboriginal Australian children and youth has revealed how such a stressor can negatively…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent research into the nature and impact of racial discrimination directed at Aboriginal Australian children and youth has revealed how such a stressor can negatively impact upon varying physical health, emotional well-being and education outcomes. Despite the strength of these findings for identifying need for action, such research has been largely limited by either a lack of consideration as to the potentially complex nature of racism targeting Aboriginal Australians or alternatively offering little in identifying sources of resiliency for Aboriginal Australian students. It is the purpose of this investigation to identify the voices of high-achieving Aboriginal Australian post-graduate students with regard to their experiences of racism, how they may have coped with racism and their advice to future generations of Aboriginal youth.

Methodology

A series of in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with seven Aboriginal Australian PhD students within an Australian University. The interviews were designed to capture the perceptions, experiences and coping strategies used when faced with racism. The data was carefully and repeatedly scrutinized for emerging themes that were shared by the majority of participants.

Findings

Numerous themes emerged with issues pertaining to the veracity of racism and conceptualizations of racism across historical/cross-generational, contemporary, verbal, physical, institutional, cultural, political, electronic, personal, reverse/internalized and collective/group dimensions. In addition, the negative impact of racism was identified, but more importantly, a series of interrelated positive coping responses (e.g. externalization of racism, social support) were voiced.

Implications

The implications of these results attest to the need to understand the many faces of racism that may still be experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders today. In addition, the coping strategies identified may be seen as valuable agents of resiliency for future generations of Aboriginal youth.

Details

Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-686-6

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

Aboriginal people across Australia have diverse practices, beliefs and knowledges based on thousands of generations of managing and protecting their lands (Country). The intimate relationship Aboriginal people have with their Country is explored in this chapter because such knowledge is important for building insight into the relationship between social and ecological systems. Often in research Aboriginal views have been marginalised from discussions focused on their lands to the detriment of ecosystems and human health. This chapter aims to understand if such marginalisation is evident in Western human–nature relationship discourses.

Approach

This chapter provides a critical literature review which examines whether Aboriginal people’s diverse understanding of their ecosystems have been incorporated into human–nature theories using the biophilia hypothesis as a starting point. Other concepts explored include solastalgia, topophilia and place.

Findings

Critiques of these terminologies in the context of Aboriginal people’s connection to Country are limited but such incorporation is viewed in the chapter as a possible mechanism for better understanding human’s connection to nature. The review identified that Aboriginal people’s relationship to Country seems to be underrepresented in the human–nature theory literature.

Value

This chapter emphasises that the integration of Aboriginal perspectives into research, ecological management and policy can provide better insight into the interrelationships between social and ecological systems.

Details

Ecological Health: Society, Ecology and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-323-0

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2009

Rod Stroud

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues surrounding the development at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues surrounding the development at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) of a national digital knowledge centre and indigenous portal for bringing culture back home and beyond.

Design/methodology/approach

How do we find and gather relevant material from the rapidly increasing digital sources found along the landscapes of the web, other libraries, CD‐ROMs etc? And with what we have gathered to add to the AIATSIS Digital Library, how can we plan to preserve and create culturally sensitive and appropriate descriptions of our collections, for future access in our keeping place, a keeping place for all? Apart from digitising our own collections, the AIATSIS Library has borrowed and digitised material from other libraries such as annual reports of the state government Protectors of Aborigines. A far greater challenge is in gathering relevant materials from digital libraries, from Google Books, Internet Archive and the Gutenberg Project as well as a rapidly increasing number of individual libraries.

Findings

Preserving our collections alone does not tell all the story about our keeping place – a more appropriate means of describing our collections covering the rich diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, languages and lifestyles is required. The AIATSIS Library has recently redeveloped its subject thesaurus which describes the AIATSIS collections in our Catalogue and Digital Archive. It is clear that the work in AIATSIS to develop its digital archive and plan for the best means of digital repatriation has achieved initial momentum.

Originality/value

There is a strong and vital need to retain our indigenous cultures and the work described in this paper may help show the way to other bodies responsible for developing their collections.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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