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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2022

Abida Jabeen, Nusrat Ajaz, Nusrat Jan, Tawheed Amin, Gousia Gani, Omar Bashir and Quraazah Akeemu Amin

Throughout the world, there has been a dramatic increase in the demand for functional food products. Owing to the health benefits of barley, its utilization was explored for the…

Abstract

Purpose

Throughout the world, there has been a dramatic increase in the demand for functional food products. Owing to the health benefits of barley, its utilization was explored for the development of β-glucan rich functional instant talbina (porridge). The present research was, therefore, undertaken with an aim to optimize the extrusion conditions for development of instant talbina premix and evaluate its functional and quality characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The independent variables i.e. barrel temperature (105–125°C) and feed moisture (12–20%) were studied to determine their influence on the system parameter i.e. specific mechanical energy and product characteristics i.e. bulk density, breaking strength, water absorption index, expansion ratio, water solubility index, L*, a* and b* by employing a central composite rotatable design.

Findings

All the quality parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by independent variables. The regression models obtained for all the responses showed higher coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.99). The optimum extrusion conditions obtained by numerical optimization for development of extrudates used for making instant talbina were moisture content (12%) and barrel temperature (105°C). Various functional, pasting, complexing index and physicochemical properties of instant talbina were improved by the addition of honey and milk. The instant talbina prepared from barley flour with the addition of milk and honey showed increase in the β-glucan content, resistant starch, antioxidant activity and decrease in glycemic index with improved overall acceptability.

Originality/value

As far as we could possibly know that very limited or not many studies have been carried out wherein the possibility of developing instant talbina (porridge) have been carried out. As a result, the current study has a lot of potential for the food industry to manufacture β-glucan rich functional instant talbina with improved antioxidant characteristics and low glycemic index.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Abida Jabeen, Haroon Naik, Nusrat Jan, Syed Zameer Hussain, Tawheed Amin and Aasima Rafiq

The present research was envisaged with an aim to optimize the system and the product responses for the development of tomato pomace-incorporated corn-based extrudates employing…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research was envisaged with an aim to optimize the system and the product responses for the development of tomato pomace-incorporated corn-based extrudates employing central composite rotatable design and determine its proximate, lycopene, consumer acceptability and storage studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Lycopene-rich extrudates were developed from corn flour blended with different levels of tomato pomace. The independent extrusion variables, namely, feed composition (95:5 to 75:25), feed moisture (12–20%), screw speed (200–600 rpm) and barrel temperature (125–185 °C), were studied to determine their influence on dependent variables, namely, specific mechanical energy, hardness, water solubility index, lateral expansion, water absorption index, bulk density and color.

Findings

All of the quality parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by independent variables. The regression models obtained for all the responses showed high coefficients of determination (R2 = 0.85–0.95). The optimum conditions for the development of tomato pomace-incorporated corn-based extrudates were feed composition (90:10), feed moisture (14%), screw speed (300 rpm) and barrel temperature (170 °C). The moisture, fat and carbohydrate contents of the extrudates were significantly reduced, whereas protein, ash and fiber were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced after the incorporation of tomato pomace. Aluminum laminates were found to be the suitable packaging materials for extrudates for a period of 120 days in comparison to high-density polyethylene packages.

Originality/value

As far as the authors could possibly know, scanty literature exists wherein the tomato pomace has been utilized for the development of lycopene-rich corn-based extruded snacks. Such extrudates with significantly higher fiber and lycopene contents than corn flour will serve as a suitable alternative for the development of shelf-stable ready-to-eat extruded snacks.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2022

Sobiya Manzoor, Syed Zameer Hussain, Tawheed Amin, Omar Bashir, Bazila Naseer, Abida Jabeen, Ufaq Fayaz, Naseh Nisar, Aarizoo Mushtaq, Monisa Yousouf, Zahida Naseem and Uzznain Khan

The purpose of this article was to highlight the various methods of extrusion technologies for encapsulation of bioactive components (BACs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article was to highlight the various methods of extrusion technologies for encapsulation of bioactive components (BACs).

Design/methodology/approach

BACs provide numerous health-care benefits; however, downsides, including a strong effect of organoleptic properties by reason of the bitterness and acridity of a few components, and also a short shelf-life, limit their application in food. The food industry is still demanding complicated qualities from food ingredients, which were often impossible to obtain without encapsulation such as stability, delayed release, thermal protection and an acceptable sensory profile. Various techniques such as melt injection extrusion, hot-melt extrusion, electrostatic extrusion, co-extrusion and particles from gas-saturated solutions, could be used for maintaining these characteristics.

Findings

Extrusion technology has been well used for encapsulation of bioactive chemicals in an effort to avoid their numerous downsides and to boost their use in food. The count of BACs that could be encapsulated has risen owing to the extrusion technology just as form of encapsulation. Extrusion technique also aids in the devaluation of the fragment size of encapsulated BACs, allowing for greater application in the food business.

Originality/value

The study reported that encapsulating BACs makes them more stable in both the product itself and in the gastrointestinal tract, so using encapsulated BACs would result in a product with stronger preventive properties.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 53 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 June 2022

Gousia Gani, Haroon Naik, Tawheed Amin, Nusrat Jan, Syed Zameer Hussain, Omar Bashir and Abida Jabeen

Currently, there is a great demand for those food products that are easy to prepare or ready for direct consumption. Making pear fruit/juice available round the year is desirous…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently, there is a great demand for those food products that are easy to prepare or ready for direct consumption. Making pear fruit/juice available round the year is desirous owing to pears' high-nutritional value and specific pleasant taste. Pear is, however, a seasonal fruit and under ambient conditions has a limited shelf life rendering it available as fresh fruit for a specific period.

Design/methodology/approach

The study aimed to optimize the spray drying process parameters using response surface methodology for the development of pear juice powder. The process variables included the inlet air temperature of 140–210°C, maltodextrin levels of 4–25%, atomization speed of 11,400–28,000 rpm, feed flow rate of 180–630 mL/hr, and feed total soluble solids (TSS) of 13–30°Brix. The dependent responses were powder yield, solubility, antioxidant activity {% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity}, dispersibility, hygroscopicity and particle density.

Findings

Among independent variables, inlet air temperature showed a predominant effect. The optimum processing conditions for the development of pear juice powder with optimum quality were 163.02°C inlet air temperature, 13.50% maltodextrin, 28,000 rpm atomization speed, 390.94 mL/h feed flow rate, and 25.5°Brix feed TSS. Under these optimum conditions, pear powder with desirable properties could be produced. The experimental and predicted values were found to be in agreement, indicating the suitability of the model in predicting optimizing responses of pear powder. Glass transition temperature of pear powder was found to be 36.60 ± 0.40°C, which is much higher than that of ambient temperature, suggesting better shelf stability.

Originality/value

The processing of pear fruit has resulted in the increased demand for pear juice powder in both domestic and international markets as a primer of new food products. The optimum conditions obtained in the current study could provide a new insight to the food industry in developing spray-dried pear powder of optimum quality. This can open up a new horizon in the field of food industry for the common masses of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 125 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 May 2022

Monisa Yousouf, Syed Zameer Hussain, Varsha Kanojia, Tahiya Qadri, Bazila Naseer, Fouzia Shafi and Abida Jabeen

The purpose of this study was to formulate a complete protein food from lentil flour (LF) and egg powder (EP) through microwave-assisted extrusion technology.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to formulate a complete protein food from lentil flour (LF) and egg powder (EP) through microwave-assisted extrusion technology.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first part of the hybrid technology, the feed proportion and extrusion conditions were optimized through design expert using central composite rotatable design. In the second part of hybrid technology, the optimized protein pellets (PP) obtained were subjected to microwave heating (MH) for 50,100, 150, 200 and 250 s.

Findings

The optimum predicted conditions for development of pellets using extrusion cooking were feed proportion (85% LF and 15% EP), barrel temperature (140°C), screw speed (340 rpm) and feed moisture content (12%). When these pellets were subjected to MH, 150 s of heating time was considered as prudential to induce desirable quality changes in PP. The increase in sectional expansion index, crispness and overall acceptability from 0.637 to 0.659, 4.51 to 6.1 and 3.27 to 3.59 with corresponding decrease in bulk density and breaking strength from 73.33 to 69.75 kg/cm3 and 6.24 to 5.13 N during 150 s of MH indicated that quality characteristics of extruded PPs were improved after MH.

Practical implications

Nowadays, consumers have become more health conscious than ever, and the demand for nutritious snacks has increased many folds. However, the high protein content restricts expansion of snacks, which was overcome by subjecting extruded pellets to MH to produce third generation pellets. Furthermore, the PP has a protein content of 31.62%, which indicates that if an average person consumes 100 g of these snacks, it will suffice 60% of total recommended dietary intake (0.75 g/kg body weight/day). Lentil-based pellets expanded by use of such hybrid technology (microwave-assisted extrusion cooking) can help to provide a feasible, low cost and protein-rich diet for malnourished population besides being a value addition to lentils.

Originality/value

LF in combination with EP was tested for the first time for development of nutrient dense pellets. Moreover, use of microwave-assisted extrusion cooking offers a workable and innovative technique of developing protein-rich pellets with improved physico-chemical and sensory attributes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 53 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 December 2021

Omar Bashir, Syed Zameer Hussain, Tawheed Amin, Nusrat Jan, Gousia Gani, Shakeel Ahmad Bhat and Abida Jabeen

Apricots are not only nutritionally-rich but also possess pharmacological significance owing to their high antioxidant activity, and they are rich in vitamins, fibers, bioactive…

Abstract

Purpose

Apricots are not only nutritionally-rich but also possess pharmacological significance owing to their high antioxidant activity, and they are rich in vitamins, fibers, bioactive phytochemicals and minerals. Because of its immense organoleptic characteristics, apricot juice (AJ) is well accepted; however, it has a limited shelf-life, thereby demanding it to be converted into other shelf-stable form. One of the approaches is converting this juice into dehydrated powder. Amongst the various dehydration techniques available, spray drying is usually preferred; however, it involves the use of several independent variables, which need to be optimized, thus prompting to optimize the process to obtain spray dried apricot powder (SDAP) with improved quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The spray-drying process of apricot juice was done using the response surface approach. The process variables included the inlet air temperature of 135–220°C, gum arabic concentration of 4–25%, feed flow rate of 124–730 mL/h, feed total soluble solids (TSS) of 10-30°Brix and atomization speed of 11,400–28,000 rpm. The dependent responses were powder yield, hygroscopicity, solubility, moisture content, carotenoids (CT), ascorbic acid (AA), radical scavenging activity (RSA), lightness, wettability, bulk density, particle density and porosity.

Findings

Amongst all independent variables, inlet air temperature had most predominant impact on all the investigated responses. The optimum processing conditions for development of apricot powder with optimum quality were 190°C inlet air temperature, 18.99% gum arabic, 300.05 mL/h feed flow rate, 24°Brix feed TSS and 17433.41 rpm atomization speed. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of models in predicting optimizing responses of apricot powder. Flowability as Carr's index (CI) (22.36 ± 1.01%) suggests fair flow of powder. Glass transition temperature of powder was 57.85 ± 2.03°C, which is much higher than that of ambient, suggesting its better shelf stability.

Originality/value

To the best of author's knowledge, very limited or very few studies have been carried out on the spray-drying process for the manufacture of SDAP. The results of this investigation will open up new horizons in the field of food industry in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India or elsewhere in the apricot-growing areas of India.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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