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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Abbas J. Ali and Abdulrahman Al‐Aali

In 1987, the Harvard Business Review conducted a survey of its readers regarding the U.S. performance in the world markets. The study indicated that the U.S. had a…

Abstract

In 1987, the Harvard Business Review conducted a survey of its readers regarding the U.S. performance in the world markets. The study indicated that the U.S. had a deep‐seated problem of inadequate international competitiveness (Scott, 1987). More recently, Ernst & Young/American Quality Foundation undertook an International Quality Study which examined quality practices in Canada, Germany, Japan and the U.S. (See Bowles, 1992). The study revealed that 22 per cent of U.S. business always or almost always translate customer expectations into the design of new products and service. In Germany and Japan, the figure was 40 per cent and 58 per cent respectively. The results induced, Joshua Hammond, president of the American Quality Foundation, to state that “It is clear … that quality performance has a long way to go before it reaches parity with financial performance as a matter of primary importance to America's senior executives”. What makes the situation more complex and urgent is the fact that international competition has changed the structure of global markets and the rules of the business game. Furthermore, U.S. businesses no longer command the lead in the global marketplace and new international competitors are not only aggressive and competent, but appear to give priority to customer needs and expectations. For example, many Japanese companies view customer satisfaction as a way of building loyalty, thereby generating repeat sales. In contrast, U.S. executives have often aimed not at producing customer satisfaction, but at preventing customer dissatisfaction (Bowles, 1992). Similarly, the Fortune Global 500 List (Fortune 1995) showed that three countries accounted for the majority of the top 500 firms in the world; U.S. (151 firms), Japan (149 firms), and Germany (44 firms). Nevertheless, the list indicated that more Japanese companies have made it to the top ten (from three in 1993 to six in 1994), while the number of the U.S. firms stayed the same (three) in both years.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Abdulrahman Al‐Aali

While at home one day, Mr. Mansour Al‐Zamil observed his wife preparing Arabian coffee for some of her guests. The Arabian coffee (in Arabic, “Gahwa”) is a symbol of the…

Abstract

While at home one day, Mr. Mansour Al‐Zamil observed his wife preparing Arabian coffee for some of her guests. The Arabian coffee (in Arabic, “Gahwa”) is a symbol of the famous Arabian hospitality. In Saudi Arabia, as in most of the Arabian Peninsula, Gahwa is prepared in the centuries‐old, traditional way. It tastes bitter and is served without sugar, in a special, small cup.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Abdulrahman Al‐Aali

This study examined responses from 58 food and chemical exporters in Saudi Arabia. Managerial perceptions on 24 export obstacles that were derived from the literature are…

Abstract

This study examined responses from 58 food and chemical exporters in Saudi Arabia. Managerial perceptions on 24 export obstacles that were derived from the literature are analyzed and reported. The single most important obstacle perceived by the sample exporters is fierce competition in foreign markets. Competition is followed by high cost of imported raw materials, absence of information about foreign markets, wide fluctuations in the foreign exchange rate, and high overseas transportation costs. The eight categories of the obstacles are: market information, competition, shipping, government policy, foreign market risks, export procedures, production/marketing cost, and internal/technical problems. MANOVA analysis showed that chemical and food exporters are statistically different in their mean response to these obstacles. ANOVA pinpointed those variables that are different at the .05 level. They are: risks involved in selling abroad, language and cultural differences, complex export procedures, lack of adequate export revenue insurance program, and absence of an export management and consulting company. Managerial and policy implications are discussed. Further, recommendations for tackling the top export obstacles are presented.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Muhammad Adnan Khurshid, Abdulrahman Al-Aali, Ahmed Ali Soliman and Salmiah Mohamad Amin

– The purpose of this study is to develop an Islamic corporate social responsibility (ICSR) model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop an Islamic corporate social responsibility (ICSR) model.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on Qur’anic verses and previous literature, the authors aim to develop an ICSR model with an extension of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) theory of Carroll (1979).

Findings

This study extends the theory of Carroll (1979) using an operational definition of CSR that encompasses the economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic dimensions of CSR from an Islamic perspective. This ICSR model is applicable to both Islamic and non-Islamic business systems because both Islamic and Western CSR have common humanitarian grounds.

Research limitations

The conceptual research is not tested in this article. Further, not all Islamic principles are integrated in this model.

Originality/value

Many Western theoreticians have attempted to offer theoretical, moral and ethical grounds for CSR initiatives. However, these attempts have been broadly criticized for problems relating to justification, conceptual clarity and possible inconsistency and for failing to provide adequate ethical guidance to business executives who must determine which course to pursue and their level of commitment. Therefore, there is a need to develop the concept of CSR, which has gained popularity and wide acceptance among the Western and Islamic business communities, especially from an Islamic perspective.

Details

Competitiveness Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2011

Sundaram Nataraja and Abdulrahman Al‐Aali

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the strategies and competitive advantages of Emirate Airlines that have led to exceptional performance while the overall…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the strategies and competitive advantages of Emirate Airlines that have led to exceptional performance while the overall airline industry globally has faced multibillion‐dollar losses in 2009.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors' professional experience, extensive literature review, and personal communications with selected personnel of Emirate Airlines on the subject provided the foundation for this research.

Findings

As the global business environment becomes increasingly competitive, the airline industry has also had to respond to the current business scenario, while facing devastating falling demands, shattered consumer confidence, and collapsing yields. However, in 2009, Emirate Airlines reported phenomenal growth and astounding profits while their rivals faced agonizing losses. This paper explores and examines the competitive advantage of Emirate Airlines. The major finding is that the formulation and implementation of appropriate strategies has led to the exceptional performance, profitability, and success of Emirate Airlines.

Practical implications

The competitive strategies – such as operational strategies, generic strategies, intensive strategies, and diversification strategies – can be helpful for firms to gain a competitive advantage over their rivals. Also, the ability to leverage, innovate, and pioneer new ideas, as well as a visionary management team, are essential for exceptional performance of an organization.

Originality/value

The paper provides a model for strategically managing the performance of an aspiring firm, even though the entire industry is facing distressing circumstances.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Abdulrahman Al-Aali, Kokku Randheer and Shafiullah Hasin

The purpose of this study is to propose a unified model to connect the three subcomponents of the country of origin (COO) with price, quality and consumer perceptions of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a unified model to connect the three subcomponents of the country of origin (COO) with price, quality and consumer perceptions of or intentions regarding a product. COO refers to the country with which a manufacturer’s product or brand is associated. COO can be broken down into three subcomponents: the country of design, the country of assembly and the country of parts.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviews the COO research that has been conducted in recent decades. These studies have primarily examined the correlation of COO’s broken-down components with marketing factors (such as price, quality and brand equity or loyalty) and consumer purchase behavior. These correlations are portrayed in a single model. This theory-building model is drawn using a philosophical conceptualization approach.

Findings

This study concludes that, as a result of globalization and advancement in technology, consumers are more aware of and have more access to product/brand information, and they evaluate brands according to the COO and its subcomponents. Variables such as price and quality are of high importance and should be considered during a purchase decision, whereas brand equity/loyalty is of low importance.

Research limitations/implications

This research requires further investigation, especially in developing countries, to develop a more comprehensive picture. In addition, not all marketing factors are incorporated in the model.

Practical implications

When international marketers devise plans to serve consumers, they must consider differentiation between developed and developing nations from the point of COO subcomponents and their effects on purchase intentions and consumer evaluations, when moderated by price, quality and brand loyalty/equity.

Originality/value

Prior to this study, no unified model had been proposed to connect the three subcomponents of COO with price, quality and consumer perceptions of or intentions regarding a product.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and evaluate the competitive strategy of Emirate Airlines.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and evaluate the competitive strategy of Emirate Airlines.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper outlines Emirates' history and discusses the factors that have contributed to its remarkable record of profitable growth.

Findings

How many state‐owned enterprises do you know that grow their business every year and consistently make a profit? Or, for that matter, that win awards for their customer service? One example of this unusual species is Emirate Airlines – known as “Emirates”. In an industry suffering from high and rising fuel costs, economic recession and fierce price competition, this is indeed an achievement. How do they do it? Some have accused Emirates of unfair competition; the airline naturally denies this, arguing that its success results from superior competitive strategy. What, then, are the factors that contribute to the remarkable performance of Emirate Airlines?

Practical implications

The paper draws attention to the airline's focus on high‐quality product differentiation, other factors affecting its competitive success and the reactions of rival airlines.

Social implications

The paper highlights the multicultural nature of Emirates' workforce and its reliance on expatriates to run the business.

Originality/value

The paper provides an insight into the structural and competitive considerations that have allowed Emirates to become one of the world's largest and most successful airlines.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Muhammad Adnan Khurshid, Muslim Amin and Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated conceptual framework of total quality management and corporate social responsibility.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated conceptual framework of total quality management and corporate social responsibility.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on stakeholder theory, which stresses the satisfaction of all stakeholders. Therefore, companies generate profit for their shareholders by producing high quality products and services to emphasize human dignity and to satisfy their employees without harming people and the natural environment.

Findings

The results of the study suggest an integrated conceptual framework by identifying the critical factors that are parallel between quality management and social responsibility to satisfy key stakeholders’ demands.

Research limitations/implications

This study is conceptual in nature, and empirical research is needed to identify the critical factors that promote the application of TQM and CSR practices, which are limited.

Practical implications

The proposed conceptual framework may facilitate the management of an organization to evaluate its quality and social programs and will highlight problem areas that can be improved. This study contributes to the literature on TQM and CSR and captures the important factors for effective TQM and CSR practices. The conceptual framework will help researchers and firms to recognize TQM and CSR initiatives and establish a strengthened relationship between corporate strategy and social conditions.

Originality/value

Previous studies have been conducted separately in the areas of TQM and CSR, and there are still not sufficient number of studies to simultaneously integrate quality management and social responsibility. Thus, there is a critical research gap, which raises the question of how the integration of TQM and CSR practices can be developed. There is a need to recognize the mechanism through which the specific element of CSR would be included as an implicit and/or explicit aspect or whether it should be addressed along with TQM. Therefore, this study proposes an integrated conceptual framework that can be applied to the broader issues of responsibility rather than just quality.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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