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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

David O. Obada, Muhammad Dauda, Fatai O. Anafi, Abdulkarim S. Ahmed and Olusegun A. Ajayi

A structural and textural characterization study has been performed to investigate the adherence of zeolite-based catalyst washcoated onto honey-comb-type cordierite…

Abstract

Purpose

A structural and textural characterization study has been performed to investigate the adherence of zeolite-based catalyst washcoated onto honey-comb-type cordierite monoliths. The supports were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

SEM/EDS provided quantitative estimate of the washcoated monolith as the elemental composition of catalyst coating. The XRD pattern deduced that the zeolite-based catalysts were successfully mounted on the cordierite support, showing the characteristic peaks of zeolites (Zeolite Socony Mobil–5; ZSM-5) at Braggs angles of 7.88°, 8.76°, 23.04°, 23.88° and 24.36°, whereas the characteristic peak of cordierite is seen at a Braggs angle of 10.44°.

Findings

The BET results proved that a monolayer of zeolite may serve the need for surface area and porosity. This was evident in the increase of surface area of washcoated support as against the bare support. The obtained isotherms were of Type IV, illustrating the presence of mesopores. The adsorption and desorption isotherm branches coincided over the interval 0 < P/P0 < 0.50 and 0 < P/P0 < 0.45, showing N2 reversible adsorption for the two samples, respectively.

Originality/value

It was concluded that the composite materials which are ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 25) and precursors of the transition salts of copper, zinc and ceria powders were deposited on the catalyst supports, establishing the success of the coating procedure relative to the adherence of the catalyst compositions on the ceramic support.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

David O. Obada, David Dodoo-Arhin, Muhammad Dauda, Fatai O. Anafi, Abdulkarim S. Ahmed, Olusegun A. Ajayi and Ibraheem A. Samotu

This work aims to analyze the effect of mechanical activation on structural disordering (amorphization) in an alumina-silica ceramics system and formation of mullite most…

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to analyze the effect of mechanical activation on structural disordering (amorphization) in an alumina-silica ceramics system and formation of mullite most notably at a lower temperature using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also, an objective of this work is to focus on a low-temperature fabrication route for the production of mullite powders.

Design/methodology/approach

A batch composition of kaolin, alumina and silica was manually pre-milled and then mechanically activated in a ball mill for 30 and 60 min. The activated samples were sintered at 1,150°C for a soaking period of 2 h. Mullite formation was characterized by XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Findings

It was determined that the mechanical activation increased the quantity of the mullite phase. SEM results revealed that short milling times only helped in mixing of the precursor powders and caused partial agglomeration, while longer milling times, however, resulted in greater agglomeration.

Originality/value

It is noted that, a manual pre-milling of approximately 20 min and a ball milling approach of 60 min milling time can be suggested as the optimum milling time for the temperature decrease succeeded for the production of mullite from the specific stoichiometric batch formed.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2015

Ibraheem A. Samotu, Fatai O. Anafi, Muhammad Dauda, Abdulkarim S. Ahmed, Raymond B. Bako and David O. Obada

The general-purpose engine lathe is the most basic turning machine tool. As with all lathes, the two basic requirements for turning are a means of holding the workpiece…

Abstract

The general-purpose engine lathe is the most basic turning machine tool. As with all lathes, the two basic requirements for turning are a means of holding the workpiece while it rotates as well as a means of holding cutting tools and moving them relatively to the workpiece. In this paper, we present the results of finite element analysis (FEA) performed to investigate nature of stress and their distribution at optimum point along the two turning tables of a micro-controller based versatile machine tool desktop learning module. Commercial Autodesk Inventor was used to create both three-dimensional (3D) and 2D models as well as performing simulation. Dynamics simulation generated the motion load expected to act on the tables when used for real-life operation which were in turn used to perform the FEA. The motion of the DC stepper motor driving the tables and other parts of the module is designed to be controlled by programmable chips. Before creating FEA simulation for the tables, numerical divergence were prevented by varying the mesh settings to obtain the settings at which the results of the analyses converges which was obtained at 0.03 average element size and 0.04 minimum element size. Finite element analysis carried out on the tables shows that aluminium alloy 4032-T6 chosen will serve in the fabrication of physical prototype. FEA revealed the nature and level of stresses that will be experienced on the tables, it also revealed region where these stresses will concentrate on them. The analysis also estimated the expected weight of the turning tables 1&2 to be 1.23536 and 0.257182 kg respectively and show that the minimum factor of safety was constantly 15 ul within the tables which means that they will not fail during operation.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Musa Kribat, Bruce Burton and Louise Crawford

The paper aims to investigate disclosure practices in the annual reports of Libyan banks in the run‐up to the opening of the nation's first stock exchange. Banks dominate…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate disclosure practices in the annual reports of Libyan banks in the run‐up to the opening of the nation's first stock exchange. Banks dominate this embryonic market but very little research has examined the extent (or determinants) of transparency achieved by these firms, an issue argued by Stiglitz and others to be crucial in the post‐crisis era. Currently, no detailed evidence of disclosure practices prior to the launch of the exchange exists, making an accurate assessment of the market's impact in this area impossible; the present study therefore contributes in this regard as well.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs two main methods: a disclosure index‐based analysis of mandatory and overall disclosure levels; and panel regression analysis of the determinants of the overall disclosure levels.

Findings

The results suggest that while many items are disclosed on a regular basis, on average barely more than half of all possible items appear in the annual reports. As regards compliance with mandatory requirements, the figures are higher but, worryingly, begin to fall as the launch of the market neared. The results of panel‐data analysis suggest that the overall extent of disclosure is non‐random, instead reflecting the profits achieved by the banks concerned.

Originality/value

This paper is the first detailed analysis of disclosure practices in Libyan banks and the results suggest that market authorities should be looking for an improvement in the figures, in particular the reversal of a downward trend in compliance with mandatory requirements. The paper reports a link between profit level and disclosure propensity; this evidence might be of use to regulators charged with increasing disclosure levels in the future. More generally, the results provide a comparative basis on which to assess the effect of the market's launch on disclosure practices in Libya.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 December 2019

A.A. Ousama, Helmi Hammami and Mustafa Abdulkarim

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of intellectual capital (IC) on the financial performance of Islamic banks operating in the Gulf…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of intellectual capital (IC) on the financial performance of Islamic banks operating in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study measures IC by the value added intellectual coefficient model. A regression analysis was used to assess the impact of IC on financial performance. The research sample consisted of Islamic banks operating in the GCC countries during the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. Data originated from the annual reports of Islamic banks.

Findings

The results support the thesis that IC has a positive impact on the financial performance of Islamic banks. Even though the average IC is lower than that reported in other studies, the positive effect on financial performance is obvious. The findings also show that human capital (HC) is higher than capital employed (CE) and structural capital (SC). The study reveals that SC has an insignificant impact on the financial performance of the Islamic banks compared to CE and HC.

Practical implications

The findings provide empirical evidence that IC affects the Islamic banks’ financial performance. It helps Islamic banks in the GCC countries to understand how to use their IC efficiently, especially SC as it is yet to be used efficiently. Also, the findings benefit the relevant authorities (e.g. legislators and central banks) who could use them to emphasise strategic policy reforms whenever required.

Originality/value

The current research adds to the empirical studies in the GCC countries as it views the region as a collective as opposed to individual countries. It also extends the IC and performance measurement literature of Islamic banks in the GCC countries. Moreover, the current study enriches the limited literature on IC in the context of Islamic banking.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Irfan Hassan Jaffery and Riffat Abdul Latif Mughal

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of anti-money laundering/combating of financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) measures in Pakistan. Key variables of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of anti-money laundering/combating of financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) measures in Pakistan. Key variables of AML/CFT regulations of Pakistan are used. This study explores the impact of customer due diligence, record keeping, wire transfers, correspondent banking, reporting of transactions, new technology and internal controls/compliance/trainings on money-laundering risk.

Design/methodology/approach

Data is collected with the help of questionnaires developed in light of Financial Actions Task Force (FATF) recommendations and the AML/CFT regulations of Pakistan.

Findings

Results show that customer due diligence, correspondent banking and new technology may help control money-laundering risk in Pakistan, whereas impact of record keeping, wire transfers and reporting of transactions did not have an effect on money-laundering risk. This study suggests a better implementation of these measures.

Research limitations/implications

The current study was limited to Pakistani banks. For more conclusive results, future studies should replicate similar studies in other countries.

Practical implications

Findings of this study may help the State Bank of Pakistan in taking measures to simplify the process of implementing FATF rules and regulations regarding AML/CFT, regular monitoring and trainings to the staff of banks and development finance institutions in customer due diligence, correspondent banking and new technology. Further, it helps to take appropriate measures in resolving banks-specific issues related to AML/CFT.

Social implications

Effective AML/CFT control measures would strengthen socio-economic growth in a country. Further, formalization, compliance and integrity would eliminate money laundering risk. It would create an economy that works with equity and promotes transparency.

Originality/value

This research paper supports implementation of AML/CFT regulations, proper monitoring and novel supervision of banks.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 April 2021

Nicholas M. Odhiambo

This study examines the causal relationship between exports and economic growth in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries during the period 1980 to 2017. The study also…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the causal relationship between exports and economic growth in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries during the period 1980 to 2017. The study also examines whether the causality between these two macroeconomic variables depends on the countries' stage of development as proxied by their per capita income.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a panel cointegration test and panel Granger-causality model to examine the link between exports and growth. The study also incorporates external debt as an intermittent variable in a bivariate setting between exports and economic growth, thereby creating a dynamic multivariate panel Granger-causality model.

Findings

Although the study found the existence of a long-run relationship between exports and economic growth, the study failed to find any export-led growth response in both low-income and middle-income countries. Instead, the study found evidence of a bidirectional causality and a neutrality response in middle-income and low-income countries, respectively. The study, therefore, concludes that the benefits of an export-led growth hypothesis may have been oversold, and that the strategy may not be desirable to some low-income developing countries.

Practical implications

These findings have important policy implications as they indicate that the causality between exports and economic growth in SSA countries varies with the countries' stage of development. Consistent with the contemporary literature, the study cautions low-income SSA countries against over-relying on an export-led growth strategy to achieve a sustained growth path as no causality between exports and economic growth has been found to exist in those countries. Instead, such countries should consider pursuing new growth strategies by building the domestic demand side of their economies alongside their export promotion strategies in order to expand the real sector of their economies. For middle-income countries, the study recommends that both export promotion strategies and pro-growth policies should be intensified as economic growth and exports have been found to reinforce each other in those countries.

Originality/value

Unlike the previous studies, the current study disaggregated the full sample of SSA countries into two subsets – one comprising of low-income countries and the other consisting of middle-income countries. In addition, the study uses a multivariate Granger-causality model in order to address the emission-of-variable bias. To our knowledge, this may be the first study of its kind in recent years to examine in detail the causal relationship between exports and economic growth in SSA countries using an ECM-based multivariate panel Granger-causality model.

研究目的

本研究旨在探討在1980年至2017年期間撒哈拉以南非洲國家的出口、與其經濟增長之間的因果關係,亦探討這兩個宏觀經濟變量之間的因果關係、會否取決於有關國家所處以人均收入來衡量的發展階段。

研究結果

本研究雖然發現出口與經濟增長存有一個長期性關係,唯未能於低收入國家或中等收入國家、找到任何出口帶動的增長反應。研究反而找到證據,證實中等收入國家為一雙向性因果關係反應,而低收入國家則為一中立性反應。因此,研究的結論是:出口必能帶動經濟增長這假設被過度吹噓,而且,對部份低收入發展中國家而言,實施以出口帶動經濟增長的策略或許是沒有用的。

實際意義

本研究的結果在政策方面有其重要意義。這是因為研究結果顯示、於撒哈拉以南非洲國家、出口與經濟增長之間的因果關係,會因有關國家所處的發展階段而有所變更。與當代文獻一樣,本研究提醒低收入的撒哈拉以南非洲國家,不要過度依賴以出口帶動增長的策略來謀求踏上持續增長之路,這是因為在這些國家,出口與經濟增長之間的因果關係仍未確立。他們反而應考慮推行新增長經濟策略,方法是在實施推動出口的策略的同時,也要建立其經濟的國內需求面,以擴大其經濟實業部門。就中等收入國家而言,本研究建議他們應增強推動出口的策略及強化促進增長的政策,這是因為在這些國家裏,經濟增長及出口已被證實會互為增強。

原創性/價值

有別於過去的研究,本研究把撒哈拉以南非洲國家的整體樣本分解為兩個子集:一個包括低收入國家,另一個則包括中等收入國家。而且、研究使用了多變量面板格蘭傑因果關係模型、以處理遺漏變數偏差的問題。據我們了解,這大概是近年首個同類研究、以基於歐洲共同市場多變量面板格蘭傑因果關係模型、來詳細探討於撒哈拉以南非洲國家、出口與經濟增長之間的因果關係。

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8451

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Murad Mohammed Al-Nashmi and Abdulkarim Abdullah Almamary

In an effort to build a useful conceptual framework that enhances understanding and permits practical application of ethics, this paper aims to understand the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

In an effort to build a useful conceptual framework that enhances understanding and permits practical application of ethics, this paper aims to understand the relationship and impact of Islamic marketing ethics on brand credibility. Nowadays, recognizing the ethical dilemmas associated with business is an important aspect of marketing strategy (Murphy et al. 2012). As known, the pharmaceutical industry has access to a deep pool of resources with the potential to maintain an esteemed reputation for offering innovative products that improve the public’s health and well-being (Kim and Ball, 2013). However, recent years have yielded several high-profile safety issues associated with particular medications along with a growing perception that pharmaceutical companies are unethical and drive up healthcare costs by prioritizing profits over consumer needs (USA Today/KFF/Harvard SPH, 2008). Therefore, the reputation of the pharmaceutical industry has been damaged with only 11 per cent of individuals considering pharmaceutical companies to be trustworthy (Harris Interactive Poll, 2010). Thus, the pharmaceutical industry in Yemen is the target of this paper and the relationship between its brands’ credibility and Islamic marketing ethics has been highlighted.

Design/methodology/approach

In a study of 106 respondents, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to understand the relationship, between brand credibility and Islamic marketing ethics. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to evaluate the hypothesized relationships between the variables.

Findings

Significant and positive relationships were confirmed between brand credibility and Islamic marketing ethics, namely, Annasihah, Al-Istiqamah, Al-E’etedal, Al-Ihsan, As-Sidq, Attaqwa and Al-Amanah. The eighth Islamic marketing ethic, Attasamoh, has been rejected.

Originality/value

The paper evaluates brand credibility in relation to Islamic marketing ethics in the pharmaceutical industry in Yemen. Islamic marketing ethics have been confirmed as a new variable that correlates with brand credibility and helps in boosting the level of credibility.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Tarun Pal Singh, Parminder Singh and Pavan Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to focus on natural food additives identified in the drumstick (Moringa Oleifera) and their probable application as novel ingredients in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on natural food additives identified in the drumstick (Moringa Oleifera) and their probable application as novel ingredients in the development of functional food products. This plant additive has attracted interest as one of the prominent candidates for the purpose of improving processing, quality and the safety of various livestock foods such as meat, milk, fish and their products. The search of natural food additives for the processing and preservation of high-quality, ready-to-eat products has notably increased due to the adverse effects of chemical additives on human health.

Design/methodology/approach

Traditionally, Moringa is a pan-tropical plant species, which is well-known for its nutritional and medicinal properties in human nutrition. Its leaves, seeds, flowers, pods (fruit), bark and roots are extremely valuable sources of nutrition for people of all ages. Moringa is nowadays also considered as an important source of nutraceuticals which may find wide application in the food industry. These nutraceuticals have a positive impact on the body’s function or condition by affecting the digestive, endocrine, cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, and it may ultimately influence health.

Findings

Several additives that are released in vitro or in vivo from various parts of Moringa have been attributed to different health effects, including antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activities, anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-convulsant activities and there is enhancement of nutritional and organoleptic attributes of various livestock foods. Extensive research has been undertaken to identify and characterize these additives as a new source of biologically active ingredients for the development of functional foods with specific benefits for human health.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the properties, utilization and scope of Moringa Oleifera in livestock products, all of which indicate that its effective utilization is the need of the hour.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2020

Walid Mansour

This paper aims to propose a conceptual framework for the assessment of Islamic financial products’ development.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a conceptual framework for the assessment of Islamic financial products’ development.

Design/methodology/approach

A coordinate grid with two perpendicular axes (profitability and compliance to Shari’ah) is developed and used to produce a nine-zone matrix. The research design is further developed by using a linear, composite index to assess product development feasibility and specifications. Subsequently, three strategic paths are identified: profitability-led strategic path, compliance-led strategic path and intermediate strategic path.

Findings

The findings indicate that the ideal strategic behavior the Islamic financial institutions have to borrow corresponds to the intermediate strategic path because it optimizes the trade-off between the two attributes under consideration. A proper development strategy of Islamic financial products should not ignore the compliance to the substance of Shari’ah and combine it simultaneously with profitability.

Originality/value

The paper’s originality consists in the identification of the portfolio of Islamic financial products’ strategic positioning in the nine-zone matrix and the determination of the most suitable product development strategy.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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