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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Ali Sohaib, Laurence Broadbent, Abdul Rehman Farooq, Lyndon Neal Smith and Melvyn Lionel Smith

Significant research has been carried out in terms of development of new bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) instruments; however, there is still little…

Abstract

Purpose

Significant research has been carried out in terms of development of new bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) instruments; however, there is still little research available regarding spectral BRDF measurements of human skin. This study aims to investigate the variation in human skin reflectance using a new fibre optic-based spectral-BRDF measurement device.

Design/methodology/approach

Design of this system mainly involves use of multiple fibre optics to illuminate and detect light reflected from a sample, whereas a hemispherical dome was 3D printed to mount the fibres at various slant/tilt angles. To investigate the spectral differences in BRDF of human skin, 3 narrowband filters in the visible spectrum were used, whereas measurements were taken from the back of the hand for Caucasian and Asian skin types.

Findings

The experiments demonstrate that the BRDF of human skin varies with wavelengths in the visible spectrum and it is also different for Caucasian and Asian skin types. Both skin types exhibit off-specular reflection with increase in angle of incidence and show less variation with respect to viewing angles when the angle of incidence is normal to the surface.

Research implications

A database of spectral BRDF measurements of human skin will help not only in creating realistic skin renderings but also in development of novel skin reflectance models for biomedical and machine vision applications. The measurements would also provide means to validate the predictions from existing light transport/spectral simulation models for human skin and will ultimately help in the accurate diagnosis and simulation of various skin disorders.

Originality/value

The proposed system provides fast scatter measurements by utilising multiple fibres to detect light simultaneously at different angles while also allowing easy switching between incident light directions. Due to its flexible design and contact-based measurements, the device is independent of errors due to sample movements and does not require any image registration. Also, measurements taken from the device show that the BRDF of skin varies significantly in the visible spectrum and it is different for Caucasian and Asian skin types.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Wenhao Zhang, Melvyn Lionel Smith, Lyndon Neal Smith and Abdul Rehman Farooq

This paper aims to introduce an unsupervised modular approach for eye centre localisation in images and videos following a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce an unsupervised modular approach for eye centre localisation in images and videos following a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The design of the algorithm aims at excellent accuracy, robustness and real-time performance for use in real-world applications.

Design/methodology/approach

A modular approach has been designed that makes use of isophote and gradient features to estimate eye centre locations. This approach embraces two main modalities that progressively reduce global facial features to local levels for more precise inspections. A novel selective oriented gradient (SOG) filter has been specifically designed to remove strong gradients from eyebrows, eye corners and self-shadows, which sabotage most eye centre localisation methods. The proposed algorithm, tested on the BioID database, has shown superior accuracy.

Findings

The eye centre localisation algorithm has been compared with 11 other methods on the BioID database and six other methods on the GI4E database. The proposed algorithm has outperformed all the other algorithms in comparison in terms of localisation accuracy while exhibiting excellent real-time performance. This method is also inherently robust against head poses, partial eye occlusions and shadows.

Originality/value

The eye centre localisation method uses two mutually complementary modalities as a novel, fast, accurate and robust approach. In addition, other than assisting eye centre localisation, the SOG filter is able to resolve general tasks regarding the detection of curved shapes. From an applied point of view, the proposed method has great potentials in benefiting a wide range of real-world human-computer interaction (HCI) applications.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Jiuai Sun, Xiaoping Xu, Abdul Rehman Farooq, Lyndon Neal Smith and Melvyn Lionel Smith

This paper aims to review state of the art of techniques for dimensioning chronic wounds, and validate the possibilities of employing a new proposed optical imaging…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review state of the art of techniques for dimensioning chronic wounds, and validate the possibilities of employing a new proposed optical imaging approach for general task of wound assessment.

Design/methodology/approach

Current techniques used for quantifying wound surface are reviewed and evaluated from various perspectives to exam their usability in wound care clinical settings. A photometric stereo (PS) approach will be identified and verified to work as an alternative solution to better satisfy practical requirements on quantifying the dimension of real and mocked wounds.

Findings

Both contact and contactless approaches provide some useful functions for wound management; however, new imaging modalities are still required for achieving good portability, affordability and applicability in assisting decision-making in clinical settings. The PS approach can work as a potential solution to provide these functionalities as well as dense geometrical and color texture information of measured areas. The experiments demonstrate that the new approach is able to conveniently produce comparable results to those from latest stereo vision-based techniques.

Research limitations/implications

This work proposed and initially verified the potential of PS technique for the task of wound measurement. Substantial improvements on the prototype and more clinical trials are still required to validate the new technique before it is accepted as a tool for practical wound measurement.

Originality/value

This new PS approach has good potential to reliably measure the dimension of wounds as well as recover their color texture which could contain additional valuable information for predicting a healing procedure for those wound occurring deeper underneath the skin surface.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2018

Muhammad Shoaib Farooq

Although entrepreneurial behaviour is considered a key element for economic development, yet very less is known about the determinants of factors leading towards…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although entrepreneurial behaviour is considered a key element for economic development, yet very less is known about the determinants of factors leading towards entrepreneurial intention and behaviour. In order to bridge this gap, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of social support and entrepreneurial skills in determining entrepreneurial behaviour of individuals. Developing on the base of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this study investigates the relationship between social support, entrepreneurial skills and entrepreneurial behaviour along with existing constructs of the TPB (i.e. attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and entrepreneurial intention).

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from 281 respondents using a simple random sampling method, and the variance-based partial least-squares, structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach was used for testing the proposed conceptual model.

Findings

Findings of this study have validated the proposed model, which have an explanatory power of 68.3 per cent. Moreover, findings reveal that social support and entrepreneurial skills have a significant impact on entrepreneurial intention of individuals. However, an unanticipated and non-significant relation between subjective norms and entrepreneurial intention is also found.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the limited scope of this study, a multi-group analysis is not possible, which is considered as a limitation of this study. Moreover, due to time constraints, this study is conducted within a specified time-frame; however, a longitudinal study over a period of three to six years can overcome this limitation.

Practical implications

Findings of this study are expected to have substantial implications for policy makers, future researchers and academicians. Outcomes of this study can help to better understand the cognitive phenomenon of nascent entrepreneurs. Moreover, it is expected that this study can serve as a torch-bearer for policy makers to develop better entrepreneurial development programmes, policies and initiatives for promoting self-employment behaviour.

Originality/value

Findings of this study are a unique step forward and offer new insights towards a better understanding of the determinants of entrepreneurial behaviour. Moreover, this study extends Ajzen’s (1991) TPB in the context of entrepreneurial behaviour. By introducing and investigating the impact of two new variables, i.e. social support and entrepreneurial skills in the TPB and by validating the proposed model with PLS-SEM approach, this study makes a sizeable theoretical, methodological and contextual contribution in the overall body of knowledge.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Abbas Ali Chandio, Yuansheng Jiang and Abdul Rehman

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of support price on wheat production in Pakistan during the period 1971–2016.

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6079

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of support price on wheat production in Pakistan during the period 1971–2016.

Design/methodology/approach

To capture the effect of support price on wheat production, the authors estimated the long-run linkage by using the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration.

Findings

This study confirmed the presence of a positive and long-term effect of area under cultivation, support price and fertilizer consumption on wheat production through ARDL bounds test. The results showed that both in the long run and short run, support price plays an important role in the enhancement of wheat production. The authors also found that the coefficients of the area under cultivation and fertilizer consumption variables were statistically significant and positive both in the long run and short run.

Originality/value

The use of the ARDL approach that examines the long-run and short-run effects of support price on wheat production in Pakistan makes the current study unique. An emerging economic literature suggests that only limited research has been conducted in this area.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Usman Farooq, Fu Gang, Zhenzhong Guan, Abdul Rauf, Abbas Ali Chandio and Faiza Ahsan

This study aims to investigate the long-run relationship between financial inclusion and agricultural growth in Pakistan for the period of 1960–2018.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the long-run relationship between financial inclusion and agricultural growth in Pakistan for the period of 1960–2018.

Design/methodology/approach

The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach, the Johansen co-integration test and the dynamic ordinary least squared (DOLS) method are used for the evaluation.

Findings

The results show that in both short- and long run, domestic credit has a significantly negative impact on the agricultural growth, while broad money and cropped area positively affected the agricultural growth in Pakistan in both cases.

Practical implications

The government and policymakers need to develop strategies that bring together agriculturalists on a single platform so that the government can clearly distinguish the interests of these farmers and can obtain precise information for allocating agricultural expenditure and easing access to credit for small-scale agriculturalists.

Originality/value

This is the first study to evaluate the impact of financial inclusion on the agricultural growth in Pakistan by using different econometric techniques, including the ARDL-bound approach, Johansen co-integration test and DOLS method.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Shazia Kousar, Abdul Rehman, Mahwish Zafar, Kamran Ali and Nadia Nasir

The purpose of this paper is to discuss positive spillovers of this project, especially for Pakistan because the majority of the literature discusses challenges associated…

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1510

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss positive spillovers of this project, especially for Pakistan because the majority of the literature discusses challenges associated with China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviews the available literature to assess the role of CPEC in the sustainable economic development of Pakistan.

Findings

This study indicates that CPEC is an ambitious development project because it needs a larger restructuring of the economy of Pakistan and it will be productive with the successful blend of policy changes and participation of the business community in Pakistan. This project primarily creates a huge amount of foreign direct investment for Pakistan, at the same time, it will also create greater trade opportunities to China by giving access to a new market for its trading goods.

Originality/value

This study established that CPEC will improve the economic growth and trade, enhance regional connectivity, overcome energy crises, develop infrastructure and establish people-to-people contacts in both the countries, which will further help to improve the tourism sector.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 December 2019

Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Irfan, Sehresh Hena and Abbas Ali Chandio

The purpose of this paper is to explore and investigate the electricity consumption and production and its linkage to economic growth in Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and investigate the electricity consumption and production and its linkage to economic growth in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used an augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test to check the stationarity of the variables, while an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach and causality test were applied to investigate the variables long-term association with the economic growth.

Findings

The study results show that electricity consumption in the agriculture, commercial and industrial sector has significant association with economic growth, while electricity consumption in the household and street lights demonstrate a non-significant association with the economic growth. Furthermore, results also exposed that electricity production from coal, hydroelectric, natural gas, nuclear and oil sources have significant association with the economic growth of Pakistan.

Originality/value

This study made a contribution to the literature regarding electricity consumption and production with economic growth in Pakistan by using an ARDL bounds testing approach and causality test. This study provides a guideline to the government of Pakistan that possible steps are needed to improve the electricity production and supply to fulfill the country demand.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Jamaluddin Thaheem, Hamza Farooq Gabriel, Muhammad Sohail Anwar Malik and Abdur Rehman Nasir

The purpose of this research is to quantify the effect of stakeholder conflicts on project constraints in the construction industry using ordinal regression analysis. For…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to quantify the effect of stakeholder conflicts on project constraints in the construction industry using ordinal regression analysis. For this purpose, the most significant project constraints and factors that cause stakeholder conflicts found in the literature are measured.

Design/methodology/approach

Factors causing stakeholder conflicts and project constraints are extracted through a content analysis of the published literature. Further, a questionnaire survey is conducted involving 170 professionals to assess the effect of conflicts on project constraints. Finally, to obtain a more objective assessment, a statistical model is developed, and to highlight the most severe factors causing conflict and impacting project constraints, ordinal regression analysis is performed.

Findings

The results show that in the construction industry, all project constraints are affected by stakeholder conflicts. Factors that result in stakeholder conflicts indicated a positive relationship with cost, time and resources. This means that any increase or decrease in the effect of stakeholder conflicts will directly influence these three project constraints. Similarly, a negative relationship was observed between stakeholder conflicts and quality, workforce productivity, protection of environment and safety regulations in the construction industry, indicating that increase in the effect of stakeholder conflicts will decrease these four project constraints and vice versa. The results for cumulative ordinal regression model highlight that lack of communication, poor quality of completed works and change orders and rework have intense effects on project constraints collectively.

Originality/value

A small number of studies have been undertaken to examine the emergence of project constraints in the developing countries. And even more, its relationship with stakeholder conflicts in the construction industry is limited. This research highlights the most significant project constraints and factors that result in stakeholder conflicts in the construction industry. Therefore, this study adds to the existing body of knowledge by developing an ordinal regression model that will help decision-makers and top management control this enigma of stakeholder conflicts in the construction industry.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Syed Abdul Rehman Khan, Zhang Yu, Muhammad Umar, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour and Rahul S. Mor

This study aims to examine the impact of Covid-19 on social and eco-environmental sustainability. It will also investigate the effect of advanced technologies in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of Covid-19 on social and eco-environmental sustainability. It will also investigate the effect of advanced technologies in the post-pandemic era.

Design/methodology/approach

To get the robust findings, GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) modeling is employed on the panel data of 50 countries across the globe.

Findings

The outcomes indicate that gross fixed capital, logistical operations, knowledge spillover are positive, while Covid-19 is negatively associated with international trade. The results also revealed that Covid-19 spurs poverty and vulnerable employment, while the fertility rate increase creates pressure on economic growth. Also, fossil fuel and energy consumption contribute to carbon emission, while green and advanced technologies may mitigate the environment's adverse effects.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to provide a solution to the challenges posed by the Covid-19 pandemic in the post-pandemic environment. Furthermore, researchers, managers and legislators can use this article's findings to formulate relevant policies for post-pandemic.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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