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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Salman Ahmed Shaikh, Abdul Ghafar Ismail and Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Shafiai

This paper aims to discuss the application of waqf (endowment) in the social finance sector for funding social and development projects and services.

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17723

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the application of waqf (endowment) in the social finance sector for funding social and development projects and services.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is qualitative. It reviews literature and provides descriptive data to present its main idea.

Findings

Most Muslim-majority countries are generally income-poor, and the governments are generally weak in their tax collection, effective governance and capacity for development spending. Private sector financial institutions are scarce and mostly cater to the people who can meet the income-based lending criteria. Thus, the institution of waqf can fill the gap as a social finance institution by providing intermediation services for effectively utilising perpetual social savings. Flexibility in the rules of waqf enables it to serve beneficiaries directly or through financial institutions and to provide a wide range of social services.

Research limitations/implications

This conceptual research highlights the need and potential of waqf without discussing the regulatory and operational details of how to effectively institutionalize it in different regions.

Practical implications

The institution of waqf can harness the potential of selfless charitable giving in an effective way for better economic impact in the targeted social segments of society.

Originality value

The paper suggests the establishment of waqf-based training and vocational centres which will increase opportunities of self-employment and contribute in upward social mobility of beneficiaries.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Nurul Syazwani Mohd Noor, Muhammad Hakimi Mohd. Shafiai and Abdul Ghafar Ismail

This paper aims to propose a derivation of Shariah risk from both the Islamic finance theory and theory of contracts in Islamic law. Specifically, it deliberates the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a derivation of Shariah risk from both the Islamic finance theory and theory of contracts in Islamic law. Specifically, it deliberates the derivation of Shariah risk following the contracts validity and apprises the readers of the Shariah risk issues currently under debate.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviews the relevant literature and presents an analysis of contract rulings through evidence derived from the Qur’an, Hadith and other secondary sources of Islamic law. Various theories of Islamic finance and Islamic law of contracts are identified, to examine the general principles and essential elements and conditions of a valid contract.

Findings

This analysis asserts that any circumstances that may render invalidity of the contract will trigger Shariah risk. More importantly, this paper highlights the implications of invalid contracts, based on the opinion of Hanafi jurists, who concluded that Shariah risk may be derived from any void or voidable contracts due to the failure of the contractual parties to comply with Shariah contractual obligations.

Research limitations/implications

This paper emphasises the derivation of Shariah risk over theoretical approaches. It does not include an explanation in the form of any empirical model.

Originality/value

This is the first study that contributes to the field of derivation of Shariah risk, based on the theory from the Islamic law of contracts.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Abdul Ghafar Ismail, Nik Abdul Rahim Nik Abdul Ghani and Mat Nor Mat Zain

This paper aims to make an attempt to analyze the adoption of wakalah in the tawarruq deposit that may trigger new issue.

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1305

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to make an attempt to analyze the adoption of wakalah in the tawarruq deposit that may trigger new issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a review on the underlying contracts for deposit-taking activities.

Findings

There are two mains findings from this paper – first, the current deposit taking activities are characterized by principal guaranteed, it deems contrary to the nature of mudarabah. Second, we suggest the presence of wakalah in tawarruq term deposits and we argue that the application of the concept of bay al-wakillinafsihi would not affect the validity of wakalah.

Originality/value

This paper is considered to have its own originality in the sense that the introduction of tawarruq-based deposit product by Islamic banks could be the best alternative to the current deposit products.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Salman Ahmed Shaikh, Mohd Adib Ismail, Abdul Ghafar Ismail, Shahida Shahimi and Muhammad Hakimi Mohd. Shafiai

This paper aims to integrate Islamic and mainstream economics framework towards a more realistic understanding of Muslim consumption behaviour.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to integrate Islamic and mainstream economics framework towards a more realistic understanding of Muslim consumption behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The model incorporates some of the Islamic institutions like period-wise deduction of Zakat from endowments. It also includes bequests which could be significant given the Islamic injunctions on inheritance distribution and the significance placed on the institution of family. Furthermore, the model integrates the assumption that consumption opportunity set will axiomatically filter out the prohibited consumption goods from the consumption set in both contemporaneous and inter-temporal consumption.

Findings

Zakat ensures contemporaneous redistribution from endowment surplus households (those having Zakatable endowments above Nisab) to endowment-deficient households (those having Zakatable endowments below Nisab). The lifetime resources are scaled down for endowment surplus households because of the payment of Zakat in both periods and leaving bequests in old-age period, while the lifetime resources are scaled up for endowment deficient households because of the receipt of Zakat in both periods and receiving the bequests in youth.

Originality/value

The authors show how some of the Islamic principles and institutions can be integrated in the mainstream economics framework, especially in research studies where the objective is to understand and describe reality rather than persuasion and idealization.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2018

Salman Ahmed Shaikh, Mohd Adib Ismail, Abdul Ghafar Ismail, Shahida Shahimi and Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Shafiai

This study aims to examine the consumption behaviour in Organization of Islamic Cooperation countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the consumption behaviour in Organization of Islamic Cooperation countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using time series and panel data, this study estimates rational expectations permanent income hypothesis model and the intertemporal elasticity of substitution, and examines the response in consumption to expected and unexpected changes in income.

Findings

The evidence supports the phenomenon of loss aversion. The response of consumption to unexpected income changes is statistically significant in only one-third of the countries in the sample. Conversely, the response of consumption to expected income changes is statistically as well as economically significant in one-fourth of the countries in the sample. The intertemporal elasticity of substitution is also statistically insignificant in majority of OIC countries in the sample.

Practical implications

The evidence in support of loss aversion in preferences could help in explaining the low penetration of equity-based risk sharing instruments in Islamic finance.

Social implications

The excess sensitivity of consumption to income suggests that redistribution efforts to enhance incomes of poor households could help in enhancing their consumption levels.

Originality/value

The study takes a comprehensive sample across time and space for OIC countries as compared to previous studies and also adjusts the budget constraint for Zakat.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Salman Ahmed Shaikh, Mohd Adib Ismail, Abdul Ghafar Ismail, Shahida Shahimi and Muhammad Hakimi Mohd. Shafiai

This study aims to comparatively analyze the performance of Islamic and conventional income and equity funds using various performance evaluation methods.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to comparatively analyze the performance of Islamic and conventional income and equity funds using various performance evaluation methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors comparatively analyze the performance of mutual funds using measures, such as tracking error, Sharpe ratio (1966), Treynor ratio (1965), M-square measure by Modigliani and Modigliani (1997) and information ratio. The authors also use market timing and selection measures, such as Treynor and Mazuy model (1966), Henriksson and Merton (1981) model and Fama’s decomposition approach (1973).

Findings

The authors find that Islamic equity funds are as much competitive as conventional equity funds. All Islamic equity funds have positive Sharpe ratio, Treynor ratio and net selectivity measure. Islamic equity funds are slightly less risky in general. Islamic equity and income funds generally have positive Jensen's Alpha and a positive market timing ability. However, the authors find that Islamic income funds generally underperform the market due to less Shari’ah-compliant investment class assets in the market.

Practical implications

It will help the industry players to assess their strategic positioning with regard to the commercial competitiveness of Islamic investments.

Originality/value

The authors take considerably large sample of 60 funds in Pakistan as compared to previous studies and also cover recent period (2006-16). For income funds, the authors construct an original benchmark index based on price and dividend data and use that in performance assessment.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Salman Ahmed Shaikh, Mohd Adib Ismail, Abdul Ghafar Ismail, Shahida Shahimi and Muhammad Hakimi Mohd. Shafiai

This paper aims to study the cross section of expected returns on Shari’ah-compliant stocks in Pakistan by using single- and multi-factor asset pricing models.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the cross section of expected returns on Shari’ah-compliant stocks in Pakistan by using single- and multi-factor asset pricing models.

Design/methodology/approach

To estimate cross section of expected returns of Shari’ah-compliant stocks, the study uses capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Fama-French three-factor model and Fama-French five-factor model. Data for the period 2001-2015 on 217 companies are used. For the market portfolio, PSX-100 and Dow Jones Islamic Index for Pakistan are used.

Findings

The study could not find empirical support for CAPM using Lintner (1965), Black et al. (1972) and Fama and Macbeth (1973) approach. Nonetheless, the relation between beta and returns is positive in up-market and negative in down-market. The results of Fama-French three-factor and five-factor models suggest that size premium is positive and significant for explaining the cross section of stock returns of small size stocks, whereas value premium is positive and significant for explaining the cross section of returns of high value stocks.

Practical implications

The results suggest that fund managers can use Shari’ah-compliant stocks for portfolio diversification and for offering specialized investments given the positive market excess returns and the existence of size and value premium on Shari’ah-compliant stocks.

Originality/value

This is the first study on Fama-French (2015) five-factor model for Islamic capital markets in Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Noraina Mazuin Sapuan, Nur Azura Sanusi, Abdul Ghafar Ismail and Antoni Wibowo

The purposes of this study are twofold. First, to theoretically examine the profit-sharing (mudarabah) contract that produces an optimal distribution of return in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this study are twofold. First, to theoretically examine the profit-sharing (mudarabah) contract that produces an optimal distribution of return in the presence of social learning (shuratic process) within the environment of asymmetric information. Second, to empirically investigate the optimal condition of profit-sharing ratio (PSR) and social learning for profit-sharing (mudarabah) contract in Islamic banking.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from one of the biggest and earliest Islamic banks in Malaysia were taken as a proxy of an Islamic bank. The data are collected from the period of 2009 to 2013, and these will be used for the simulation process by using the genetic algorithm (GA) technique.

Findings

The empirical results discovered that Islamic banks had used social learning in their daily activities, especially in the asset side. The results also showed that the trend of social learning has a positive relationship with the trend of Islamic banks’ net profit. Additionally, the results also indicated that the Islamic banks’ net profit has a positive relationship with its PSR from the profit-sharing (mudarabah) financing and securities investment.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind that investigates the implementation of the social learning process in Islamic banking operation. This study also used the latest technique from artificial intelligence system, i.e. a GA, to attain an optimal value for PSR and social learning process.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Rose Abdullah and Abdul Ghafar Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to explore two main aspects of waqf: the characteristics of waqf property and the management of waqf. This paper also discusses the governance…

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1207

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore two main aspects of waqf: the characteristics of waqf property and the management of waqf. This paper also discusses the governance of waqf management as a source of funds for Islamic microfinance institutions (MFIs).

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses content analysis method to examine various literatures that discuss the concept and management of waqf.

Findings

The characteristics of cash waqf such as permanence, irrevocability and perpetuity differentiate waqf from other type of donations. Therefore, cash waqf-based Islamic microfinance needs to be sustainable. Good corporate governance is vital to ensure the sustainability. As the donors of cash waqf do not aim to make financial profit, waqf-based Islamic MFIs will be able to provide low-cost capital to the poor entrepreneurs. Furthermore, to ensure the perpetuity of the waqf, it is suggested that only revenue from the waqf property should be used for microfinance fund.

Social implications

The cash waqf-based Islamic microfinance will help the micro entrepreneurs to get low-cost capital without collateral. At the same time, public can donate any amount they afford to contribute to cash waqf.

Originality/value

The creation of a cash waqf-based Islamic MFI must observe the issues of agency conflicts and the right of stakeholders to a transparent management. This paper emphasizes the importance of good governance in managing the waqf property as a source of fund for Islamic MFIs.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2021

Suriani Suriani, M. Shabri Abd. Majid, Raja Masbar, Nazaruddin A. Wahid and Abdul Ghafar Ismail

The purpose of this study is to empirically analyze the role of sukuk in the monetary policy transmission mechanism through the asset price and exchange rate channels in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically analyze the role of sukuk in the monetary policy transmission mechanism through the asset price and exchange rate channels in the Indonesian economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the monthly data from January 2003 to November 2017, this study uses a multivariate vector error correction model causality framework. To examine the role of sukuk in the monetary policy transmission mechanism through the asset price channel, this study uses the variables of consumption, inflation, interest rates, economic growth and the composite stock price index. Meanwhile, to examine the role of sukuk in the monetary policy transmission mechanism through the exchange rate channel, this study used variables of inflation, interest rates, economic growth, foreign investment and exchange rate.

Findings

This study documented that sukuk has no causal relationship with inflation through asset price and exchange rate channels. Nevertheless, sukuk has a bidirectional causal relationship with economic growth through asset price and exchange rate channels. Sukuk is also documented to have a causal relationship with monetary policy variables of interest rate and stock prices through asset price and exchange rate channels. Finally, a unidirectional causality is recorded running from the exchange rate to sukuk in the exchange rate channel.

Research limitations/implications

The finding of independence of the sukuk market from interest rates provides evidence that the trading of the sukuk in Indonesia has been in harmony with the Islamic tenets.

Practical implications

The relevant Indonesian authorities need to enhance both domestic and global sukuk markets as part of efforts to promote the sustainability of Islamic capital market development in Indonesia.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is among the first attempts to empirically investigate the role of sukuk in monetary policy transmission through asset price and exchange rate channels in the context of the Indonesian economy.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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