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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2019

Ioannis Vassiloudis and Vassiliki Costarelli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate excess body weight and abdominal obesity in relation to selected psychosocial characteristics such as self-perception…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate excess body weight and abdominal obesity in relation to selected psychosocial characteristics such as self-perception, self-esteem and anxiety, in primary school children.

Design/methodology/approach

A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 528 students 10-12 years of age, randomly selected, from the area of Athens, Greece. The Greek versions of the self-perception profile for children (SPPC) and the state-trait anxiety inventory for children (STAI-C) questionnaires have been used to determine the children’s self-perception/self-esteem and the status of anxiety, respectively. Standard anthropometric measurements were also taken. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test for possible linear correlations between data variables. One-way ANOVA and independent t-test were used to determine statistically significant differences between the means of children’s body mass index (BMI) – abdominal obesity groups. For multiple comparisons, Bonferroni post-tests were run.

Findings

Overweight and obese children and children with abdominal obesity had lower scores in all of the domains of SPPC self-perception, the SPPC global self-esteem and the STAI-C anxiety levels in comparison to normal weight children. BMI and abdominal obesity correlated negatively with each one of the five domains of the SPPC self-perception (p <0.001) and the SPPC global self-esteem (p <0.001) and positively with the STAI-C anxiety levels (p <0.005). One-way ANOVA and independent t-test revealed statistically significant differences between the means of children’s BMI and abdominal obesity groups in all the domains of SPPC self-perception (p <0.001), the SPPC global self-esteem (p <0.001) and the STAI-C anxiety levels (p <0.005). There were no gender differences in the psychometric characteristics assessed in this study.

Originality/value

Primary school children with excess body weight and abdominal obesity have increased anxiety levels and they score lower in key psychosocial characteristics, in comparison to normal weight children.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 December 2018

Abdelhamid Kerkadi, Abdelmonem Sadig Hassan, Al Anoud Mohammed Al Thani, Walaa Al Chetachi, Hammad Akram, Hiba Bawadi, Benjamin Vinodson and Nassar Moustafa Ragheb Risk

The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among adolescents attending independent schools in Qatar.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among adolescents attending independent schools in Qatar.

Design/methodology/approaches

A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in November-December 2013 in 23 secondary schools. A total of 1,161 students aged 14 to 19 year olds were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique. Body weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured using standard protocol. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) reference were used to define overweight and obesity. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined by waist to height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0.5) and by sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values.

Findings

The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the study population was 20.6 and 20.7%, respectively. The highest rate of overweight and obesity was observed among boys, and the youngest age group. The rate of obesity defined by either WC/or WHtR was higher than that assessed by BMI. The prevalence of AO assessed by WC and WHtR was 48.8 and 46.9%, respectively. The rate of AO was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among boys compared to girls for both assessment criteria. The proportion of adolescents with AO (WHtR ≥ 0.5) according to BMI was 17.3%, 80.8% and 97.1% for adolescents with normal, overweight and obesity had AO, respectively. Being male was significantly associated with higher odds of having both general obesity and AO.

Originality/value

The study revealed a high prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in adolescents in Qatar. Waist measures appear to be an important indicator in identifying adolescents at risk and should be included as screening tools for cardiometabolic risk.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Helda Tutunchi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Shiva Hoojeghani, Sirous Tabrizi, Nazila Farrin, Laleh Payahoo and Alireza Ostadrahimi

This paper aims to evaluate the prevalence of general obesity (GO) and abdominal obesity (AO) in the north-west of Iran and investigate the association with food choices…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the prevalence of general obesity (GO) and abdominal obesity (AO) in the north-west of Iran and investigate the association with food choices and socioeconomic status (SES).

Design/methodology/approach

In this cross-sectional study, 500 subjects aged ≥ 18 years were studied. Data on their basic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary habits and physical activity were collected. The authors examined the association between GO and AO with SES and food choices using multiple logistic regression analysis.

Findings

The prevalence of GO and AO was 26.6 and 43.4%, respectively. A positive association was observed between age and GO (p for trend <0.001) and AO (p for trend 0.005) in both sexes. However, a negative correlation was detected between education and income with GO and AO (p for trend <0.001). Two or more servings of fruit consumption a day were associated with lower odds of obesity. It was observed that the odds of GO and AO decreased by three or more servings of daily fruit. The consumption of dairy products in two or more servings a day led to a reduction in odds of GO and AO. The consumption of five or more servings of legumes, beans and nuts a week was associated with lower odds of GO and AO.

Originality/value

Educational attainment, greater income and a higher intake of some specific food groups were associated with lower odds of obesity in the area. More population-based investigations are required to develop effective preventive strategies to control the status of being overweight and obesity in different regions.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Talitha Silva Meneguelli, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Adriana da Silva Leite, Josefina Bressan and Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the association between food consumption classified by the degree of processing and cardiometabolic risk factors in a population…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the association between food consumption classified by the degree of processing and cardiometabolic risk factors in a population at risk of cardiovascular disease.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study conducted with 325 adults and elderlies who present a cardiovascular risk factor. The food consumption was evaluated by a 24 h dietary recall, and it was classified according to the NOVA classification.

Findings

Individuals who presented a higher consumption of processed and ultra-processed food had a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity, waist/hip ratio (PR = 1.005; p-value = 0.049), waist circumference (PR = 1.003; p-value = 0.02) and high total cholesterol (PR = 1.008; p-value = 0.047), while ultra-processed had a higher prevalence of excess weight (PR = 1.004; p-value = 0.04), and abdominal obesity, waist/hip ratio (PR = 1.005; p-value = 0.04), waist circumference (PR = 1.004; p-value = 0.004) and waist/height ratio (PR = 1.003; p-value = 0.03).

Practical implications

An association was found between the degree of food processing and cardiometabolic risk factors, even in a population that already has a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the importance of personalized nutrition orientation that considers the profile of the target population as well as types of meals.

Originality/value

Food processing in itself can influence cardiometabolic risk and, as far as is known, no study has evaluated food processing in individuals who already have some type of cardiovascular risk. Also, consumption was assessed by the degree of processing between meals.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Yetunde Aderonke Adeyemi, Oluseye Olusegun Onabanjo, Silifat Ajoke Sanni, Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, David Olaulowa Afolabi and Catherine Adebukola Oladoyinbo

There is a global increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with relative paucity of data on the burden of this syndrome in developing countries like…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a global increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with relative paucity of data on the burden of this syndrome in developing countries like Nigeria. This study evaluated the prevalence of MetS among apparently healthy subjects in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 550 (249 men, 301 women) healthy subjects recruited using multi-stage technique. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard procedures and instruments. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured in all the subjects. Blood samples were collected from selected subjects and analyzed for hematological variables.

Findings

The prevalence of MetS was 36.8 per cent using the IDF criteria and 34.6 per cent using the NCEP-ATP III criteria. In all, 1.64 per cent (9) of respondents were underweight, 22.55 per cent (124) were of normal body mass index, 49.64 per cent (273) were overweight and 26.17 per cent (144) were obese. The mean waist circumference and waist to hip ratio for male and female were 83.27 ± 2.6 cm and 0.84 ± 0.1 and 86.22 ± 13.9 cm and 0.84 ± 0.1, respectively. Total cholesterol was elevated in 16.04 per cent of the respondents, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in 41.83 per cent of the respondents. High values of triglycerides were observed in 5.79 per cent of respondents. Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in 40.85 per cent of the respondents. This study showed that a huge burden of MetS exists among the study population.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional design of this study limits inference regarding causality and effects. Also, there was no controlled case in the study.

Practical implications

There is the need for accurate knowledge of the MetS of the population to inform public health policy for mitigation.

Social implications

MetS has been described as a global time bomb, with a quarter of the world’s adults estimated to be having the condition. It will place a burden on social services if a lot of working population are forced to retire early due to MetS.

Originality/value

The findings are pointers to the probable magnitude of the co-morbid factors of cardiovascular diseases as encapsulated in the MetS in our environment.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Mahsa Mohajeri, Shiva Hoojeghani, Farhad Pourfarzi, Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh and Ali Barzegar

Obesity is a multi-factorial problem that develops from an interaction between diet, genetics, physical activity, medication, and other factors. This paper aims to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

Obesity is a multi-factorial problem that develops from an interaction between diet, genetics, physical activity, medication, and other factors. This paper aims to examine the association between dietary diversity score (DDS) and obesity among adults of Ardebil.

Design/methodology/approach

This case-control study was conducted on 204 cases (obese and overweight participants) and 204 controls (healthy weight individuals) matched by socioeconomic status (SES), age (older than 30 years) and sex. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h food recall questionnaire. Data on physical activity and socio-demographic variables were gathered. DDS was computed based on the scoring of the 14 food groups recommended by the Food and Agriculture organization guideline.

Findings

The DDS of the obese group was higher (5.02 ± 1.02) than that of the healthy weight group (4.23 ± 1.18) (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between DDS and body mass index (BMI) in both groups of study, but this association was more significant in the obese group (β = 0.501, p = 0.021) than that of healthy weight group (β = 0.413, p= 0.042). Vegetable food group score in both groups of the study was associated with obesity inversely (p < 0.05).

Originality/value

This study was conducted for the first time in Ardabil city and the results showed for the first time that there is a relationship between dietary diversity and obesity. People with a higher dietary diversity score are more likely to be obese. In fact, this study for the first time proved that people who are obese have a more varied diet but less vegetables and fruits.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2018

Hamed Kord Varkaneh, Somaye Fatahi, Somaye Tajik, Jamal Rahmani, Meysam Zarezadeh and Sakineh Shab-Bidar

Studies investigating the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and body mass index (BMI) have led to inconsistent findings. Therefore, to decisively…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies investigating the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and body mass index (BMI) have led to inconsistent findings. Therefore, to decisively conclude, this paper aims to clarify the relationship between DII and obesity by performing meta-analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched up to July 2017 using key words selected from Medical Subject Headings and other related keywords to identify all relevant articles. In total, 22 articles were entered into the meta-analysis; 22 studies compared the mean of BMI among subjects with highest versus the lowest DII and 4 studies had data on the hazard risk (HR) or odds ratio (OR) for obesity.

Findings

A meta-analysis on included studies indicated a significant association on either mean differences (MD) in BMI (MD = 0.811; 95 per cent CI: 0.365-1.256; p: 0.0001) or obesity OR (OR: 1.310; 95 per cent CI: 1.144-1.500; p = 0.000) by comparing the highest and lowest DII categories. Between-study heterogeneity was high (Cochrane Q test, p < 0.001, I2 = 98.1 per cent, df = 21, τ2 = 0.9273), and only dietary assessment methods could explain the source of heterogeneity in which 24-h dietary recalls were homogeny (I2 = 8.4 per cent, df = 2, p = 0.335).

Originality/value

The results of the present meta-analysis suggest that adherence to high DII score increased BMI and obesity. More prospective studies in different populations are needed to better clarify this relation.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Mina Bahrami, Makan Cheraghpour, Sima Jafarirad, Pejman Alavinejad and Bahman Cheraghian

Metabolic syndrome contains metabolic disorders that have association with other chronic diseases. Melatonin is a bioactive compound which is found in plants and also…

Abstract

Purpose

Metabolic syndrome contains metabolic disorders that have association with other chronic diseases. Melatonin is a bioactive compound which is found in plants and also produced in the body. The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of melatonin supplement on metabolic syndrome components, also leptin and adiponectin blood concentrations in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Design/methodology/approach

A double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 70 subjects with metabolic syndrome. Participants received 6 mg/day melatonin or placebo before bedtime for 12 weeks. At the beginning and end of treatment period, blood samples were collected and biochemical parameters were measured. In addition, blood pressure and anthropometric indices were examined before and after the supplementation. Independent sample t-test was used to compare changes in metabolic syndrome components between the two study groups.

Findings

Results showed a significant reduction in waist circumference (−1.54 vs −0.04 cm; p = 0.036), systolic blood pressure (−3.52 vs 0.79 mmHg; p = 0.020), diastolic blood pressure (−1.50 vs 1.73 mmHg; p = 0.014), serum leptin concentration (−2.54 vs 0.27ng/ml; p = 0.041) and an elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.19 vs −0.79 mg/dl; p = 0.038) in the melatonin group compared to the placebo.

Research limitations/implications

If insulin concentration had been measured, it might have revealed better interpretation of melatonin effect on fasting blood glucose.

Originality/value

This study showed that melatonin as a nutritional supplement improved most metabolic syndrome components and concentration of leptin in the melatonin group compared to the placebo.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Narinderjeet Kaur Dadar Singh, Jiann Lin Loo, Azlan Ming Naing Ko, Syed Shajee Husain, Jiloris Frederick Dony and Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim

This study aims to determine the prevalence of obesity and its relationship with mental health issues among healthcare workers in Kota Kinabalu District Health Office…

1680

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the prevalence of obesity and its relationship with mental health issues among healthcare workers in Kota Kinabalu District Health Office, Sabah Borneo and its associating factors.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study was conducted among 387 healthcare workers working in the Kota Kinabalu District Health Office, Sabah. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric measurements were collected and DASS 21 questionnaire was used to assess mental health status.

Findings

The prevalence of obesity among healthcare workers was 29%, which is significantly associated with years of service (p = 0.016) and abnormal depression subscale scores (p = 0.012) at univariate analysis. The percentage of abnormal subscale score for depression, anxiety and stress was 16, 26 and 12%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that more than five years of service years (OR 2.23, 95%CI 1.16–4.28) and high depressive subscale score (OR 2.09, 95%CI 1.18–3.71) were both significantly associated with obesity.

Originality/value

This study has affirmed the link between physical and mental health. Policies that tackle both issues should be put in place to promote wellness among healthcare workers.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2022

Constantinos-Vasilios Priporas, Durga Vellore-Nagarajan and Irene (Eirini) Kamenidou

This study aims to delineate the phenomenon of stressful eating within generation Z due to the times they are living in and to extract propositions which elucidate phases…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to delineate the phenomenon of stressful eating within generation Z due to the times they are living in and to extract propositions which elucidate phases of stressful eating within Zers.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on relevant literature on consumer obesity, theories of pure impulse buying and reasoned action, cognitive constructs eminent for reasoned conditioned behaviour are extracted. Followed by extraction of the reasoned conditioned behaviour and its cognitive constructs within Zers. Thereafter, a conceptual framework is developed with propositions of stressful eating within Zers.

Findings

Zers indulge in reasoned conditioned behaviour initially owing to their healthy understanding insights, and the activations of cognitive capacities within them due to the law of effect. The law of effect is cyclical after the first reasoned consumption among Zers, leading to obesity and constricting self-controlling behaviour.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that provides a deep understanding of the cognitive mechanism orienting generation Z’s stressful eating indulgence even though they have higher healthy lifestyle understandings.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

1 – 10 of 292